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Bernard Montgomery

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Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976), nicknamed "Monty" and "The Spartan General", was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First World War and the Second World War. [1]

398 relations: Across the River and into the Trees, Afrika Korps, Alan Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke, Aldershot Command, Alençon, Alexander Montgomery (1686–1729), Alfred Gruenther, Alfred Reade Godwin-Austen, Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine, Allied invasion of Italy, Allied invasion of Sicily, Allies of World War II, Alton, Hampshire, Amphibious warfare, Amputation, Andrew Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, Andrew Thorne, Anglican Diocese of Tasmania, Anglicanism, Antwerp, Apartheid, Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, Argentan, Army Group B, Army Reserve (United Kingdom), Arthur Percival, Arthur Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder, Azores, Bailleul, Nord, Battle for Caen, Battle of Alam el Halfa, Battle of Arnhem, Battle of Arras (1917), Battle of Dunkirk, Battle of El Agheila, Battle of France, Battle of Le Cateau, Battle of Medenine, Battle of Mons, Battle of Passchendaele, Battle of Remagen, Battle of the Bulge, Battle of the Mareth Line, Battle of the Scheldt, Bernard Paget, Bertram Ramsay, Binsted, Bishop, Bocage, Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, ..., Brevet (military), Brian Horrocks, Brigade major, Brigadier (United Kingdom), British Army, British Army of the Rhine, British Expeditionary Force (World War II), British Indian Army, British Raj, Brittany, Burnham-on-Sea, Caen, Cairo, Cape Verde, Captain (British Army and Royal Marines), Carlo D'Este, Charles Portal, 1st Viscount Portal of Hungerford, Chief of staff, Chief of the Air Staff (United Kingdom), Chief of the General Staff (United Kingdom), Church of Ireland, Churchyard, Clan Montgomery, Claude Auchinleck, Clearing the Channel Coast, Clement Attlee, Cobh, Collegiate Church of St Mary, Warwick, Colleville-Montgomery, Cologne, Colonel (United Kingdom), Colony of Tasmania, Combined operations, Command and Staff College, Commander-in-chief, Commanding officer, Communes of France, Company commander, Cork (city), Corps, Correlli Barnett, Cotentin Peninsula, County Cork, County Donegal, Courtney Hodges, Croix de guerre (Belgium), Croix de Guerre 1914–1918 (France), Crown colony, David Lloyd George, David Montgomery, 2nd Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, Deepcut, Denis Bernard (British Army officer), Desert Island Discs, Distinguished Service Medal (U.S. Army), Distinguished Service Order, Division (military), Dorset, Dunkirk, Dunkirk evacuation, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Dyle (river), East Sussex, Edmond Schreiber, Edmund Osborne, Egyptian Army, Eighth Army (United Kingdom), Ernest Hemingway, Erwin Rommel, Essex Regiment, Exercise Tiger (1942), Falaise Pocket, Field army, Field marshal (United Kingdom), Field Marshal Montgomery Pipe Band, First Army (United Kingdom), First Battle of El Alamein, First Battle of Ypres, First United States Army, Frank O. Salisbury, Frederic Farrar, French North Africa, Friedrich Dollmann, General (United Kingdom), General (United States), General officer, General officer commanding, Gentry, Geoffrey Raikes, Georg Stumme, George S. Patton, Gerard Bucknall, Gerd von Rundstedt, German surrender at Lüneburg Heath, GHQ Liaison Regiment, Gustav-Adolf von Zangen, Guy Simonds, Hamburg, Hamish Hamilton, Hampshire, Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, Harry Crerar, Harry's Bar (Venice), Hasso von Manteuffel, Hastings, Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay, Henry Montgomery (bishop), Herbert Plumer, 1st Viscount Plumer, I Corps (United Kingdom), II Corps (United Kingdom), II Corps (United States), Imperial War Museum, Indiana University Press, Inishowen, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Interwar period, Invasion of Normandy, Ireland, Irish Civil War, Irish Free State, Irish military diaspora, Irish War of Independence, Isington, Israel, Italian Campaign (World War II), IX Corps (United Kingdom), James Gammell, Jean de Lattre de Tassigny, Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine, John Crocker, John Keegan, John Swayne, Kennington, Kent, Kurt Meyer, Lady, Lambeth Conference, Lancashire, Lüneburg Heath, Leatherhead, Legion of Merit, Leopold Canal (Belgium), Lieutenant (British Army and Royal Marines), Lieutenant colonel (United Kingdom), Lieutenant general (United States), Lille, List of Rolls-Royce motor cars, Lough Foyle, Low Countries, Ludendorff Bridge, Lung, M. E. Clifton James, M3 Lee, M4 Sherman, M7 Priest, Major (United Kingdom), Major-general (United Kingdom), Malta, Mandatory Palestine, Mareth Line, Mark Urban, Mark W. Clark, Martini (cocktail), Matthew Ridgway, Max Hastings, Méteren, Medenine, Mediterranean Theater of Operations, Mentioned in dispatches, Michael Wittmann, Middle East Command, Miles Dempsey, Military exercise, Military Order of the White Lion, Minister (Christianity), Minister of Munitions, Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom), Montgomery, Alabama, Mortgage loan, Moshe Dayan, Moville, Nantes, Naples, National Portrait Gallery, London, NATO, Nazism, Neil Ritchie, Nigel Hamilton (author), Ninth United States Army, Normandy, North African Campaign, North West Europe Campaign, Northern Germany, Northern Ireland, Office of Public Sector Information, Officer (armed forces), Oliver Cromwell, Oliver Leese, Omar Bradley, On the Psychology of Military Incompetence, Operation Astonia, Operation Baytown, Operation Bluecoat, Operation Cobra, Operation Goodwood, Operation Grenade, Operation Market Garden, Operation Overlord, Operation Plunder, Operation Slapstick, Operation Torch, Operation Varsity, Operation Veritable, Order of George I, Order of Leopold II, Order of St. Olav, Order of Suvorov, Order of the Bath, Order of the Elephant, Order of the Garter, Order of the Netherlands Lion, Order of Victory, Oscar Nemon, Oswald Carver, Pakistan Army, Palermo, Panzer Army Africa, Panzer Lehr Division, Paul Hausser, Percy Hobart, Port of Antwerp, Portsmouth F.C., Portugal, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Prisoner of war, Protestant Ascendancy, Quetta, Red Army, Richard Gale (British Army officer), Richard McCreery, Richard O'Connor, Robert Montgomery (colonial administrator), Rostock, Royal Air Force, Royal Fusiliers, Royal Logistic Corps Museum, Royal Military College, Sandhurst, Royal Tank Regiment, Royal Warwickshire Regiment, Ruhr, Ruhr Pocket, Russell Weigley, Scheldt, Second Army (United Kingdom), Second Battle of El Alamein, Second lieutenant, Seine, Sepsis, Seventh United States Army, Sexual Offences Act 1967, Sfax, Shorncliffe Army Camp, Sinn Féin, Sir William Robertson, 1st Baronet, Six-Day War, South Africa, Southern Command (United Kingdom), Soviet Union, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, St John's School, Leatherhead, St Mark's Church, Kennington, St Paul's School, London, St. Vith, Staff College, Camberley, Strategic Hamlet Program, Supreme Allied Commander, Supreme Allied Commander Europe, Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, Surrey, Sussex, Syracuse, Sicily, Terry Brighton, Terry Copp, Tex Banwell, The King's School, Canterbury, The London Gazette, The Reverend, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, The Very Reverend, Tunisian Campaign, Twelfth United States Army Group, Ulster, Ulster Scots people, United Kingdom, United Society Partners in the Gospel, United States Army Air Forces, United States Army North, V Corps (United Kingdom), Versailles, Yvelines, Vicar, Vietnam War, Virtuti Militari, Viscount, Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, Walcheren, Walter Bedell Smith, War Office, Wehrmacht, Western Allied invasion of Germany, Western Desert Campaign, Western Front (World War I), Western Front (World War II), Western Union (alliance), Whitehall, Wilhelm Ritter von Thoma, William Gott, William Hood Simpson, William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim, Winkle Club, Winston Churchill, Witte Brigade, World Pipe Band Championships, World War I, World War II, X Corps (United Kingdom), XII Corps (United Kingdom), XXX Corps (United Kingdom), 104th Brigade (United Kingdom), 10th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom), 112th Brigade (United Kingdom), 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend, 15th Army Group, 17th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom), 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, 1946 New Year Honours, 21st Army Group, 33rd Division (United Kingdom), 3rd Division (United Kingdom), 44th (Home Counties) Division, 47th (1/2nd London) Division, 49th (West Riding) Infantry Division, 4th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division, 51st (Highland) Division, 5th Panzer Army, 8th Infantry Division (United Kingdom), 9th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom). 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Across the River and into the Trees

Across the River and Into the Trees is a novel by American writer Ernest Hemingway, published by Charles Scribner's Sons in 1950, after first being serialized in Cosmopolitan magazine earlier that year.

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Afrika Korps

The Afrika Korps or German Africa Corps (Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK) was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African Campaign of World War II.

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Alan Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke

Field Marshal Alan Francis Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke, & Bar (23 July 1883 – 17 June 1963), was a senior officer of the British Army.

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Aldershot Command

Aldershot Command was a Home Command of the British Army.

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Alençon

Alençon is a commune in Normandy, France, capital of the Orne department.

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Alexander Montgomery (1686–1729)

Colonel Alexander Montgomery (1686 – 19 December 1729) was an Irish soldier and politician.

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Alfred Gruenther

Alfred Maximilian Gruenther (March 3, 1899 – May 30, 1983) was a senior United States Army officer, Red Cross president, and bridge player.

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Alfred Reade Godwin-Austen

General Sir Alfred Reade Godwin-Austen (17 April 1889 – 20 March 1963) was a British Army officer who served during World War I and World War II.

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Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine

The Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine was a phase in the Western European Campaign of World War II.

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Allied invasion of Italy

The Allied invasion of Italy was the Allied amphibious landing on mainland Italy that took place on 3 September 1943 during the early stages of the Italian Campaign of World War II.

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Allied invasion of Sicily

The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major campaign of World War II, in which the Allies took the island of Sicily from the Axis powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Alton, Hampshire

Alton is a market town and civil parish in Hampshire, England, near the source of the River Wey.

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Amphibious warfare

Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.

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Amputation

Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.

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Andrew Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope

Admiral of the Fleet Andrew Browne Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, (7 January 1883 – 12 June 1963) was a senior officer of the British Royal Navy during the Second World War.

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Andrew Thorne

General Sir (Augustus Francis) Andrew Nicol Thorne, (20 September 1885 – 25 September 1970) was a senior British Army officer who served in the First and Second World Wars, where he commanded the 48th (South Midland) Infantry Division.

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Anglican Diocese of Tasmania

The Anglican Diocese of Tasmania includes the entire Tasmanian archipelago and is an extraprovincial diocese of the Anglican Church of Australia.

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Anglicanism

Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.

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Antwerp

Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.

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Apartheid

Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.

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Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell

Field Marshal Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, (5 May 1883 – 24 May 1950) was a senior officer of the British Army.

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Argentan

Argentan is a commune and the seat of two cantons and of an arrondissement in the Orne department in northwestern France.

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Army Group B

Army Group B (German: Heeresgruppe B) was the title of three German Army Groups that saw action during World War II.

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Army Reserve (United Kingdom)

The Army Reserve is the active-duty volunteer reserve force and integrated element of the British Army.

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Arthur Percival

Lieutenant-General Arthur Ernest Percival, (26 December 1887 – 31 January 1966) was a senior British Army officer.

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Arthur Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder

Marshal of the Royal Air Force Arthur William Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder, (11 July 1890 – 3 June 1967) was a senior Royal Air Force commander.

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Azores

The Azores (or; Açores), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal.

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Bailleul, Nord

Bailleul (Belle in Dutch) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.

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Battle for Caen

The Battle for Caen (June to August 1944) is the name for the fighting between the British Second Army and German Panzergruppe West in the Second World War for control of the city of Caen and vicinity, during the Battle of Normandy.

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Battle of Alam el Halfa

The Battle of Alam el Halfa took place between 30 August and 5 September 1942 south of El Alamein during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War.

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Battle of Arnhem

The Battle of Arnhem was a major battle of the Second World War fought in and around the Dutch towns of Arnhem, Oosterbeek, Wolfheze, Driel and the surrounding countryside from 17–26 September 1944.

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Battle of Arras (1917)

The Battle of Arras (also known as the Second Battle of Arras) was a British offensive on the Western Front during World War I. From 9 April to 16 May 1917, British troops attacked German defences near the French city of Arras on the Western Front.

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Battle of Dunkirk

The Battle of Dunkirk was a military operation that took place in Dunkirk (Dunkerque), France, during the Second World War.

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Battle of El Agheila

The Battle of El Agheila was a brief engagement of the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War.

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Battle of France

The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.

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Battle of Le Cateau

The Battle of Le Cateau was fought on 26 August 1914, after the British and French retreated from the Battle of Mons and had set up defensive positions in a fighting withdrawal against the German advance at Le Cateau-Cambrésis.

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Battle of Medenine

The Battle of Medenine, also known as Operation Capri (Unternehmen Capri), was an Axis spoiling attack at Medenine in Tunisia on 6 March 1943.

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Battle of Mons

The Battle of Mons was the first major action of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in the First World War.

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Battle of Passchendaele

The Battle of Passchendaele (Flandernschlacht, Deuxième Bataille des Flandres), also known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was a campaign of the First World War, fought by the Allies against the German Empire.

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Battle of Remagen

The Battle of Remagen during the Allied invasion of Germany resulted in the unexpected capture of the Ludendorff Bridge over the Rhine and likely shortened World War II in Europe.

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Battle of the Bulge

The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II.

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Battle of the Mareth Line

The Battle of the Mareth Line or the Battle of Mareth was an attack in the Second World War by the British Eighth Army (General Bernard Montgomery) in Tunisia, against the Mareth Line held by the Italo-German 1st Army (General Giovanni Messe).

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Battle of the Scheldt

The Battle of the Scheldt in World War II was a series of military operations by Canadian, British and Polish formations to open up the shipping route to Antwerp so that its port could be used to supply the Allies in north-west Europe.

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Bernard Paget

General Sir Bernard Charles Tolver Paget, (15 September 1887 – 16 February 1961) was a senior British Army officer during the Second World War.

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Bertram Ramsay

Admiral Sir Bertram Home Ramsay, KCB, KBE, MVO (20 January 1883 – 2 January 1945) was a Royal Navy officer.

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Binsted

Binsted is a village and large civil parish in the East Hampshire district of Hampshire, England.

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Bishop

A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.

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Bocage

Bocage is a terrain of mixed woodland and pasture.

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Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress

The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is a four-engine heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC).

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Brevet (military)

In many of the world's military establishments, a brevet was a warrant giving a commissioned officer a higher rank title as a reward for gallantry or meritorious conduct but without conferring the authority, precedence, or pay of real rank.

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Brian Horrocks

Lieutenant-General Sir Brian Gwynne Horrocks, (7 September 1895 – 4 January 1985) was a British Army officer, chiefly remembered as the commander of XXX Corps in Operation Market Garden and other operations during the Second World War.

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Brigade major

A brigade major was the chief of staff of a brigade in the British Army.

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Brigadier (United Kingdom)

Brigadier (Brig) is a senior rank in the British Army and the Royal Marines.

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British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.

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British Army of the Rhine

There have been two formations named British Army of the Rhine (BAOR).

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British Expeditionary Force (World War II)

The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the name of the British Army in Western Europe during the Second World War from 2 September 1939 when the BEF GHQ was formed until 31 May 1940, when GHQ closed down.

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British Indian Army

The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.

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British Raj

The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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Brittany

Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.

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Burnham-on-Sea

Burnham-on-Sea is a large seaside town in Somerset, England, at the mouth of the River Parrett, upon Bridgwater Bay.

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Caen

Caen (Norman: Kaem) is a commune in northwestern France.

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Cairo

Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.

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Cape Verde

Cape Verde or Cabo Verde (Cabo Verde), officially the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean.

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Captain (British Army and Royal Marines)

Captain (Capt) is a junior officer rank of the British Army and Royal Marines and in both services it ranks above lieutenant and below major with a NATO ranking code of OF-2.

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Carlo D'Este

Carlo D'Este (born 1938 in Oakland, California) is an American military historian and biographer, author of several books, especially on World War II.

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Charles Portal, 1st Viscount Portal of Hungerford

Marshal of the Royal Air Force Charles Frederick Algernon Portal, 1st Viscount Portal of Hungerford, (21 May 1893 – 22 April 1971) was a senior Royal Air Force officer.

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Chief of staff

The title chief of staff (or head of staff) identifies the leader of a complex organization, institution, or body of persons and it also may identify a principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to an important individual, such as a president or a senior military officer.

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Chief of the Air Staff (United Kingdom)

The Chief of the Air Staff (CAS) is the professional head of the Royal Air Force and a member of both the Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Air Force Board.

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Chief of the General Staff (United Kingdom)

Chief of the General Staff (CGS) has been the title of the professional head of the British Army since 1964.

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Church of Ireland

The Church of Ireland (Eaglais na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.

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Churchyard

A churchyard is a patch of land adjoining or surrounding a church, which is usually owned by the relevant church or local parish itself.

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Clan Montgomery

Clan Montgomery (also Montgomerie) is a Lowland Scottish clan.

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Claude Auchinleck

Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck (21 June 1884 – 23 March 1981) was a British Army commander during the Second World War.

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Clearing the Channel Coast

Clearing the Channel Coast was a World War II task undertaken by the First Canadian Army in August 1944, following the Allied Operation Overlord and the victory, break-out and pursuit from Normandy.

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Clement Attlee

Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British statesman of the Labour Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.

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Cobh

Cobh, known from 1849 until 1920 as Queenstown, is a tourist seaport town on the south coast of County Cork, Ireland.

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Collegiate Church of St Mary, Warwick

The Collegiate Church of St Mary is a Church of England parish church in the town of Warwick, England.

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Colleville-Montgomery

Colleville-Montgomery (Colleville-sur-Orne) is a commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northern France.

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Cologne

Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).

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Colonel (United Kingdom)

Colonel (Col) is a rank of the British Army and Royal Marines, ranking below brigadier, and above lieutenant colonel.

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Colony of Tasmania

The Colony of Tasmania (more commonly referred to simply as "Tasmania") was a British colony that existed on the island of Tasmania from 1856 until 1901, when it federated together with the five other Australian colonies to form the Commonwealth of Australia.

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Combined operations

In current military use, combined operations are operations conducted by forces of two or more allied nations acting together for the accomplishment of a common strategy, a strategic and operational and sometimes tactical cooperation.

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Command and Staff College

The Command and Staff College is a Pakistani military training institution where officers receive staff training and education.

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Commander-in-chief

A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.

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Commanding officer

The commanding officer (CO) or, if the incumbent is a general officer, commanding general (CG), is the officer in command of a military unit.

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Communes of France

The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic.

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Company commander

A company commander is the commanding officer of a company; a military unit which typically consists of 100 to 250 soldiers, often organized into three or four smaller units called platoons.

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Cork (city)

Cork (from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,622 in 2016.

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Corps

Corps (plural corps; via French, from the Latin corpus "body") is a term used for several different kinds of organisation.

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Correlli Barnett

Correlli Douglas Barnett CBE FRHistS FRSL FRSA (born 28 June 1927) is an English military historian, who has also written works of economic history, particularly on the United Kingdom's post-war "industrial decline".

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Cotentin Peninsula

The Cotentin Peninsula, also known as the Cherbourg Peninsula, is a peninsula in Normandy that forms part of the northwest coast of France.

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County Cork

County Cork (Contae Chorcaí) is a county in Ireland.

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County Donegal

County Donegal (Contae Dhún na nGall) is a county of Ireland in the province of Ulster.

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Courtney Hodges

General Courtney Hicks Hodges (January 5, 1887 – January 16, 1966) was a decorated senior officer of the United States Army, most prominent for his role in World War II, in which he commanded the U.S. First Army in the Western Europe Campaign.

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Croix de guerre (Belgium)

The Croix de guerre (French) or Oorlogskruis (Dutch), both literally translating as "War Cross", is a military decoration of the Kingdom of Belgium established by royal decree on 25 October 1915.

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Croix de Guerre 1914–1918 (France)

The Croix de guerre 1914–1918 (War Cross) is a French military decoration, the first version of the Croix de guerre.

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Crown colony

Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.

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David Lloyd George

David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party and the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister.

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David Montgomery, 2nd Viscount Montgomery of Alamein

David Bernard Montgomery, 2nd Viscount Montgomery of Alamein (born 18 August 1928) is a British politician, and businessman.

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Deepcut

Deepcut is a 20th-century military village in Surrey Heath, Surrey, southeast of Camberley, its post town and only town in the borough – it was from 1866 until 1894 part of Frimley, before which it was part of Ash.

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Denis Bernard (British Army officer)

Lieutenant General Sir Denis John Charles Kirwan Bernard (1882–1956) was a British Army officer who commanded 3rd Infantry Division.

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Desert Island Discs

Desert Island Discs is a radio programme broadcast on BBC Radio 4.

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Distinguished Service Medal (U.S. Army)

The Distinguished Service Medal (DSM) is a military award of the United States Army that is presented to any person who, while serving in any capacity with the United States military, has distinguished himself by exceptionally meritorious service to the Government in a duty of great responsibility.

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Distinguished Service Order

The Distinguished Service Order (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other parts of the Commonwealth of Nations, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat.

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Division (military)

A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.

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Dorset

Dorset (archaically: Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast.

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Dunkirk

Dunkirk (Dunkerque; Duinkerke(n)) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.

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Dunkirk evacuation

The Dunkirk evacuation, code-named Operation Dynamo, and also known as the Miracle of Dunkirk, was the evacuation of Allied soldiers during World War II from the beaches and harbour of Dunkirk, in the north of France, between 26 May and 4 June 1940.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.

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Dyle (river)

The Dyle (Dyle and Dijle), is a river in central Belgium, left tributary of the Rupel.

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East Sussex

East Sussex is a county in South East England.

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Edmond Schreiber

Lieutenant-General Sir Edmund Charles Acton Schreiber, (30 April 1890 – 8 October 1972) was a senior British Army officer who served in both the First World War and the Second World War.

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Edmund Osborne

Lieutenant General Edmund Archibald Osborne CB DSO (1885–1969) was a British Army officer who commanded II Corps during World War II.

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Egyptian Army

The Egyptian Army is the largest service branch within the Egyptian Armed Forces.

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Eighth Army (United Kingdom)

The Eighth Army was a field army formation of the British Army during the Second World War, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns.

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Ernest Hemingway

Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist.

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Erwin Rommel

Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.

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Essex Regiment

The Essex Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in existence from 1881 to 1958.

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Exercise Tiger (1942)

The 1942 Exercise Tiger was the code name for an Army-level military exercise held by British Commonwealth forces in the United Kingdom during the Second World War.

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Falaise Pocket

The Falaise Pocket or Battle of the Falaise Pocket (12 – 21 August 1944) was the decisive engagement of the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War.

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Field army

A field army (or numbered army or simply army) is a military formation in many armed forces, composed of two or more corps and may be subordinate to an army group.

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Field marshal (United Kingdom)

Field Marshal has been the highest rank in the British Army since 1736.

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Field Marshal Montgomery Pipe Band

The Field Marshal Montgomery Pipe Band is a World Champion grade one pipe band from Lisburn, Northern Ireland and named in honour of Field Marshal Viscount Montgomery of Alamein.

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First Army (United Kingdom)

The First Army was a formation of the British Army that existed during the First and Second World Wars.

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First Battle of El Alamein

The First Battle of El Alamein (1–27 July 1942) was a battle of the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, fought in Egypt between Axis forces (Germany and Italy) of the Panzer Army Africa (Panzerarmee Afrika, which included the Afrika Korps) (Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) Erwin Rommel) and Allied (British Imperial and Commonwealth) forces (Britain, British India, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) of the Eighth Army (General Claude Auchinleck).

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First Battle of Ypres

The First Battle of Ypres (Première Bataille des Flandres Erste Flandernschlacht, was a battle of the First World War, fought on the Western Front around Ypres, in West Flanders, Belgium, during October and November 1914.

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First United States Army

The First Army is the oldest and longest established field army of the United States Army, having seen service in both World War I and World War II, under some of the most famous and distinguished officers of the U.S. Army.

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Frank O. Salisbury

Francis ("Frank") Owen Salisbury (18 December 1874 – 31 August 1962) was an English artist who specialised in portraits, large canvases of historical and ceremonial events, stained glass and book illustration.

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Frederic Farrar

Frederic William Farrar (Bombay, 7 August 1831 – Canterbury, 22 March 1903) was a cleric of the Church of England (Anglican), schoolteacher and author.

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French North Africa

French North Africa was a collection of territories in North Africa controlled by France, centering on French Algeria.

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Friedrich Dollmann

Friedrich Karl Albert Dollmann (2 February 188228 JuneReynolds, M: Steel Inferno, p. 163. Dell Publishing, 1997.D'Este, C: Decision in Normandy, pp. 241–242. Penguin Books, 2004. 1944) was a German general during World War II, most notably serving during the early phases of the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.

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General (United Kingdom)

General (or full general to distinguish it from the lower general officer ranks) is the highest rank currently achievable by serving officers of the British Army.

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General (United States)

In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, general (abbreviated as GEN in the Army or Gen in the Air Force and Marine Corps) is a four-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-10.

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General officer

A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.

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General officer commanding

The General Officer Commanding (GOC) is the usual title given in the armies of the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth (and some other, such as in Ireland) nations to a General Officer who holds a command appointment.

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Gentry

The gentry (genterie; Old French gentil: "high-born") are the "well-born, genteel, and well-bred people" of the social class below the nobility of a society.

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Geoffrey Raikes

Major-General Sir Geoffrey Taunton Raikes CB DSO (7 April 1884 – 1975) was a British Army General who achieved high office in the 1930s.

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Georg Stumme

Georg Stumme (29 July 1886 – 24 October 1942) was a general in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II who briefly commanded of the Axis forces at the beginning of the Second Battle of El Alamein.

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George S. Patton

General George Smith Patton Jr. (November 11, 1885 – December 21, 1945) was a senior officer of the United States Army who commanded the U.S. Seventh Army in the Mediterranean theater of World War II, but is best known for his leadership of the U.S. Third Army in France and Germany following the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.

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Gerard Bucknall

Lieutenant-General Gerard Corfield Bucknall CB, MC, DL (14 September 1894 – 7 December 1980) was a senior British Army officer who served in both World War I and World War II, where he commanded the 5th Infantry Division and later XXX Corps during the Battle of Normandy in mid-1944.

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Gerd von Rundstedt

Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (12 December 1875 – 24 February 1953) was a Field Marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.

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German surrender at Lüneburg Heath

On 4 May 1945 at Lüneburg Heath, east of Hamburg, Field Marshal Sir Bernard Law Montgomery accepted the unconditional surrender of the German forces in the Netherlands, in northwest Germany including all islands, and in Denmark and all naval ships in those areas.

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GHQ Liaison Regiment

GHQ Liaison Regiment (known as Phantom) was a special reconnaissance unit first formed in 1939 during the early stages of World War II.

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Gustav-Adolf von Zangen

Gustav-Adolf von Zangen (7 November 1892 – 1 May 1964) was a German general in the Wehrmacht during World War II and a commander of the 15th Army in the Netherlands in 1944 during World War II.

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Guy Simonds

Lieutenant-General Guy Granville Simonds (April 23, 1903 – May 15, 1974) was a senior Canadian Army officer who served with distinction during World War II, where he commanded the 1st Canadian Infantry Division and II Canadian Corps.

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Hamburg

Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.

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Hamish Hamilton

Hamish Hamilton Limited was a British book publishing house, founded in 1931 eponymously by the half-Scot half-American Jamie Hamilton (Hamish is the vocative form of the Gaelic 'Seumas', James the English form – which was also his given name, and Jamie the diminutive form).

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Hampshire

Hampshire (abbreviated Hants) is a county on the southern coast of England in the United Kingdom.

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Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis

Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, (10 December 1891 – 16 June 1969) was a senior British Army officer who served with distinction in both the First World War and the Second World War and, afterwards, as Governor General of Canada, the 17th since Canadian Confederation.

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Harry Crerar

General Henry Duncan Graham "Harry" Crerar (April 28, 1888 – April 1, 1965) was a senior officer of the Canadian Army, and became the country's "leading field commander" in the Second World War, where he commanded the First Canadian Army.

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Harry's Bar (Venice)

Harry's Bar is, despite its name, mainly a restaurant located at Calle Vallaresso 1323, Venice, Italy, owned by Cipriani S.A..

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Hasso von Manteuffel

Hasso von Manteuffel (14 January 1897 – 24 September 1978) was a German general during World War II who commanded the 5th Panzer Army.

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Hastings

Hastings is a town and borough in East Sussex on the south coast of England, east of the county town of Lewes and south east of London.

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Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay

General Hastings Lionel Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay, (21 June 1887 – 17 December 1965), nicknamed Pug, was a British Indian Army officer and diplomat, remembered primarily for his role as Winston Churchill's chief military assistant during the Second World War and his service as the first Secretary General of NATO from 1952 to 1957.

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Henry Montgomery (bishop)

The Rt Rev. Henry Hutchinson Montgomery, KCMG (3 October 1847, Cawnpore – 25 November 1932, Moville), was an Anglican bishop and author in the last part of the 19th century and the very start of the 20th.

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Herbert Plumer, 1st Viscount Plumer

Field Marshal Herbert Charles Onslow Plumer, 1st Viscount Plumer, (13 March 1857 – 16 July 1932) was a senior British Army officer of the First World War.

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I Corps (United Kingdom)

I Corps ("First Corps") was an army corps in existence as an active formation in the British Army for most of the 80 years from its creation in the First World War until the end of the Cold War, longer than any other corps.

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II Corps (United Kingdom)

II Corps was an army corps of the British Army formed in both the First World War and the Second World War.

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II Corps (United States)

The II Corps was a corps-sized formation of the United States Army that was active in both World War I and World War II.

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Imperial War Museum

Imperial War Museums (IWM) is a British national museum organisation with branches at five locations in England, three of which are in London.

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Indiana University Press

Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.

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Inishowen

Inishowen is a peninsula in County Donegal, Republic of Ireland.

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International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.

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Interwar period

In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.

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Invasion of Normandy

The Western Allies of World War II launched the largest amphibious invasion in history when they assaulted Normandy, located on the northern coast of France, on 6 June 1944.

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Ireland

Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Irish Civil War

The Irish Civil War (Cogadh Cathartha na hÉireann; 28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923) was a conflict that followed the Irish War of Independence and accompanied the establishment of the Irish Free State, an entity independent from the United Kingdom but within the British Empire.

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Irish Free State

The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.

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Irish military diaspora

The Irish military diaspora refers to the many people of either Irish birth or extraction (see Irish diaspora) who have served in overseas military forces, regardless of rank, duration of service, or success.

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Irish War of Independence

The Irish War of Independence (Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army (IRA, the army of the Irish Republic) and the British security forces in Ireland.

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Isington

Isington is a hamlet in the East Hampshire district of Hampshire, England.

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Italian Campaign (World War II)

The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.

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IX Corps (United Kingdom)

IX Corps was a corps-sized formation of the British Army that existed during World War I and World War II.

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James Gammell

Lieutenant General Sir James Andrew Harcourt Gammell KCB DSO MC (26 September 1892 – 1 September 1975) was a British Army officer who fought during both World War I and World War II.

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Jean de Lattre de Tassigny

Jean Joseph Marie Gabriel de Lattre de Tassigny, GCB, MC (2 February 1889 – 11 January 1952) was a French military commander in World War II and the First Indochina War.

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Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine

The Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine involved paramilitary actions carried out by Jewish underground groups against the British forces and officials in Mandatory Palestine.

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John Crocker

General Sir John Tredinnick Crocker, (4 January 1896 – 9 March 1963) was a senior British Army officer who fought in both world wars.

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John Keegan

Sir John Desmond Patrick Keegan (15 May 1934 – 2 August 2012) was an English military historian, lecturer, writer and journalist.

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John Swayne

Lieutenant-General Sir John George des Reaux Swayne KCB CBE (3 July 1890 – 16 December 1964) was a senior British Army officer who became General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOC-in-C) of South-Eastern Command during World War II.

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Kennington

Kennington is a district in south London, England.

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Kent

Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.

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Kurt Meyer

Kurt Meyer (23 December 1910 – 23 December 1961) was a high-ranking member in the Waffen-SS of Nazi Germany who commanded SS Division Hitlerjugend during World War II.

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Lady

The word lady is a term of respect for a woman, the equivalent of gentleman.

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Lambeth Conference

The Lambeth Conference is a decennial assembly of bishops of the Anglican Communion convened by the Archbishop of Canterbury.

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Lancashire

Lancashire (abbreviated Lancs.) is a county in north west England.

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Lüneburg Heath

Lüneburg Heath (Lüneburger Heide) is a large area of heath, geest, and woodland in the northeastern part of the state of Lower Saxony in northern Germany.

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Leatherhead

Leatherhead is a town in Surrey, England on the right bank of the River Mole, and at the edge of the contiguous built-up area of London.

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Legion of Merit

The Legion of Merit (LOM) is a military award of the United States Armed Forces that is given for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements.

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Leopold Canal (Belgium)

The Leopold Canal (or Leopoldvaart) is a canal in northern Belgium.

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Lieutenant (British Army and Royal Marines)

Lieutenant (Lt) is a junior officer rank in the British Army and Royal Marines.

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Lieutenant colonel (United Kingdom)

Lieutenant colonel (Lt Col), is a rank in the British Army and Royal Marines which is also used in many Commonwealth countries.

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Lieutenant general (United States)

In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and the United States Air Force, lieutenant general (abbreviated LTG in the Army, Lt Gen in the Air Force, and LtGen in the Marine Corps) is a three-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-9.

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Lille

Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.

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List of Rolls-Royce motor cars

This is a list of Rolls-Royce branded motor cars and includes vehicles manufactured by.

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Lough Foyle

Lough Foyle, sometimes Loch Foyle (or "loch of the lip"), is the estuary of the River Foyle, on the north coast of Ireland.

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Low Countries

The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.

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Ludendorff Bridge

The Ludendorff Bridge (sometimes referred to as the Bridge at Remagen) was in early March 1945 one of two remaining bridges across the river Rhine in Germany when it was captured during the Battle of Remagen by United States Army forces during the closing weeks of World War II.

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Lung

The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

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M. E. Clifton James

Meyrick Edward Clifton James (April 1898 – 8 May 1963) was an actor and soldier, with a resemblance to Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery.

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M3 Lee

The M3 Lee, officially Medium Tank, M3, was an American medium tank used during World War II.

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M4 Sherman

The M4 Sherman, officially Medium Tank, M4, was the most widely used medium tank by the United States and Western Allies in World War II.

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M7 Priest

The 105 mm Howitzer Motor Carriage M7 was an American self-propelled artillery vehicle produced during World War II.

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Major (United Kingdom)

Major (Maj) is a military rank which is used by both the British Army and Royal Marines.

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Major-general (United Kingdom)

Major general (Maj Gen), is a "two-star" rank in the British Army and Royal Marines.

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Malta

Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Mandatory Palestine

Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.

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Mareth Line

The Mareth Line was a system of fortifications built by France in southern Tunisia, prior to World War II.

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Mark Urban

Mark Urban (born 1961) is a British journalist, historian, author, broadcaster and orientalist, and is currently the Diplomatic Editor for BBC Two's Newsnight.

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Mark W. Clark

Mark Wayne Clark (May 1, 1896 – April 17, 1984) was a United States Army officer who saw service during World War I, World War II, and the Korean War.

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Martini (cocktail)

The martini is a cocktail made with gin and vermouth, and garnished with an olive or a lemon twist.

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Matthew Ridgway

General Matthew Bunker Ridgway (March 3, 1895 – July 26, 1993) was the 19th Chief of Staff of the United States Army.

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Max Hastings

Sir Max Hugh Macdonald Hastings (born 28 December 1945) is a British journalist, who has worked as a foreign correspondent for the BBC, editor-in-chief of The Daily Telegraph, and editor of the Evening Standard.

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Méteren

Méteren (from Flemish; Meteren in modern Dutch spelling) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.

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Medenine

Medenine (مدنين) is the major town in south-eastern Tunisia, south of the port of Gabès and the Island of Djerba, on the main route to Libya.

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Mediterranean Theater of Operations

The Mediterranean Theater of Operations, United States Army (MTOUSA), originally called the North African Theater of Operations (NATOUSA), was the American term for the theater of operations covering North Africa and Italy during World War II.

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Mentioned in dispatches

A member of the armed forces mentioned in dispatches (or despatches, MiD) is one whose name appears in an official report written by a superior officer and sent to the high command, in which his or her gallant or meritorious action in the face of the enemy is described.

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Michael Wittmann

Michael Wittmann (22 April 1914 – 8 August 1944) was a German Waffen-SS tank commander during the Second World War.

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Middle East Command

Middle East Command, later Middle East Land Forces, was a British Army Command established prior to the Second World War in Egypt.

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Miles Dempsey

General Sir Miles Christopher Dempsey, (15 December 1896 – 5 June 1969) was a senior British Army officer who served in both world wars.

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Military exercise

A military exercise or war game is the employment of military resources in training for military operations, either exploring the effects of warfare or testing strategies without actual combat.

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Military Order of the White Lion

The Military Order of the White Lion (Vojenský řád Bílého lva „Za vítězství“), also known as the Military Order of the White Lion "For Victory", was an award established on 9 February 1945 to reward military merit, either personal acts of bravery or leadership.

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Minister (Christianity)

In Christianity, a minister is a person authorized by a church, or other religious organization, to perform functions such as teaching of beliefs; leading services such as weddings, baptisms or funerals; or otherwise providing spiritual guidance to the community.

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Minister of Munitions

The Minister of Munitions was a British government position created during the First World War to oversee and co-ordinate the production and distribution of munitions for the war effort.

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Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)

The Ministry of Defence (MoD or MOD) is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces.

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Montgomery, Alabama

Montgomery is the capital city of the U.S. state of Alabama and the county seat of Montgomery County.

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Mortgage loan

A mortgage loan, or simply mortgage, is used either by purchasers of real property to raise funds to buy real estate, or alternatively by existing property owners to raise funds for any purpose, while putting a lien on the property being mortgaged.

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Moshe Dayan

Moshe Dayan (משה דיין; 20 May 1915 – 16 October 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician.

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Moville

Moville (Magh Bhile, "the plain of the sacred tree" in the Irish language) is a coastal town located on the Inishowen Peninsula of County Donegal, Ireland, close to the northern tip of the island of Ireland.

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Nantes

Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt or Nantt) is a city in western France on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.

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Naples

Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.

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National Portrait Gallery, London

The National Portrait Gallery (NPG) is an art gallery in London housing a collection of portraits of historically important and famous British people.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Nazism

National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

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Neil Ritchie

General Sir Neil Methuen Ritchie, (29 July 1897 – 11 December 1983) was a British Army officer who saw service during both the world wars.

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Nigel Hamilton (author)

Nigel Hamilton (born 16 February 1944) is an award-winning British-born biographer, academic, and broadcaster, whose works have been translated into sixteen languages.

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Ninth United States Army

The Ninth Army is a field army of the United States Army, garrisoned at Caserma Ederle, Vicenza, Italy.

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Normandy

Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.

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North African Campaign

The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.

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North West Europe Campaign

The North West Europe campaign was the term used by the British Commonwealth armed forces for the campaigns in North West Europe, including its skies and adjoining waters during World War II.

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Northern Germany

Northern Germany (Norddeutschland) is the region in the north of Germany whose exact area is not precisely or consistently defined.

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

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Office of Public Sector Information

The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.

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Officer (armed forces)

An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.

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Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.

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Oliver Leese

Lieutenant General Sir Oliver William Hargreaves Leese, 3rd Baronet, (27 October 1894 – 22 January 1978) was a senior British Army officer who saw distinguished active service during both the world wars.

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Omar Bradley

General of the Army Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981), nicknamed Brad, was a senior officer of the United States Army during and after World War II.

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On the Psychology of Military Incompetence

On The Psychology of Military Incompetence is a work by Norman F. Dixon, first published in 1976, which applies insights from psychology to military history.

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Operation Astonia

Operation Astonia was the codename for an Allied attack on the German-held Channel port of Le Havre in France, during the Second World War.

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Operation Baytown

Operation Baytown was an Allied amphibious landing on the mainland of Italy that took place on 3 September 1943, part of the Allied invasion of Italy, itself part of the Italian Campaign, during the Second World War.

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Operation Bluecoat

Operation Bluecoat was an offensive in the Battle of Normandy, from 30 July until 7 August 1944, during the Second World War.

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Operation Cobra

Operation Cobra was the codename for an offensive launched by the First United States Army (Lieutenant General Omar Bradley) seven weeks after the D-Day landings, during the Normandy Campaign of World War II.

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Operation Goodwood

Operation Goodwood was a British offensive in the Second World War, that took place between 18 and 20 July 1944 as part of the battle for Caen in Normandy, France.

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Operation Grenade

During World War II, Operation Grenade was the crossing of the Roer river between Roermond and Düren by the U.S. Ninth Army, commanded by Lieutenant General William Hood Simpson, in February 1945, which marked the beginning of the Allied invasion of Germany.

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Operation Market Garden

Operation Market Garden (17–25 September 1944) was an unsuccessful Allied military operation planned, and predominantly led, by the British.

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Operation Overlord

Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied operation that launched the successful invasion of German-occupied Western Europe during World War II.

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Operation Plunder

Beginning on the night of March 23, 1945 the 21st Army Group under Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery launched Operation Plunder, as a part of a coordinated set of Rhine crossings.

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Operation Slapstick

Operation Slapstick was the code name for a British landing from the sea at the Italian port of Taranto during the Second World War.

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Operation Torch

Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942, formerly Operation Gymnast) was a Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War.

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Operation Varsity

Operation Varsity (24 March 1945) was a successful airborne forces operation launched by Allied troops that took place toward the end of World War II.

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Operation Veritable

Operation Veritable (also known as the Battle of the Reichswald) was the northern part of an Allied pincer movement that took place between 8 February and 11 March 1945 during the final stages of the Second World War.

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Order of George I

The Royal Order of George I (Βασιλικόν Τάγμα Γεωργίου Α') is a Greek order instituted by King Constantine I in 1915.

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Order of Leopold II

The Order of Leopold II is an order of Belgium and is named in honor of King Léopold II.

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Order of St. Olav

The Royal Norwegian Order of Saint Olav (Den Kongelige Norske Sankt Olavs Orden; or Sanct Olafs Orden, the old Norwegian name) is a Norwegian order of chivalry instituted by King Oscar I on August 21, 1847.

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Order of Suvorov

The Order of Suvorov (Russian Орден Суворова) is a military decoration of the Russian Federation named in honor of Russian Field Marshal Count Alexander Suvorov (1729–1800).

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Order of the Bath

The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.

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Order of the Elephant

The Order of the Elephant (Elefantordenen) is a Danish order of chivalry and is Denmark's highest-ranked honour.

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Order of the Garter

The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.

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Order of the Netherlands Lion

The Order of the Netherlands Lion, also referred to as the Order of the Lion of the Netherlands (De Orde van de Nederlandse Leeuw, L'Ordre du Lion Néerlandais) is a Dutch order of chivalry founded by King William I of the Netherlands on 29 September 1815.

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Order of Victory

The Order of Victory (translit) was the highest military decoration awarded for World War II service in the Soviet Union, and one of the rarest orders in the world.

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Oscar Nemon

Oscar Nemon (born Oscar Neumann; 13 March 1906 – 13 April 1985) was a Croatian sculptor who was born in Osijek, Croatia, but eventually settled in England.

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Oswald Carver

Oswald Armitage Carver (2 February 1887 – 7 June 1915) was a British rower who competed in the 1908 Summer Olympics.

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Pakistan Army

Pakistan Army (پاک فوج Pak Fauj (IPA: pɑk fɒ~ɔd͡ʒ); Reporting name: PA) is the land-based force of the Pakistan Armed Forces.

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Palermo

Palermo (Sicilian: Palermu, Panormus, from Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo.

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Panzer Army Africa

As the number of German armed forces committed to the North Africa Campaign of World War II grew from the initial commitment of a small corps the Germans developed a more elaborate command structure and placed the enlarged Afrika Korps, with Italian units under this new German command and a succession of commands were created to manage Axis forces in Africa.

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Panzer Lehr Division

The Panzer Lehr Division was an elite German armoured division during World War II.

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Paul Hausser

Paul Hausser (7 October 1880 – 21 December 1972) was a high-ranking commander in the Waffen-SS of Nazi Germany during World War II who played a key role in the post-war efforts by former members of the Waffen-SS to achieve historical and legal rehabilitation.

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Percy Hobart

Major General Sir Percy Cleghorn Stanley Hobart (14 June 1885 – 19 February 1957), also known as "Hobo", was a British military engineer noted for his command of the 79th Armoured Division during World War II.

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Port of Antwerp

The Port of Antwerp in Flanders, Belgium, is a port in the heart of Europe accessible to capesize ships.

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Portsmouth F.C.

Portsmouth Football Club is a professional football club in Portsmouth, Hampshire, England, which plays in EFL League One, the third tier of English football, following their promotion as EFL League Two champions in the 2016–17 EFL League Two season.

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Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Presidencies and provinces of British India

The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.

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Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.

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Prisoner of war

A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.

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Protestant Ascendancy

The Protestant Ascendancy, known simply as the Ascendancy, was the political, economic and social domination of Ireland between the 17th century and the early 20th century by a minority of landowners, Protestant clergy and members of the professions, all members of the Church of Ireland or the Church of England.

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Quetta

Quetta (کوټه; کویته; کوٹه; کوئٹہ) is the provincial capital and largest city of Balochistan, Pakistan.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Richard Gale (British Army officer)

General Sir Richard Nelson "Windy" Gale (25 July 1896 – 29 July 1982) was a senior officer in the British Army who served in both world wars.

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Richard McCreery

General Sir Richard Loudon McCreery (1 February 1898 – 18 October 1967), was a career soldier of the British Army, who was decorated for leading one of the last cavalry actions in the First World War.

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Richard O'Connor

General Sir Richard Nugent O'Connor & Bar, MC (21 August 1889 – 17 June 1981) was a senior British Army officer who fought in both the First and Second World Wars, and commanded the Western Desert Force in the early years of the Second World War.

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Robert Montgomery (colonial administrator)

Sir Robert Montgomery, GCSI, KCB (2 December 1809 – 28 December 1887), was a British colonial administrator in India.

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Rostock

Rostock is a city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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Royal Air Force

The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.

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Royal Fusiliers

The Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment) was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in continuous existence for 283 years.

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Royal Logistic Corps Museum

The Royal Logistic Corps Museum is based at the Princess Royal Barracks near Camberley in Surrey.

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Royal Military College, Sandhurst

The Royal Military College (RMC), founded in 1801 and established in 1802 at Great Marlow and High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, England, but moved in October 1812 to Sandhurst, Berkshire, was a British Army military academy for training infantry and cavalry officers of the British and Indian Armies.

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Royal Tank Regiment

The Royal Tank Regiment (RTR) is the oldest tank unit in the world, being formed by the British Army in 1916 during the Great War.

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Royal Warwickshire Regiment

The Royal Warwickshire Regiment, previously titled the 6th Regiment of Foot, was a line infantry regiment of the British Army in continuous existence for 283 years.

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Ruhr

The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr area or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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Ruhr Pocket

The Ruhr Pocket was a battle of encirclement that took place in April 1945, on the Western Front near the end of World War II, in the Ruhr Area of Germany.

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Russell Weigley

Russell Frank Weigley (WY-glee), PhD, (July 2, 1930 – March 3, 2004) was the Distinguished University Professor of History at Temple University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and a noted military historian.

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Scheldt

The Scheldt (l'Escaut, Escô, Schelde) is a long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands.

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Second Army (United Kingdom)

The British Second Army was a field army active during the First and Second World Wars.

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Second Battle of El Alamein

The Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 11 November 1942) was a battle of the Second World War that took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein. With the Allies victorious, it was the watershed of the Western Desert Campaign. The First Battle of El Alamein had prevented the Axis from advancing further into Egypt. In August 1942, Lieutenant-General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery took command of the Eighth Army following the sacking of General Claude Auchinleck and the death of his replacement Lieutenant-General William Gott in an air crash. The Allied victory turned the tide in the North African Campaign and ended the Axis threat to Egypt, the Suez Canal and the Middle Eastern and Persian oil fields via North Africa. The Second Battle of El Alamein revived the morale of the Allies, being the first big success against the Axis since Operation Crusader in late 1941. The battle coincided with the Allied invasion of French North Africa in Operation Torch, which started on 8 November, the Battle of Stalingrad and the Guadalcanal Campaign.

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Second lieutenant

Second lieutenant (called lieutenant in some countries) is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1b rank.

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Seine

The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.

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Sepsis

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.

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Seventh United States Army

The Seventh Army was a United States army created during World War II that evolved into the United States Army Europe (USAREUR) during the 1950s and 1960s.

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Sexual Offences Act 1967

The Sexual Offences Act 1967 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom (citation 1967 c. 60).

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Sfax

Sfax (صفاقس; ⵙⵉⴼⴰⴽⵙ Sifaks) is a city in Tunisia, located southeast of Tunis.

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Shorncliffe Army Camp

Shorncliffe Army Camp is a large military camp near Cheriton in Kent.

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Sinn Féin

Sinn Féin (isbn) is a left-wing Irish republican political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

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Sir William Robertson, 1st Baronet

Field Marshal Sir William Robert Robertson, 1st Baronet, (29 January 1860 – 12 February 1933) was a British Army officer who served as Chief of the Imperial General Staff (CIGS) – the professional head of the British Army – from 1916 to 1918 during the First World War.

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Six-Day War

The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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Southern Command (United Kingdom)

Southern Command was a Command of the British Army.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle

St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle in England, is a chapel designed in the high-medieval Gothic style.

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St John's School, Leatherhead

St John’s School in Leatherhead, Surrey is a fully co-educational Independent school for pupils aged 11 to 18.

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St Mark's Church, Kennington

St Mark's Church, Kennington, is an Anglican church in Kennington, London, United Kingdom.

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St Paul's School, London

St Paul's School is a selective independent school for boys aged 13–18, founded in 1509 by John Colet and located on a 43-acre (180,000m2) site by the River Thames, in Barnes, London.

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St. Vith

St.

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Staff College, Camberley

Staff College, Camberley, Surrey, was a staff college for the British Army and the presidency armies of British India (later merged to form the Indian Army).

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Strategic Hamlet Program

The Strategic Hamlet Program (SHP; Ấp Chiến lược) was a plan by the governments of South Vietnam and the United States during the Vietnam War to combat the communist insurgency by pacifying the countryside and reducing the influence of the communists among the rural population.

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Supreme Allied Commander

Supreme Allied Commander is the title held by the most senior commander within certain multinational military alliances.

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Supreme Allied Commander Europe

The Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) is the head of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE), also known as Allied Command Operations (ACO), of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), based in Casteau, Belgium.

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Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force

Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) was the headquarters of the Commander of Allied forces in north west Europe, from late 1943 until the end of World War II.

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Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe

Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) is the headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization's Allied Command Operations (ACO).

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Surrey

Surrey is a county in South East England, and one of the home counties.

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Sussex

Sussex, from the Old English Sūþsēaxe (South Saxons), is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex.

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Syracuse, Sicily

Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa/Seragusa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; Medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.

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Terry Brighton

Terry Brighton (born 28 April 1949 in Boston, England) is a British military historian and author.

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Terry Copp

Terry Copp (b. 1938) is a Canadian military historian and Professor Emeritus at Wilfrid Laurier University and is Director of the Laurier Centre for Military and Strategic Disarmament Studies.

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Tex Banwell

Keith Deamer ("Tex") Banwell (8 October 1917 – 25 July 1999) was a soldier in the British Army in the Second World War.

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The King's School, Canterbury

The King's School is a selective British co-educational independent school for both day and boarding pupils in the English city of Canterbury in Kent.

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The London Gazette

The London Gazette is one of the official journals of record of the British government, and the most important among such official journals in the United Kingdom, in which certain statutory notices are required to be published.

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The Reverend

The Reverend is an honorific style most often placed before the names of Christian clergy and ministers.

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The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich

The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany is a book by William L. Shirer chronicling the rise and fall of Nazi Germany from the birth of Adolf Hitler in 1889 to the end of World War II in 1945.

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The Very Reverend

The Very Reverend is a style given to certain religious figures.

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Tunisian Campaign

The Tunisian Campaign (also known as the Battle of Tunisia) was a series of battles that took place in Tunisia during the North African Campaign of the Second World War, between Axis and Allied forces.

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Twelfth United States Army Group

The Twelfth United States Army Group was the largest and most powerful United States Army formation ever to take to the field, commanding four field armies at its peak in 1945: First United States Army, Third United States Army, Ninth United States Army and Fifteenth United States Army.

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Ulster

Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.

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Ulster Scots people

The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots: Ulstèr-Scotch), also called Ulster-Scots people (Ulstèr-Scotch fowk) or, outside the British Isles, Scots-Irish (Scotch-Airisch), are an ethnic group in Ireland, found mostly in the Ulster region and to a lesser extent in the rest of Ireland.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Society Partners in the Gospel

United Society Partners in the Gospel (USPG) is a United Kingdom-based charitable organization (registered no. 234518).

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United States Army Air Forces

The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.

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United States Army North

The United States Army North is a formation of the United States Army Service Component Command of United States Northern Command.

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V Corps (United Kingdom)

V Corps was a corps-sized formation of the British Army that saw service in both World War I and World War II.

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Versailles, Yvelines

Versailles is a city in the Yvelines département in Île-de-France region, renowned worldwide for the Château de Versailles and the gardens of Versailles, designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

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Vicar

A vicar (Latin: vicarius) is a representative, deputy or substitute; anyone acting "in the person of" or agent for a superior (compare "vicarious" in the sense of "at second hand").

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Vietnam War

The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

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Virtuti Militari

The War Order of Virtuti Militari (Latin: "For Military Virtue", Polish: Order Wojenny Virtuti Militari) is Poland's highest military decoration for heroism and courage in the face of the enemy at war.

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Viscount

A viscount (for male) or viscountess (for female) is a title used in certain European countries for a noble of varying status.

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Viscount Montgomery of Alamein

Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, of Hindhead in the County of Surrey, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

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Walcheren

Walcheren is a region and former island in the Dutch province of Zeeland at the mouth of the Scheldt estuary.

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Walter Bedell Smith

General Walter Bedell "Beetle" Smith (5 October 1895 – 9 August 1961) was a senior officer of the United States Army who served as General Dwight D. Eisenhower's chief of staff at Allied Forces Headquarters (AFHQ) during the Tunisia Campaign and the Allied invasion of Italy in 1943 during World War II.

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War Office

The War Office was a department of the British Government responsible for the administration of the British Army between 1857 and 1964, when its functions were transferred to the Ministry of Defence.

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Wehrmacht

The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".

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Western Allied invasion of Germany

The Western Allied invasion of Germany was coordinated by the Western Allies during the final months of hostilities in the European theatre of World War II.

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Western Desert Campaign

The Western Desert Campaign (Desert War), took place in the deserts of Egypt and Libya and was the main theatre in the North African Campaign during the Second World War.

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Western Front (World War I)

The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.

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Western Front (World War II)

The Western Front was a military theatre of World War II encompassing Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat (supported by a massive air war considered to be an additional front), which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945.

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Western Union (alliance)

The Western Union (WU), also referred to as the Brussels Treaty Organisation (BTO), was the European military alliance established between France, the United Kingdom (UK) and the three Benelux countries upon the entry into force of the 1948 Treaty of Brussels.

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Whitehall

Whitehall is a road in the City of Westminster, Central London, which forms the first part of the A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea.

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Wilhelm Ritter von Thoma

Wilhelm Josef Ritter von Thoma (11 September 1891 – 30 April 1948) was a German officer who served in World War I, in the Spanish Civil War, and as a general in World War II.

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William Gott

Lieutenant-General William Henry Ewart Gott, & Bar, MC (13 August 1897 – 7 August 1942), nicknamed "Strafer", was a senior British Army officer who fought during both World War I and World War II, reaching the rank of lieutenant-general while serving with the British Eighth Army.

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William Hood Simpson

General William Hood Simpson (May 18, 1888 – August 15, 1980) was a senior United States Army officer who served with distinction in both World War I and World War II.

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William Slim, 1st Viscount Slim

Field Marshal William Joseph Slim, 1st Viscount Slim, (6 August 1891 – 14 December 1970), usually known as Bill Slim, was a British military commander and the 13th Governor-General of Australia.

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Winkle Club

The Winkle Club is a charitable organisation formed in 1900 by Hastings fishermen to help the under-privileged families of Hastings Old Town, in East Sussex, in the south of England.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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Witte Brigade

The White Brigade (Witte Brigade, Brigade blanche) was a Belgian resistance group, founded in the summer of 1940 in Antwerp by Marcel Louette, who was nicknamed "Fidelio".

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World Pipe Band Championships

The World Pipe Band Championships is a pipe band competition held in Scotland.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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X Corps (United Kingdom)

X Corps was a corps of the British Army that served in the First World War on the Western Front before being disbanded in 1919.

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XII Corps (United Kingdom)

XII Corps was an army corps of the British Army that fought in the First and Second World Wars.

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XXX Corps (United Kingdom)

XXX Corps (30 Corps) was a corps of the British Army during the Second World War.

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104th Brigade (United Kingdom)

The 104th Brigade was a formation of the British Army during the First World War.

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10th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

The 10th Infantry Brigade was a Regular Army infantry brigade of the British Army.

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112th Brigade (United Kingdom)

The 112th Brigade was a formation of the British Army during the First World War.

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12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend

12th SS Panzer Division "Hitlerjugend" (12.) was a German armoured division of the Waffen-SS during World War II.

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15th Army Group

The 15th Army Group was an Army Group consisted by the British Eighth and the U.S. Fifth Armies, which apart troops from British Empire and U.S.A., also had whole units from other allied countries/regions; like 2 of their Corps (from free France and Poland), 1 Division (from Brazil) and 7 Brigades (6 Italians and one Greek), besides supporting and being supported by the local Italian partisans.

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17th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

The 17th Infantry Brigade was an infantry brigade formation of the British Army which provided active service in the Second Boer War and both the First and Second World Wars.

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1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine

The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, later came to be known as "The Great Revolt", was a nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs in Mandatory Palestine against the British administration of the Palestine Mandate, demanding Arab independence and the end of the policy of open-ended Jewish immigration and land purchases with the stated goal of establishing a "Jewish National Home". The dissent was directly influenced by the Qassamite rebellion, following the killing of Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam in 1935, as well as the declaration by Hajj Amin al-Husseini of 16 May 1936 as 'Palestine Day' and calling for a General Strike. The revolt was branded by many in the Jewish Yishuv as "immoral and terroristic", often comparing it to fascism and nazism. Ben Gurion however described Arab causes as fear of growing Jewish economic power, opposition to mass Jewish immigration and fear of the English identification with Zionism.Morris, 1999, p. 136. The general strike lasted from April to October 1936, initiating the violent revolt. The revolt consisted of two distinct phases.Norris, 2008, pp. 25, 45. The first phase was directed primarily by the urban and elitist Higher Arab Committee (HAC) and was focused mainly on strikes and other forms of political protest. By October 1936, this phase had been defeated by the British civil administration using a combination of political concessions, international diplomacy (involving the rulers of Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Transjordan and Yemen) and the threat of martial law. The second phase, which began late in 1937, was a violent and peasant-led resistance movement provoked by British repression in 1936 that increasingly targeted British forces. During this phase, the rebellion was brutally suppressed by the British Army and the Palestine Police Force using repressive measures that were intended to intimidate the Arab population and undermine popular support for the revolt. During this phase, a more dominant role on the Arab side was taken by the Nashashibi clan, whose NDP party quickly withdrew from the rebel Arab Higher Committee, led by the radical faction of Amin al-Husseini, and instead sided with the British – dispatching "Fasail al-Salam" (the "Peace Bands") in coordination with the British Army against nationalist and Jihadist Arab "Fasail" units (literally "bands"). According to official British figures covering the whole revolt, the army and police killed more than 2,000 Arabs in combat, 108 were hanged, and 961 died because of what they described as "gang and terrorist activities". In an analysis of the British statistics, Walid Khalidi estimates 19,792 casualties for the Arabs, with 5,032 dead: 3,832 killed by the British and 1,200 dead because of "terrorism", and 14,760 wounded. Over ten percent of the adult male Palestinian Arab population between 20 and 60 was killed, wounded, imprisoned or exiled. Estimates of the number of Palestinian Jews killed range from 91 to several hundred.Morris, 1999, p. 160. The Arab revolt in Mandatory Palestine was unsuccessful, and its consequences affected the outcome of the 1948 Palestine war.Morris, 1999, p. 159. It caused the British Mandate to give crucial support to pre-state Zionist militias like the Haganah, whereas on the Palestinian Arab side, the revolt forced the flight into exile of the main Palestinian Arab leader of the period, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem – Haj Amin al-Husseini.

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1946 New Year Honours

The 1946 New Year Honours were appointments by many of the Commonwealth Realms of King George VI to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of those countries, and to celebrate the passing of 1945 and the beginning of 1946.

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21st Army Group

The 21st Army Group was a World War II British headquarters formation, in command of two field armies and other supporting units, consisting primarily of the British Second Army and the First Canadian Army.

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33rd Division (United Kingdom)

The 33rd Division was a New Army infantry division of the British Army formed in 1914 during the First World War as the 40th Division in the K5 Army group then renumbered in April 1915 as part of the new K4 Army Group.

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3rd Division (United Kingdom)

The 3rd (United Kingdom) Division, known at various times as the Iron Division, 3rd (Iron) Division, Monty's Iron Sides or as Iron Sides;Delaforce is a regular army division of the British Army.

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44th (Home Counties) Division

The Home Counties Division was an infantry division of the Territorial Force, part of the British Army, that was raised in 1908.

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47th (1/2nd London) Division

The 47th (1/2nd London) Division was an infantry division of the British Army, raised in 1908 as part of the Territorial Force.

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49th (West Riding) Infantry Division

The 49th (West Riding) Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army.

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4th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

The 4th Infantry Division was a regular infantry division of the British Army with a very long history, seeing active service in the Peninsular War, the Crimean War, the First World War, and during the Second World War.

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50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division

The 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army that saw distinguished service in the Second World War.

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51st (Highland) Division

The 51st (Highland) Division was an infantry division of the British Army that fought on the Western Front in France during the First World War from 1915 to 1918.

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5th Panzer Army

The 5th Panzer Army, also known as Panzer Group West and Panzer Group Eberbach (German: 5.Panzer-Armee, Panzergruppe West, Panzergruppe Eberbach) was a panzer army which saw action in the Western Front and North Africa.

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8th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

The 8th Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army that was active in both World War I and World War II.

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9th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

The 9th Infantry Brigade was a Regular Army infantry brigade of the British Army that saw active service during both the First and Second World Wars.

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Redirects here:

B. L. Montgomery, Bernard L. Montgomery, Bernard Law Montgomery, Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery, Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, Bernard Law, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Al 'Alamayn Montgomery, Bernard Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, FM Monty, Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, Field Marshal Lord Montgomery, Field Marshal Montgomery, Field Marshal Montgomery, Viscount of Alamein, Field Marshall Montgomery, Field marshal montgomery, General Bernard Montgomery, General Montgomery, Lord Montgomery, Montgomery of Alamein, Montgomery, Bernard Law, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Al 'Alamayn.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_Montgomery

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