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Berlin Crisis of 1961

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The Berlin Crisis of 1961 (Berlin-Krise) occurred between 4 June – 9 November 1961, and was the last major politico-military European incident of the Cold War about the occupational status of the German capital city, Berlin, and of post–World War II Germany. [1]

59 relations: Air National Guard, Anatoly Gribkov, Berlin, Berlin Tempelhof Airport, Berlin Wall, Black Sea, Brandenburg Gate, Bruce C. Clarke, Bundeswehr, Camp David, Chancellor of Germany (1949–present), Checkpoint Charlie, Cold War, Communist Party of China, Dean Rusk, Dwight D. Eisenhower, East Germany, Eastern Bloc, Economic sanctions, Fallout shelter, Friedrichstraße, Georgi Bolshakov, History of Germany (1945–90), Human capital flight, Human intelligence (intelligence gathering), Inner German border, John F. Kennedy, John J. McCloy, KGB, Konrad Adenauer, Lucius D. Clay, Main Intelligence Directorate, Military liaison missions, Military occupations by the Soviet Union, Moscow, NATO, Nikita Khrushchev, North American F-86 Sabre, Nuclear proliferation, Partition (politics), Potsdam Conference, Republic F-84 Thunderjet, Richard Bach, Signals intelligence, Sochi, Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Soviet Union, State Council of East Germany, Strategic Air Command, Ultimatum, ..., United States Air Forces in Europe - Air Forces Africa, United States Army Europe, Vienna summit, Walter Ulbricht, West Berlin, Willy Brandt, World War II, 1960 U-2 incident, 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Expand index (9 more) »

Air National Guard

The Air National Guard (ANG), also known as the Air Guard, is a federal military reserve force as well as the militia air force of each U.S. state, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the territories of Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

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Anatoly Gribkov

Anatoly Ivanovich Gribkov (Анато́лий Ива́нович Грибко́в) (March 23, 1919 – February 12, 2008) was at Soviet Army High Command during the Cold War era.

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Berlin

Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Berlin Tempelhof Airport

Berlin Tempelhof Airport (Flughafen Berlin-Tempelhof) was one of the airports in Berlin, Germany.

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Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

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Brandenburg Gate

The Brandenburg Gate (Brandenburger Tor) is an 18th-century neoclassical monument in Berlin, built on the orders of Prussian king Frederick William II after the (temporarily) successful restoration of order during the early Batavian Revolution.

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Bruce C. Clarke

Bruce Cooper Clarke was a United States Army general.

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Bundeswehr

The Bundeswehr (Federal Defence) is the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities.

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Camp David

Camp David is the country retreat for the President of the United States.

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Chancellor of Germany (1949–present)

The Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (in German called Bundeskanzler(in), meaning "Federal Chancellor", or in) for short) is, under the German 1949 Constitution, the head of government of Germany.

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Checkpoint Charlie

Checkpoint Charlie (or "Checkpoint C") was the name given by the Western Allies to the best-known Berlin Wall crossing point between East Berlin and West Berlin during the Cold War (1947–1991).

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Communist Party of China

The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.

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Dean Rusk

David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.

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East Germany

East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.

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Eastern Bloc

The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

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Economic sanctions

Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.

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Fallout shelter

A fallout shelter is an enclosed space specially designed to protect occupants from radioactive debris or fallout resulting from a nuclear explosion.

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Friedrichstraße

The Friedrichstraße (lit. Frederick Street) is a major culture and shopping street in central Berlin, forming the core of the Friedrichstadt neighborhood and giving the name to Berlin Friedrichstraße station.

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Georgi Bolshakov

Georgi Bolshakov (1922–1989) was a Soviet GRU officer under journalist cover who was posted to Washington, D.C., twice, most significantly in the early 1960s.

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History of Germany (1945–90)

As a consequence of the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, Germany was cut between the two global blocs in the East and West, a period known as the division of Germany.

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Human capital flight

Human capital flight refers to the emigration of individuals who have received advanced training at home.

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Human intelligence (intelligence gathering)

Human intelligence (frequently abbreviated HUMINT and sometimes pronounced as hyoo-mint) is intelligence gathered by means of interpersonal contact, as opposed to the more technical intelligence gathering disciplines such as signals intelligence (SIGINT), imagery intelligence (IMINT) and measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT).

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Inner German border

The inner German border (innerdeutsche Grenze or deutsch-deutsche Grenze; initially also Zonengrenze) was the border between the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, West Germany) from 1949 to 1990.

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John F. Kennedy

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.

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John J. McCloy

John Jay McCloy (born John Snader McCloy; March 31, 1895 – March 11, 1989) was an American lawyer and banker who served as Assistant Secretary of War during World War II.

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KGB

The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.

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Konrad Adenauer

Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer (5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman who served as the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1949 to 1963.

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Lucius D. Clay

General Lucius Dubignon Clay (April 23, 1898 – April 16, 1978) was a senior officer of the United States Army who was known for his administration of occupied Germany after World War II.

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Main Intelligence Directorate

Main Intelligence Directorate (p), abbreviated GRU (p), is the foreign military intelligence agency of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (formerly the Soviet Army General Staff of the Soviet Union).

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Military liaison missions

The military liaison missions arose from reciprocal agreements formed between the Western allied nations (the US, the UK and France) and the USSR shortly after the end of the Second World War.

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Military occupations by the Soviet Union

During World War II, the Soviet Union occupied and annexed several countries effectively handed over by Nazi Germany in the secret protocol Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of 1939.

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Moscow

Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Nikita Khrushchev

Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.

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North American F-86 Sabre

The North American F-86 Sabre, sometimes called the Sabrejet, is a transonic jet fighter aircraft.

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Nuclear proliferation

Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT.

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Partition (politics)

In politics, a partition is a change of political borders cutting through at least one territory considered a homeland by some community.

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Potsdam Conference

The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.

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Republic F-84 Thunderjet

The Republic F-84 Thunderjet was an American turbojet fighter-bomber aircraft.

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Richard Bach

Richard David Bach (born June 23, 1936) is an American writer.

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Signals intelligence

Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).

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Sochi

Sochi (a) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia.

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Socialist Unity Party of Germany

The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED), established in April 1946, was the governing Marxist–Leninist political party of the German Democratic Republic from the country's foundation in October 1949 until it was dissolved after the Peaceful Revolution in 1989.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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State Council of East Germany

The State Council (German: Staatsrat) was the collective head of state that governed East Germany (German Democratic Republic) from 1960 to 1990.

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Strategic Air Command

Strategic Air Command (SAC) was both a Department of Defense Specified Command and a United States Air Force (USAF) Major Command (MAJCOM), responsible for Cold War command and control of two of the three components of the U.S. military's strategic nuclear strike forces, the so-called "nuclear triad," with SAC having control of land-based strategic bomber aircraft and intercontinental ballistic missiles or ICBMs (the third leg of the triad being submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) of the U.S. Navy).

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Ultimatum

An ultimatum (the last one) is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance.

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United States Air Forces in Europe - Air Forces Africa

The United States Air Forces in Europe – Air Forces Africa (USAFE-AFAFRICA) is a United States Air Force major command (MAJCOM) and a component command of both United States European Command (USEUCOM) and United States Africa Command (USAFRICOM). As part of its mission, USAFE-AFAFRICA commands U.S. Air Force units pledged to NATO, maintaining combat-ready wings based from Great Britain to Turkey. USAFE-AFAFRICA plans, conducts, controls, coordinates and supports air and space operations in Europe, parts of Asia and all of Africa with the exception of Egypt to achieve U.S. national and NATO objectives based on taskings by the two combatant commanders. USAFE-AFAFRICA is headquartered at Ramstein Air Base, Germany. It is the oldest continuously active USAF major command, originally activated on 1 February 1942 at Langley Field, Virginia, as the Eighth Air Force of the United States Army Air Forces. Two years later, it was designated as United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe (USSTAF) and on 7 August 1945 it was designated as United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE). On 20 April 2012 United States Air Forces in Europe formally became the U.S. Air Forces in Europe – Air Forces Africa when the 17th Air Force inactivated. The command has more than 35,000 active duty personnel, Air Reserve Component personnel, and civilian employees assigned.

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United States Army Europe

United States Army Europe (USAREUR), formally United States Army Europe and Seventh Army, is an Army Service Component Command of the United States Army.

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Vienna summit

The Vienna summit was a summit meeting held on June 4, 1961, in Vienna, Austria, between President John F. Kennedy of the United States and Premier Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet Union.

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Walter Ulbricht

Walter Ernst Paul Ulbricht (30 June 18931 August 1973) was a German Communist politician.

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West Berlin

West Berlin (Berlin (West) or colloquially West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.

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Willy Brandt

Willy Brandt (born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm; 18 December 1913 – 8 October 1992) was a German statesman who was leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1964 to 1987 and served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1969 to 1974.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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1960 U-2 incident

On 1 May 1960, a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down by the Soviet Air Defence Forces while performing photographic aerial reconnaissance deep into Soviet territory.

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22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

The 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (XXII съезд КПСС) was held from 17 to 31 October 1961.

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Redirects here:

1961 Berlin Crisis, 1961 Berlin Wall, Berlin ultimatum, Checkpoint Charlie stand-off.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin_Crisis_of_1961

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