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Bernard Lewis

Index Bernard Lewis

Bernard Lewis, FBA (31 May 1916 – 19 May 2018) was a British American historian specializing in oriental studies. [1]

161 relations: Afghanistan, Al-Ahram, Al-Ghazali, Al-Quds Al-Arabi, Alain Finkielkraut, Algerian Civil War, American Diplomacy, American Enterprise Institute, Antisemitism, Anwar Sadat, Arab world, Armenian Genocide, Armenian National Committee of America, As'ad AbuKhalil, Association for the Study of the Middle East and Africa, Atatürk's Reforms, Bachelor's degree, Bar and Bat Mitzvah, Bernard Lewis bibliography, Brent Scowcroft, British Americans, Buraq, C-SPAN, Christendom, Clash of Civilizations, Columbia University, Cornell University, Corporal, Covering Islam, Crusades, David Bruce MacDonald, Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld, Edward Said, Emeritus, Ernst Nolte, Fellow of the British Academy, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Foreign Policy, Fouad Ajami, French franc, Genocide denial, George W. Bush, Golda Meir, Guild, Haaretz, Hamid Dabashi, Heath W. Lowry, Historical negationism, History of Islam, ..., History of the Ottoman Empire, History of the Republic of Turkey, Humanism, Humanities, Hussein of Jordan, Ian Buruma, Imperialism, Institute for Advanced Study, Institute of Turkish Studies, Intellectual, Intelligence Corps (United Kingdom), Iran, Iran–Iraq War, Iraq War, Irving Kristol Award, Islam, Islam and the West, Islamic calendar, Islamic culture, Islamic fundamentalism, Israel, Israel Charny, Israeli–Palestinian conflict, Jacob Weisberg, Jacques Trémolet de Villers, Jefferson Lecture, Jerusalem, Jews, Jihad, Jihadism, Joel Beinin, Juan Cole, Kenan Evren, Le Monde, Learned society, List of Princeton University people, Literary theory, London, Louis Massignon, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Marxism, Maxime Rodinson, Michael Hirsh (journalist), Middle Ages, Middle East Studies Association of North America, Middle Eastern studies, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Moment (magazine), Mondoweiss, Muhammad, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Mutual assured destruction, National Endowment for the Humanities, National Humanities Medal, Near East, Neoconservatism, Nuclear program of Iran, OpinionJournal.com, Oriental studies, Orientalism, Orientalism (book), Osama bin Laden, Ottoman Archives, Ottoman Empire, Pierre Vidal-Naquet, Presidency of Bill Clinton, Presidency of George W. Bush, Prince Hassan bin Talal, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, Pundit, Richard Bulliet, Richard G. Hovannisian, Robert Melson, Robert Parry (journalist), Royal Armoured Corps, Samuel P. Huntington, Schools of Islamic theology, Secularism, September 11 attacks, Shah, Sharia, Slate (magazine), SOAS, University of London, Soviet Union, Soviet–Afghan War, Stephen Zunes, Stoke Newington, Sudan, The Atlantic, The Crisis of Islam, The Forward, The Jerusalem Post, The Jews of Islam, The National (Abu Dhabi), The New York Sun, The New Yorker, The Wall Street Journal, Third-Worldism, Turkish people, United States Intelligence Community, University of London, University of Paris, Voorhees Township, New Jersey, Western philosophy, What Went Wrong?, World War II, Yair Auron, Yves Ternon, 1982 Hama massacre, 2003 invasion of Iraq. Expand index (111 more) »


Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Al-Ahram (الأهرام; The Pyramids), founded on 5 August 1875, is the most widely circulating Egyptian daily newspaper, and the second oldest after al-Waqa'i`al-Masriya (The Egyptian Events, founded 1828).

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Al-Ghazali (full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي; latinized Algazelus or Algazel, – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mysticsLudwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.109.

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Al-Quds Al-Arabi

Al Quds Al Arabi (القدس العربي, English: "Arab Jerusalem") is an independent pan-Arab daily newspaper, published in London since 1989 and owned by Palestinian expatriates.

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Alain Finkielkraut

Alain Finkielkraut (born 30 June 1949) is a French philosopher and public intellectual.

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Algerian Civil War

The Algerian Civil War was an armed conflict between the Algerian Government and various Islamic rebel groups which began in 1991 following a coup negating an Islamist electoral victory.

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American Diplomacy

American Diplomacy is an open access peer-reviewed academic journal published by the nonprofit American Diplomacy Publishers in cooperation with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill College of Arts and Sciences's Curriculum in Peace, War and Defense, and with the consortium Triangle Institute for Security Studies.

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American Enterprise Institute

The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, known simply as the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), is a conservative think tank based in Washington, D.C. which researches government, politics, economics and social welfare.

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Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.

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Anwar Sadat

Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat (محمد أنور السادات, Egyptian muħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾ essæˈdæːt; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.

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Arab world

The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.

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Armenian Genocide

The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.

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Armenian National Committee of America

The Armenian National Committee of America (ANCA) (Ամերիկայի Հայ դատի յանձնախումբ) is the largest and most influential Armenian American grassroots organization.

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As'ad AbuKhalil

As'ad AbuKhalil (أسعد أبو خليل) (born March 16, 1960) is a Lebanese-American professor of political science at California State University, Stanislaus.

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Association for the Study of the Middle East and Africa

The Association for the Study of the Middle East and Africa (ASMEA) is an American learned society, dedicated to promoting research and teaching in Middle Eastern and African studies, and related fields.

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Atatürk's Reforms

Atatürk's Reforms (Atatürk Devrimleri) were a series of political, legal, religious, cultural, social, and economic policy changes that were designed to convert the new Republic of Turkey into a secular, modern nation-state and implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in accordance with Kemalist ideology.

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Bachelor's degree

A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).

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Bar and Bat Mitzvah

Bar Mitzvah (בַּר מִצְוָה) is a Jewish coming of age ritual for boys.

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Bernard Lewis bibliography

Bernard Lewis is a British-American historian, public intellectual, and political commentator.

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Brent Scowcroft

Brent Scowcroft (born March 19, 1925) is a retired United States Air Force lieutenant general who was the United States National Security Advisor under U.S. Presidents Gerald Ford and George H. W. Bush.

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British Americans

British Americans usually refers to Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in the United Kingdom (England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland).

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Al-Burāq (البُراق al-Burāq or "lightning") is a steed in Islamic mythology, a creature from the heavens that transported the prophets.

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C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service.

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Christendom has several meanings.

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Clash of Civilizations

The Clash of Civilizations is a hypothesis that people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Cornell University

Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.

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Corporal is a military rank in use in some form by many militaries and by some police forces or other uniformed organizations.

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Covering Islam

Covering Islam is a 1981 book by Palestinian author Edward Said, in which he discusses how the Western media distorts the image of Islam.

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The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.

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David Bruce MacDonald

David Bruce MacDonald is a full Professor in Political Science at the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada and is the Research Leadership Chair for the College of Social and Applied Human Sciences.

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Dick Cheney

Richard Bruce Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 46th Vice President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.

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Donald Rumsfeld

Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a retired American political figure and businessman.

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Edward Said

Edward Wadie Said (إدوارد وديع سعيد,; 1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a professor of literature at Columbia University, a public intellectual, and a founder of the academic field of postcolonial studies.

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Emeritus, in its current usage, is an adjective used to designate a retired professor, pastor, bishop, pope, director, president, prime minister, or other person.

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Ernst Nolte

Ernst Nolte (11 January 1923 – 18 August 2016) was a German historian and philosopher.

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Fellow of the British Academy

Fellowship of the British Academy (FBA) is an award granted by the British Academy to leading academics for their distinction in the humanities and social sciences.

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Foreign and Commonwealth Office

The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.

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Foreign Policy

Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.

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Fouad Ajami

Fouad A. Ajami (فؤاد عجمي; September 18, 1945 – June 22, 2014), was a MacArthur Fellowship winning, Lebanese-born of Shiite Muslim ancestry, American university professor and writer on Middle Eastern issues.

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French franc

The franc (sign: F or Fr), also commonly distinguished as the (FF), was a currency of France.

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Genocide denial

Genocide denial is the attempt to deny or minimize statements of the scale and severity of an incidence of genocide.

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George W. Bush

George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.

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Golda Meir

Golda Meir (גּוֹלְדָּה מֵאִיר;, born Golda Mabovitch, May 3, 1898 – December 8, 1978) was an Israeli teacher, kibbutznik, stateswoman, politician and the fourth Prime Minister of Israel.

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A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.

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Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.

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Hamid Dabashi

Hamid Dabashi (حمید دباشی; born 1951) is an Iranian Professor of Iranian Studies and Comparative Literature at Columbia University in New York City.

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Heath W. Lowry

Heath Ward Lowry (born December 23, 1942) was the Atatürk Professor of Ottoman and Modern Turkish Studies at Princeton University and Boğaziçi University.

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Historical negationism

Historical negationism or denialism is an illegitimate distortion of the historical record.

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History of Islam

The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.

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History of the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman I. As sultan Mehmed II conquered Constantinople (today named Istanbul) in 1453, the state grew into a mighty empire.

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History of the Republic of Turkey

The Republic of Turkey was created after the overthrow of Sultan Mehmet VI Vahdettin by the new Republican Parliament in 1922.

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Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.

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Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.

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Hussein of Jordan

Hussein bin Talal (الحسين بن طلال, Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ṭalāl; 14 November 1935 – 7 February 1999) reigned as King of Jordan from 11 August 1952 until his death.

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Ian Buruma

Ian Buruma (馬毅仁, born December 28, 1951) is a Dutch writer, editor and historian who lives and works in the United States.

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Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.

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Institute for Advanced Study

The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States, is an independent, postdoctoral research center for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry founded in 1930 by American educator Abraham Flexner, together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld.

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Institute of Turkish Studies

The Institute of Turkish Studies (ITS) is a foundation based in the United States with the avowed objective of advancing Turkish studies at colleges and universities in the United States.

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An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and reflection about society and proposes solutions for its normative problems.

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Intelligence Corps (United Kingdom)

The Intelligence Corps (Int Corps) is a corps of the British Army.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iran–Iraq War

The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.

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Iraq War

The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.

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Irving Kristol Award

The Irving Kristol Award is the highest honor conferred by the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islam and the West

Islam and the West is a 1993 book written by Middle-East historian and scholar Bernard Lewis.

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Islamic calendar

The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.

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Islamic culture

Islamic culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe the cultural practices common to historically Islamic people -- i.e., the culture of the Islamicate.

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Islamic fundamentalism

Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who think back to earlier times and seek to return to the fundamentals of the religion and live similarly to how the prophet Muhammad and his companions lived.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Israel Charny

Israel W. Charny (born 1931 in Brooklyn, New York) is an Israeli psychologist and genocide scholar.

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Israeli–Palestinian conflict

The Israeli–Palestinian conflict (Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Falestini; al-Niza'a al-Filastini-al-Israili) is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century.

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Jacob Weisberg

Jacob Weisberg (born 1964) is an American political journalist, serving as editor-in-chief of Slate Group, a division of Graham Holdings Company.

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Jacques Trémolet de Villers

Jacques Trémolet de Villers (born 6 September 1944, Mende, Lozère) is a French writer, lawyer, president of the Catholic traditionalist group La Cité Catholique since the 1980s and monarchist activist in the Restauration nationale movement.

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Jefferson Lecture

The Jefferson Lecture in the Humanities is an honorary lecture series established in 1972 by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH).

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Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.

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The term "Jihadism" (also "jihadist movement", "jihadi movement" and variants) is a 21st-century neologism found in Western languages to describe Islamist militant movements perceived as military movements "rooted in Islam" and "existentially threatening" to the West.

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Joel Beinin

Joel Beinin is Donald J. McLachlan Professor of History and Professor of Middle East History at Stanford University.

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Juan Cole

John Ricardo I. "Juan" Cole (born October 23, 1952) is an American academic and commentator on the modern Middle East and South Asia.

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Kenan Evren

Ahmet Kenan Evren (17 July 1917 – 9 May 2015) was a Turkish military officer who was the seventh President of Turkey from 1980 to 1989.

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Le Monde

Le Monde (The World) is a French daily afternoon newspaper founded by Hubert Beuve-Méry at the request of Charles de Gaulle (as Chairman of the Provisional Government of the French Republic) on 19 December 1944, shortly after the Liberation of Paris, and published continuously since its first edition.

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Learned society

A learned society (also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organisation that exists to promote an academic discipline, profession, or a group of related disciplines such as the arts.

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List of Princeton University people

This list of notable people associated with Princeton University includes faculty, staff, graduates and former students in the undergraduate program and all graduate programs, and others affiliated with the University.

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Literary theory

Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Louis Massignon

Louis Massignon (25 July 1883 – 31 October 1962) was a Catholic scholar of Islam and a pioneer of Catholic-Muslim mutual understanding.

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Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.

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Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Maxime Rodinson

Maxime Rodinson (26 January 1915, Paris – 23 May 2004, Marseilles) was a French Marxist historian, sociologist and orientalist.

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Michael Hirsh (journalist)

Michael Hirsh is an American journalist, and the former national editor for Politico.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle East Studies Association of North America

Middle East Studies Association (often referred to as MESA) is a learned society, and according to its website, "a non-profit association that fosters the study of the Middle East, promotes high standards of scholarship and teaching, and encourages public understanding of the region and its peoples through programs, publications and services that enhance education, further intellectual exchange, recognize professional distinction, and defend academic freedom.".

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Middle Eastern studies

Middle Eastern studies (sometimes referred to as Near Eastern studies) is a name given to a number of academic programs associated with the study of the history, culture, politics, economies, and geography of the Middle East, an area that is generally interpreted to cover a range of nations including Israel, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Oman.

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Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.

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Moment (magazine)

Moment is an independent magazine which focuses on the life of the American Jewish community.

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Mondoweiss is a news website that is co-edited by journalists Philip Weiss and Adam Horowitz.

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MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938.

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Mutual assured destruction

Mutual assured destruction or mutually assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two or more opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defender (see pre-emptive nuclear strike and second strike).

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National Endowment for the Humanities

The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is an independent federal agency of the U.S. government, established by the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, dedicated to supporting research, education, preservation, and public programs in the humanities.

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National Humanities Medal

The National Humanities Medal is an American award that annually recognizes several individuals, groups, or institutions for work that has "deepened the nation's understanding of the humanities, broadened our citizens' engagement with the humanities, or helped preserve and expand Americans' access to important resources in the humanities." The annual Charles Frankel Prize in the Humanities was established in 1988 and succeeded by the National Humanities Medal in 1997.

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Near East

The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.

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Neoconservatism (commonly shortened to neocon when labelling its adherents) is a political movement born in the United States during the 1960s among liberal hawks who became disenchanted with the increasingly pacifist foreign policy of the Democratic Party, and the growing New Left and counterculture, in particular the Vietnam protests.

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Nuclear program of Iran

The nuclear program of Iran has included several research sites, two uranium mines, a research reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include three known uranium enrichment plants.

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OpinionJournal.com is a website featuring content from the editorial pages of The Wall Street Journal.

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Oriental studies

Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, peoples, history and archaeology; in recent years the subject has often been turned into the newer terms of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies.

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Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and East Asian cultures (Eastern world).

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Orientalism (book)

Orientalism is a 1978 book by Edward W. Said, in which the author discusses Orientalism, defined as the West's patronizing representations of "The East"—the societies and peoples who inhabit the places of Asia, North Africa, and the Middle East.

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Osama bin Laden

Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.

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Ottoman Archives

The Ottoman Archives are a collection of historical sources related to the Ottoman Empire and a total of 39 nations whose territories one time or the other were part of this Empire, including 19 nations in the Middle East, 11 in the EU and Balkans, three in the Caucasus, two in Central Asia, Cyprus, as well as Palestine and the Republic of Turkey.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Pierre Vidal-Naquet

Pierre Emmanuel Vidal-Naquet (23 July 1930 – 29 July 2006) was a French historian who began teaching at the École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS) in 1969.

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Presidency of Bill Clinton

The presidency of Bill Clinton began at noon EST on January 20, 1993, when Bill Clinton was inaugurated as 42nd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2001.

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Presidency of George W. Bush

The presidency of George W. Bush began at noon EST on January 20, 2001, when George W. Bush was inaugurated as 43rd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2009.

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Prince Hassan bin Talal

Prince Hassan bin Talal (الحسن بن طلال, born 20 March 1947) is a member of the Jordanian royal family.

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Princeton University

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.

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Princeton, New Jersey

Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that was established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township.

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A pundit is a person who offers to mass media his or her opinion or commentary on a particular subject area (most typically political analysis, the social sciences, technology or sport) on which he or she is knowledgeable (or can at least appear to be knowledgeable), or considered a scholar in said area.

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Richard Bulliet

Richard W. Bulliet (born 1940) is a professor of history at Columbia University who specializes in the history of Islamic society and institutions, the history of technology, and the history of the role of animals in human society.

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Richard G. Hovannisian

Richard Gable Hovannisian (Ռիչարդ Հովհաննիսյան, born November 9, 1932) is an Armenian American historian and professor emeritus at the University of California, Los Angeles.

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Robert Melson

Robert Melson (born 1937) is professor emeritus of political science and a member of the Jewish studies program at Purdue University, in Indiana, United States.

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Robert Parry (journalist)

Robert Parry (June 24, 1949 – January 27, 2018) was an American investigative journalist best known for his role in covering the Iran-Contra affair for the Associated Press (AP) and Newsweek, including breaking the Psychological Operations in Guerrilla Warfare (CIA manual provided to the Nicaraguan contras) and the CIA and Contras cocaine trafficking in the US scandal in 1985.

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Royal Armoured Corps

The Royal Armoured Corps (RAC) provides the armour capability of the British Army, with vehicles such as the Challenger 2 Tank and the Scimitar Reconnaissance Vehicle.

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Samuel P. Huntington

Samuel Phillips Huntington (April 18, 1927 – December 24, 2008) was an American political scientist, adviser and academic.

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Schools of Islamic theology

Schools of Islamic theology are various Islamic schools and branches in different schools of thought regarding aqidah (creed).

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Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).

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September 11 attacks

The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.

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Shah (Šāh, pronounced, "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia).

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Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.

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Slate (magazine)

Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.

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SOAS, University of London

SOAS University of London (the School of Oriental and African Studies), is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Soviet–Afghan War

The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.

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Stephen Zunes

Stephen Zunes (born 1956) is an American international relations scholar specializing in the Middle Eastern politics, U.S. foreign policy, and strategic nonviolent action.

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Stoke Newington

Stoke Newington is an area occupying the north-west part of the London Borough of Hackney in north-east London.

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The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.

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The Atlantic

The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.

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The Crisis of Islam

The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror is a book written by Bernard Lewis.

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The Forward

The Forward (Forverts), formerly known as The Jewish Daily Forward, is an American magazine published monthly in New York City for a Jewish-American audience.

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The Jerusalem Post

The Jerusalem Post is a broadsheet newspaper based in Jerusalem, founded in 1932 during the British Mandate of Palestine by Gershon Agron as The Palestine Post.

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The Jews of Islam

The Jews of Islam (1984) is a book written by Middle-East historian and scholar Bernard Lewis.

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The National (Abu Dhabi)

The National is a private English-language daily newspaper published in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

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The New York Sun

The New York Sun was an American daily newspaper published in Manhattan from 2002 to 2008.

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The New Yorker

The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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Third-Worldism is a political concept and ideology that emerged in the late 1940s or early 1950s during the Cold War and tried to generate unity among the nations that did not want to take sides between the United States and the Soviet Union.

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Turkish people

Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.

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United States Intelligence Community

The United States Intelligence Community (IC) is a federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities to support the foreign policy and national security of the United States.

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University of London

The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.

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University of Paris

The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.

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Voorhees Township, New Jersey

Voorhees Township is a township in Camden County, New Jersey, United States.

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Western philosophy

Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.

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What Went Wrong?

What Went Wrong? Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response is a book by Bernard Lewis released in January 2002, shortly after the September 11 terrorist attack, but written shortly before.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yair Auron

Yair Auron (יאיר אורון, Ya'ir Oron; born April 30, 1945) is an Israeli historian, scholar and expert specializing on Holocaust and genocide studies, racism and contemporary Jewry.

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Yves Ternon

Yves Ternon (born in 1932 in Saint-Mandé) is a French physician and medical historian, as well as an author of historical books about the Jewish Holocaust and the Armenian Genocide.

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1982 Hama massacre

The Hama massacre (مجزرة حماة) occurred in 2 February 1982, when the Syrian Arab Army and the Defense Companies, under the orders of the country's president Hafez al-Assad, besieged the town of Hama for 27 days in order to quell an uprising by the Muslim Brotherhood against al-Assad's government.

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2003 invasion of Iraq

The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).

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Redirects here:

The Arabs in History, The arabs in history.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_Lewis

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