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Bertrand Russell

Index Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate. [1]

439 relations: A History of Western Philosophy, A. C. Grayling, A. E. Dyson, A. J. Ayer, Adolf Hitler, Aesthetics, Agnosticism, Alan Turing, Alan Turing: The Enigma, Albert C. Barnes, Albert Einstein, Albert Ellis, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Alessandro Padoa, Alexei Kosygin, Alexius Meinong, Alfred North Whitehead, Alfred Tarski, Alys Pearsall Smith, Analytic philosophy, Andrei Sakharov, Angina, Anti-imperialism, Anti-war movement, Arab nationalism, Arab world, Arms embargo, Arnold Lupton, Artificial intelligence, Assassination of John F. Kennedy, Atheism, Augustus De Morgan, Automated reasoning, Automated theorem proving, Axiom of reducibility, B-theory of time, Barber paradox, Barnes Foundation, Barry Stevens (therapist), Baruch Spinoza, BBC Home Service, BBC Third Programme, Beatrice Webb, Beijing, Bernard Williams, Berry paradox, Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation, Bertrand Russell's political views, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, Birth control, ..., Birthday Honours, Book of Exodus, Brand Blanshard, British idealism, British nobility, Bronchitis, Bryn Mawr College, Buckminster Fuller, Bukken Bruse disaster, C. D. Broad, Caernarfonshire, Cairo, Cambridge Apostles, Cambridge University Moral Sciences Club, Cameo appearance, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Carl Sagan, Caroline Benn, Causality, Cayley–Klein metric, Celia Green, Charles Dillon, 12th Viscount Dillon, Charles II of England, Che Guevara, Chelsea (UK Parliament constituency), Chicken (game), China, Christopher Hitchens, City College of New York, Coefficients (dining club), Cognitive science, Colin McGinn, Colwyn Bay, Computer science, Conrad Russell, 5th Earl Russell, Conscientious objector, Cornwall, Court of Chancery, Criticism of Jesus, Czechoslovakia, Daniel Dennett, Darwinism, David Hume, De Morgan Medal, Defence of the Realm Act 1914, Definite description, Descriptivist theory of names, Dialectical materialism, Dictionary of National Biography, Diphtheria, Dissolution of the Monasteries, Doctrine of internal relations, Donald Davidson (philosopher), Dora Russell, Double negation, Douglas Spalding, Dover Publications, Dreyfus affair, Duke of Bedford, Dwight D. Eisenhower, DYN (magazine), Earl Russell, Edith Finch Russell, Edward Said, Edward Stanley, 2nd Baron Stanley of Alderley, Edward VIII, Eiffel Tower, Emotive conjugation, Epistemology, Ernest Gellner, Ernst Mach, Ethics, Euclid, Existential fallacy, Exposition Universelle (1889), Fabian Society, Failure to refer, Fellow of the Royal Society, Female education, Feminism, Finitary relation, Formulario mathematico, Foundations of mathematics, Francis Russell, Marquess of Tavistock, Frank P. Ramsey, Frank Russell, 2nd Earl Russell, Frank Wilczek, Free Thought and Official Propaganda, Free will, Freedom of thought, G. E. Moore, G. H. Hardy, Gautama Buddha, Genocide, Georg Cantor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Boole, George Byng, 4th Viscount Torrington, George Santayana, George Stout, George VI, Gestalt therapy, Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 1st Earl of Minto, Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 2nd Earl of Minto, Gilbert Ryle, Giuseppe Peano, Glorious Revolution, God in Christianity, Good Times, Wonderful Times, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gottlob Frege, Harold Wilson, Harting, Henrietta Stanley, Baroness Stanley of Alderley, Henry Dillon, 13th Viscount Dillon, Henry Sidgwick, Herbert A. Simon, Hilary Putnam, Hindi, Hiroshima, HM Prison Brixton, Home rule, Homosexual Law Reform Society, Horace Kallen, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Tudor, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Humanists UK, Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Hungary, Idealism, In Praise of Idleness and Other Essays, Independent Labour Party, Influenza, Isaac Asimov, Isaiah Berlin, Ivor Grattan-Guinness, J. B. Priestley, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Jacob Bronowski, Jakin (magazine), James II of England, James Joyce, James Ward (psychologist), Jawaharlal Nehru, Jean-Paul Sartre, Jerusalem Prize, Jews, John Arden, John Baker Holroyd, 1st Earl of Sheffield, John Dewey, John F. Kennedy, John Foster Dulles, John Lewis (philosopher), John Maynard Keynes, John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, John Russell, 4th Earl Russell, John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford, John Russell, Viscount Amberley, John Searle, John Stanley, 1st Baron Stanley of Alderley, John Stuart Mill, John von Neumann, Joseph Rotblat, Joxe Azurmendi, Kalinga Prize, Karl Marx, Karl Popper, Katharine Russell, Viscountess Amberley, King James Version, Knowledge by acquaintance, Kurt Gödel, Kurt Vonnegut, Labour Party (UK), Lady Constance Malleson, Lady Katharine Tait, Lady Ottoline Morrell, Leon Chwistek, Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Party (UK), Liberalism, Linguistic turn, Linguistics, Lionel Rogosin, List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1908, List of Nobel laureates, List of nuclear weapons tests of the Soviet Union, List of peace activists, List of pioneers in computer science, List of premature obituaries, Logic, Logical atomism, Logical connective, Logical form, Logicism, London School of Economics, Lucy Donnelly, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Major depressive disorder, Mark Lane (author), Marriage and Morals, Martin Gardner, Marvin Minsky, Mary Baker Eddy, Mathematical beauty, Mathematical logic, Mathematical Tripos, Mathematics, McMaster University, Meaning (philosophy of language), Mediated reference theory, Member of parliament, Mental disorder, Metamathematics, Metaphysics, Michael Albert, Michael Foot, Michael Polanyi, Mind (journal), Mohan Kumar, Monmouthshire (historic), Moritz Schlick, Morris Raphael Cohen, My Philosophical Development, Nagasaki, Naive set theory, Nathan Salmon, National Portrait Gallery, London, Nazi Germany, Neutral monism, New Left, New York Supreme Court, Nigel Lawson, Nikita Khrushchev, Noam Chomsky, Nobel Prize in Literature, Non-Euclidean geometry, Norbert Wiener, Nuclear disarmament, Nuclear weapon, Oder–Neisse line, On Denoting, Opposition to World War I, Order of Merit, Ordinary language philosophy, Oxford University Press, Pacifism, Paradoxes of set theory, Parliamentary system, Patricia Russell, Countess Russell, Paul Arthur Schilpp, Paul Kurtz, Peano–Russell notation, Pembroke Lodge, Richmond Park, Penrhyndeudraeth, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Pervez Hoodbhoy, Philadelphia, Philip Snowden, 1st Viscount Snowden, Philosophical logic, Philosophy, Philosophy of language, Philosophy of logic, Philosophy of mathematics, Philosophy of mind, Philosophy of perception, Philosophy of religion, Philosophy of science, Phobia, Physics, Plan Totality, Pneumonia, Porthcurno, Power: A New Social Analysis, Pre-emptive nuclear strike, Presbyterianism, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Principia Mathematica, Prisoner of war, Proposition, Propositional calculus, Propositional formula, Quakers, Quantifier (logic), Queen Victoria, Rabindranath Tagore, Ramsay MacDonald, Ray Kurzweil, Ray Monk, Red Lion Square, Reform Act 1832, Reith Lectures, Richard Dawkins, Richmond Park, Robert Rumsey Webb, Ronald W. Clark, Round square copula, Rudolf Carnap, Russell Tribunal, Russell's paradox, Russell's teapot, Russell–Einstein Manifesto, Russian Revolution, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Saul Kripke, Self-refuting idea, Set theory, Set-theoretic definition of natural numbers, Sexual ethics, Sidney Hook, Sidney Webb, 1st Baron Passfield, Singleton (mathematics), Six-Day War, Social criticism, Social justice, Socialism, South Vietnam, Soviet Union, Sphere of influence, Stalinism, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stephen Hawking, Stephen Hobhouse, Structuralism (philosophy of science), Style (manner of address), Suez Canal, Suez Crisis, Superstition, Sylvester Medal, T. S. Eliot, Tariq Ali, Tensor product of graphs, The Bertrand Russell Case, The Brains Trust, The Nation, The New Republic, The Observer, The Principles of Mathematics, The Problems of Philosophy, The Times, The Will to Doubt, Theory of descriptions, Thermonuclear weapon, Thomas Kuhn, Totalitarianism, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Trellech, Trinity College, Cambridge, Trondheim, Twelve Olympians, Txillardegi, Type system, Type theory, U Thant, UCLA Department of Philosophy, Union of Soviet Writers, United Kingdom general election, 1922, United Kingdom general election, 1923, United Nations Security Council, Unity of the proposition, Universe (mathematics), University of Cambridge, University of Chicago, University of Oxford, Unmoved mover, Utilitarianism, V. K. Krishna Menon, Ved Mehta, Victor Gollancz, Victorian morality, Vienna Circle, Vietnam War, Vivienne Haigh-Wood Eliot, Vladimir Lenin, Volga River, War of Attrition, Warren Commission, Western philosophy, What I Believe, Whigs (British political party), Why I Am Not a Christian, William Ready Division of Archives and Research Collections, Wolfgang Paalen, World Congress of Philosophy, World government, World War I, Wrangler (University of Cambridge), Zionism, 20th-century philosophy. Expand index (389 more) »

A History of Western Philosophy

A History of Western Philosophy is a 1945 book by philosopher Bertrand Russell.

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A. C. Grayling

Anthony Clifford Grayling (born 3 April 1949), usually known as A. C. Grayling, is a British philosopher and author.

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A. E. Dyson

Anthony Edward Dyson, aka Tony Dyson (28 November 1928 – 30 July 2002) was a British literary critic, university lecturer, educational activist and gay rights campaigner.

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A. J. Ayer

Sir Alfred Jules "Freddie" Ayer, FBA (29 October 1910 – 27 June 1989), usually cited as A. J. Ayer, was a British philosopher known for his promotion of logical positivism, particularly in his books Language, Truth, and Logic (1936) and The Problem of Knowledge (1956).

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.

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Alan Turing

Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.

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Alan Turing: The Enigma

Alan Turing: The Enigma (1983) is a biography of the British mathematician, codebreaker, and early computer scientist, Alan Turing (1912–1954) by Andrew Hodges.

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Albert C. Barnes

Albert Coombs Barnes (January 2, 1872 – July 24, 1951) was an American chemist, businessman, art collector, writer, and educator, and the founder of the Barnes Foundation in Lower Merion, Pennsylvania.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Albert Ellis

Albert Ellis (September 27, 1913 – July 24, 2007) was an American psychologist who in 1955 developed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT).

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Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (11 December 1918 – 3 August 2008) was a Russian novelist, historian, and short story writer.

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Alessandro Padoa

Alessandro Padoa (14 October 1868 – 25 November 1937) was an Italian mathematician and logician, a contributor to the school of Giuseppe Peano.

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Alexei Kosygin

Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin (p; – 18 December 1980) was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War.

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Alexius Meinong

Alexius Meinong Ritter von Handschuchsheim (17 July 1853 – 27 November 1920) was an Austrian philosopher, a realist known for his unique ontology.

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Alfred North Whitehead

Alfred North Whitehead (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.

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Alfred Tarski

Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1901 – October 26, 1983), born Alfred Teitelbaum,School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews,, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews.

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Alys Pearsall Smith

Alyssa Whitall "Alys" Pearsall Smith (21 July 1867 – 22 January 1951) was an American-born Quaker relief organiser and the first wife of Bertrand Russell.

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Analytic philosophy

Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century.

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Andrei Sakharov

Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (p; 21 May 192114 December 1989) was a Russian nuclear physicist, dissident, and activist for disarmament, peace and human rights.

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Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.

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Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.

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Anti-war movement

An anti-war movement (also antiwar) is a social movement, usually in opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict, unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause.

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Arab nationalism

Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.

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Arab world

The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.

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Arms embargo

An arms embargo is an embargo that applies solely to weaponry, and may also apply to "dual-use technology".

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Arnold Lupton

Professor Arnold Lupton (11 September 1846 – 23 May 1930) was a British Liberal Party Member of Parliament, academic, mining engineer and a managing director (collieries).

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Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

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Assassination of John F. Kennedy

John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. in Dallas, Texas, while riding in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza.

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Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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Augustus De Morgan

Augustus De Morgan (27 June 1806 – 18 March 1871) was a British mathematician and logician.

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Automated reasoning

Automated reasoning is an area of computer science and mathematical logic dedicated to understanding different aspects of reasoning.

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Automated theorem proving

Automated theorem proving (also known as ATP or automated deduction) is a subfield of automated reasoning and mathematical logic dealing with proving mathematical theorems by computer programs.

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Axiom of reducibility

The axiom of reducibility was introduced by Bertrand Russell in the early 20th century as part of his ramified theory of types.

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B-theory of time

The B-theory of time is the name given to one of two positions regarding philosophy of time.

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Barber paradox

The barber paradox is a puzzle derived from Russell's paradox.

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Barnes Foundation

The Barnes Foundation is an art collection and educational institution promoting the appreciation of art and horticulture.

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Barry Stevens (therapist)

Barry Stevens (1902–1985) was a writer and Gestalt therapist.

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Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.

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BBC Home Service

The BBC Home Service was a British national radio station that broadcast from 1939 until 1967, when it became the current BBC Radio 4.

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BBC Third Programme

The BBC Third Programme was a national radio service produced and broadcast by the BBC between 1946 and 1970.

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Beatrice Webb

Martha Beatrice Webb, Baroness Passfield, (née Potter; 22 January 1858 – 30 April 1943), was an English sociologist, economist, socialist, labour historian and social reformer.

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Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Bernard Williams

Sir Bernard Arthur Owen Williams, FBA (21 September 1929 – 10 June 2003) was an English moral philosopher.

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Berry paradox

The Berry paradox is a self-referential paradox arising from an expression like "The smallest positive integer not definable in under sixty letters" (note that this defining phrase has fifty-seven letters).

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Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation

The Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation was established in 1963.

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Bertrand Russell's political views

Aspects of philosopher, mathematician and social activist Bertrand Russell's views on society changed over nearly 80 years of prolific writing, beginning with his early work in 1896, until his death in February 1970.

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Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society

The Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society is an academic journal on the history of science published annually by the Royal Society.

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Birth control

Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.

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Birthday Honours

King's/Queen's Birthday Honours is, in some Commonwealth realms, the marking of the reigning monarch's official birthday by granting various individuals appointment into national or dynastic orders or the award of decorations and medals.

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Book of Exodus

The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from ἔξοδος, éxodos, meaning "going out"; וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת, we'elleh shəmōṯ, "These are the names", the beginning words of the text: "These are the names of the sons of Israel" וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמֹות בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) immediately following Genesis.

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Brand Blanshard

Percy Brand Blanshard (August 27, 1892 – November 19, 1987) was an American philosopher known primarily for his defense of reason.

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British idealism

A species of absolute idealism, British idealism was a philosophical movement that was influential in Britain from the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth century.

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British nobility

The British nobility are the Noble Houses and Gentry families of the United Kingdom.

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Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs.

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Bryn Mawr College

Bryn Mawr College (Welsh) is a women's liberal arts college in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania.

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Buckminster Fuller

Richard Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller (July 12, 1895 – July 1, 1983) was an American architect, systems theorist, author, designer, inventor and futurist.

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Bukken Bruse disaster

The Bukken Bruse disaster was the crash of a flying boat during its landing on 2 October 1948.

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C. D. Broad

Charlie Dunbar Broad (30 December 1887 – 11 March 1971), usually cited as C. D. Broad, was an English epistemologist, historian of philosophy, philosopher of science, moral philosopher, and writer on the philosophical aspects of psychical research.

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Caernarfonshire (Sir Gaernarfon), historically spelled as Caernarvonshire or Carnarvonshire in English, is one of the thirteen historic counties, a vice-county and a former administrative county of Wales.

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Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.

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Cambridge Apostles

The Cambridge Apostles is an intellectual society at the University of Cambridge founded in 1820 by George Tomlinson, a Cambridge student who went on to become the first Bishop of Gibraltar.

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Cambridge University Moral Sciences Club

The Cambridge University Moral Sciences Club, founded in October 1878, is a philosophy discussion group that meets weekly at Cambridge during term time.

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Cameo appearance

A cameo role or cameo appearance (often shortened to just cameo) is a brief appearance or voice part of a known person in a work of the performing arts, typically unnamed or appearing as themselves.

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Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Société Radio-Canada), branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television.

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Carl Sagan

Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, science popularizer, and science communicator in astronomy and other natural sciences.

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Caroline Benn

Caroline Middleton DeCamp Benn (13 October 1926 – 22 November 2000), formerly Viscountess Stansgate, was an educationalist and writer, and wife of the British Labour politician Tony Benn (formerly 2nd Viscount Stansgate).

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Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.

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Cayley–Klein metric

In mathematics, a Cayley–Klein metric is a metric on the complement of a fixed quadric in a projective space is defined using a cross-ratio.

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Celia Green

Celia Elizabeth Green (born 26 November 1935) is a British writer on philosophical skepticism and psychology.

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Charles Dillon, 12th Viscount Dillon

Charles Dillon-Lee, 12th Viscount Dillon, KP, PC (6 November 1745 – 9 November 1813) was Member of Parliament (MP) for the English borough of Westbury (1770).

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Charles II of England

Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.

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Che Guevara

Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967)The date of birth recorded on was June 14, 1928, although one tertiary source, (Julia Constenla, quoted by Jon Lee Anderson), asserts that he was actually born on May 14 of that year.

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Chelsea (UK Parliament constituency)

Chelsea was a borough constituency, represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Chicken (game)

The game of chicken, also known as the hawk–dove game or snowdrift game, is a model of conflict for two players in game theory.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Christopher Hitchens

Christopher Eric Hitchens (13 April 1949 – 15 December 2011) was an Anglo-American author, columnist, essayist, orator, religious and literary critic, social critic, and journalist.

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City College of New York

The City College of the City University of New York (more commonly referred to as the City College of New York, or simply City College, CCNY, or City) is a public senior college of the City University of New York (CUNY) in New York City.

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Coefficients (dining club)

The Coefficients was a monthly dining club founded in 1902 by the Fabian campaigners Sidney and Beatrice Webb as a forum for British socialist reformers and imperialists of the Edwardian era.

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Cognitive science

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.

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Colin McGinn

Colin McGinn (born 10 March 1950) is a British philosopher.

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Colwyn Bay

Colwyn Bay (Bae Colwyn) is a town, community and seaside resort in Conwy County Borough on the north coast of Wales overlooking the Irish Sea.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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Conrad Russell, 5th Earl Russell

Conrad Sebastian Robert Russell, 5th Earl Russell (15 April 1937 – 14 October 2004) was a British historian and politician.

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Conscientious objector

A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion.

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Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.

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Court of Chancery

The Court of Chancery was a court of equity in England and Wales that followed a set of loose rules to avoid the slow pace of change and possible harshness (or "inequity") of the common law.

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Criticism of Jesus

Jesus of Nazareth is the central figure of Christianity.

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Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

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Daniel Dennett

Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.

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Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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De Morgan Medal

The De Morgan Medal is a prize for outstanding contribution to mathematics, awarded by the London Mathematical Society.

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Defence of the Realm Act 1914

The Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) was passed in the United Kingdom on 8 August 1914, four days after it entered World War I. It gave the government wide-ranging powers during the war period, such as the power to requisition buildings or land needed for the war effort, or to make regulations creating criminal offences.

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Definite description

A definite description is a denoting phrase in the form of "the X" where X is a noun-phrase or a singular common noun.

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Descriptivist theory of names

The descriptivist theory of proper names is that the meaning or semantic content of a proper name is identical to the descriptions associated with it by speakers, while their referents are determined to be the objects that satisfy these descriptions.

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Dialectical materialism

Dialectical materialism (sometimes abbreviated diamat) is a philosophy of science and nature developed in Europe and based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

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Dictionary of National Biography

The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885.

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Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

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Dissolution of the Monasteries

The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England and Wales and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former personnel and functions.

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Doctrine of internal relations

The doctrine of internal relations is the philosophical doctrine that all relations are internal to their bearers, in the sense that they are essential to them and the bearers would not be what they are without them.

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Donald Davidson (philosopher)

Donald Herbert Davidson (March 6, 1917 – August 30, 2003) was an American philosopher.

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Dora Russell

Dora, Countess Russell (née Black; 3 April 1894 – 31 May 1986) was a British author, a feminist and socialist campaigner, and the second wife of the eminent philosopher Bertrand Russell.

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Double negation

In propositional logic, double negation is the theorem that states that "If a statement is true, then it is not the case that the statement is not true." This is expressed by saying that a proposition A is logically equivalent to not (not-A), or by the formula A ≡ ~(~A) where the sign ≡ expresses logical equivalence and the sign ~ expresses negation.

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Douglas Spalding

Douglas Alexander Spalding (14 July 1841 – 1877) was an English biologist who worked in the home of Viscount Amberley.

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Dover Publications

Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.

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Dreyfus affair

The Dreyfus Affair (l'affaire Dreyfus) was a political scandal that divided the Third French Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906.

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Duke of Bedford

Duke of Bedford (named after Bedford, England) is a title that has been created six times (for five distinct people) in the Peerage of England.

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Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.

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DYN (magazine)

DYN (derived from the Greek word κατὰ τὸ δυνατόν, that which is possible) was an art magazine founded by the Austrian-Mexican surrealist Wolfgang Paalen, published in Mexico City, and distributed in New York City, Paris, and London between 1942 and 1944.

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Earl Russell

Earl Russell, of Kingston Russell in the County of Dorset, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

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Edith Finch Russell

Edith Finch, Countess Russell (5 November 1900 – 1 January 1978) was a writer, biographer, and the fourth wife of Bertrand Russell.

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Edward Said

Edward Wadie Said (إدوارد وديع سعيد,; 1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a professor of literature at Columbia University, a public intellectual, and a founder of the academic field of postcolonial studies.

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Edward Stanley, 2nd Baron Stanley of Alderley

Edward John Stanley, 2nd Baron Stanley of Alderley, PC (13 November 1802 – 16 June 1869), known as The Lord Eddisbury between 1848 and 1850, was a British politician.

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Edward VIII

Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire, and Emperor of India, from 20 January 1936 until his abdication on 11 December the same year, after which he became the Duke of Windsor.

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Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower (tour Eiffel) is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France.

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Emotive conjugation

In rhetoric, emotive or emotional conjugation mimics the form of a grammatical conjugation of an irregular verb to illustrate humans' tendency to describe their own behavior more charitably than the behavior of others.

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Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

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Ernest Gellner

Ernest André Gellner (9 December 1925 – 5 November 1995) was a British-Czech philosopher and social anthropologist described by The Daily Telegraph, when he died, as one of the world's most vigorous intellectuals, and by The Independent as a "one-man crusader for critical rationalism".

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Ernst Mach

Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach (18 February 1838 – 19 February 1916) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as study of shock waves.

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Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Euclid (Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".

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Existential fallacy

The existential fallacy, or existential instantiation, is a formal fallacy.

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Exposition Universelle (1889)

The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from 6 May to 31 October 1889.

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Fabian Society

The Fabian Society is a British socialist organization whose purpose is to advance the principles of democratic socialism via gradualist and reformist effort in democracies, rather than by revolutionary overthrow.

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Failure to refer

Failure to refer, also reference failure or failure of reference, is the concept that names can fail to name a real object.

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Fellow of the Royal Society

Fellowship of the Royal Society (FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society judges to have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science".

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Female education

Female education is a catch-all term of a complex set of issues and debates surrounding education (primary education, secondary education, tertiary education, and health education in particular) for girls and women.

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Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.

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Finitary relation

In mathematics, a finitary relation has a finite number of "places".

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Formulario mathematico

Formulario Mathematico (Latino sine flexione: Formulation of mathematics) is a book by Giuseppe Peano which expresses fundamental theorems of mathematics in a symbolic language developed by Peano.

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Foundations of mathematics

Foundations of mathematics is the study of the philosophical and logical and/or algorithmic basis of mathematics, or, in a broader sense, the mathematical investigation of what underlies the philosophical theories concerning the nature of mathematics.

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Francis Russell, Marquess of Tavistock

Francis Russell, Marquess of Tavistock (27 September 1739 – 22 March 1767) was a British politician and the eldest son of the 4th Duke of Bedford and his second wife Hon.

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Frank P. Ramsey

Frank Plumpton Ramsey (22 February 1903 – 19 January 1930) was a British philosopher, mathematician and economist who made fundamental contributions to abstract algebra before his death at the age of 26.

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Frank Russell, 2nd Earl Russell

John Francis Stanley Russell, 2nd Earl Russell, known as Frank Russell (12 August 1865 – 3 March 1931), was the elder surviving son of Viscount and Viscountess Amberley, and was raised by his paternal grandparents after his unconventional parents both died young.

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Frank Wilczek

Frank Anthony Wilczek (born May 15, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist, mathematician and a Nobel laureate.

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Free Thought and Official Propaganda

Free Thought and Official Propaganda is a speech (and subsequent publication) delivered in 1922 by Bertrand Russel on the importance of unrestricted freedom of expression in society, and the problem of the state and political class interfering in this through control of education, fines, economic leverage, and distortion of evidence.

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Free will

Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.

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Freedom of thought

Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience or ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, independent of others' viewpoints.

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G. E. Moore

George Edward Moore (4 November 1873 – 24 October 1958), usually cited as G. E. Moore, was an English philosopher.

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G. H. Hardy

Godfrey Harold Hardy (7 February 1877 – 1 December 1947) was an English mathematician, known for his achievements in number theory and mathematical analysis.

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Gautama Buddha

Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.

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Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.

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Georg Cantor

Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (– January 6, 1918) was a German mathematician.

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.

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George Boole

George Boole (2 November 1815 – 8 December 1864) was a largely self-taught English mathematician, philosopher and logician, most of whose short career was spent as the first professor of mathematics at Queen's College, Cork in Ireland.

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George Byng, 4th Viscount Torrington

George Byng, 4th Viscount Torrington (11 October 1740 – 14 December 1812) was an English peer.

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George Santayana

Jorge Agustín Nicolás Ruiz de Santayana y Borrás, known in English as George Santayana (December 16, 1863September 26, 1952), was a philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist.

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George Stout

George Frederick Stout, FBA (6 January 1860 – 18 August 1944), usually cited as G. F. Stout, was a leading English philosopher and psychologist.

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George VI

George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.

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Gestalt therapy

Gestalt therapy is an existential/experiential form of psychotherapy that emphasizes personal responsibility, and that focuses upon the individual's experience in the present moment, the therapist–client relationship, the environmental and social contexts of a person's life, and the self-regulating adjustments people make as a result of their overall situation.

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Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 1st Earl of Minto

Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 1st Earl of Minto, PC, FRSE (23 April 1751 – 21 June 1814), known as Sir Gilbert Elliott between 1777 and 1797 and as The Lord Minto between 1797 and 1813, was a Scottish diplomat and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1776 and 1795.

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Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 2nd Earl of Minto

Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 2nd Earl of Minto (16 November 1782 – 31 July 1859), styled as Viscount Melgund between 1813 and 1814, was a British diplomat and Whig politician.

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Gilbert Ryle

Gilbert Ryle (19 August 1900 – 6 October 1976) was a British philosopher.

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Giuseppe Peano

Giuseppe Peano (27 August 1858 – 20 April 1932) was an Italian mathematician and glottologist.

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Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.

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God in Christianity

God in Christianity is the eternal being who created and preserves all things.

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Good Times, Wonderful Times

Good Times, Wonderful Times is a 1965 anti-war film, the third feature-length film written, produced, and directed by independent American filmmaker Lionel Rogosin.

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

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Gottlob Frege

Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician.

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Harold Wilson

James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was a British Labour politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1964 to 1970 and from 1974 to 1976.

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Harting is a civil parish in the Chichester District of West Sussex, England.

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Henrietta Stanley, Baroness Stanley of Alderley

Henrietta Maria Stanley, Baroness Stanley of Alderley (née Dillon-Lee; 21 December 1807 – 16 February 1895), was a Canadian-born political hostess and campaigner for the education of women in England.

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Henry Dillon, 13th Viscount Dillon

Henry Augustus Dillon-Lee, 13th Viscount Dillon (28 October 1777 – 24 July 1832) was an Irish peer, writer and MP for Harwich and for County Mayo.

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Henry Sidgwick

Henry Sidgwick (31 May 1838 – 28 August 1900) was an English utilitarian philosopher and economist; he held the Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy from the year 1883 until his death.

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Herbert A. Simon

Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American economist and political scientist whose primary interest was decision-making within organizations and is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing".

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Hilary Putnam

Hilary Whitehall Putnam (July 31, 1926 – March 13, 2016) was an American philosopher, mathematician, and computer scientist, and a major figure in analytic philosophy in the second half of the 20th century.

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Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu - the largest island of Japan.

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HM Prison Brixton

HM Prison Brixton is a local men's prison, located in Brixton area of the London Borough of Lambeth, in inner-South London.

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Home rule

Home rule is government of a colony, dependent country, or region by its own citizens.

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Homosexual Law Reform Society

The Homosexual Law Reform Society was an organisation that campaigned in the United Kingdom for changes in the laws that criminalised homosexual relations between men.

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Horace Kallen

Horace Meyer Kallen (August 11, 1882 – February 16, 1974) was an American philosopher.

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House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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House of Tudor

The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd.

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Hugh Trevor-Roper

Hugh Redwald Trevor-Roper, Baron Dacre of Glanton, (15 January 1914 – 26 January 2003), was a British historian of early modern Britain and Nazi Germany.

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Humanists UK

Humanists UK, known from 1967 until May 2017 as the British Humanist Association (BHA), is a charitable organisation which promotes Humanism and aims to represent "people who seek to live good lives without religious or superstitious beliefs" in the United Kingdom by campaigning on issues relating to humanism, secularism, and human rights.

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Hungarian Revolution of 1956

The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (1956-os forradalom or 1956-os felkelés), was a nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.

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Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.

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In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.

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In Praise of Idleness and Other Essays

In Praise of Idleness and Other Essays is a collection of essays by Bertrand Russell published in 1935.

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Independent Labour Party

The Independent Labour Party (ILP) was a British political party of the left, established in 1893, when the Liberals appeared reluctant to endorse working-class candidates, representing the interests of the majority.

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Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.

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Isaac Asimov

Isaac Asimov (January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University.

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Isaiah Berlin

Sir Isaiah Berlin (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Russian-British social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas.

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Ivor Grattan-Guinness

Ivor Owen Grattan-Guinness (23 June 1941 – 12 December 2014) was a historian of mathematics and logic.

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J. B. Priestley

John Boynton Priestley, OM (13 September 1894 – 14 August 1984), known by his pen name J.B. Priestley, was an English novelist, playwright, scriptwriter, social commentator and broadcaster.

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J. Robert Oppenheimer

Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Jacob Bronowski

Jacob Bronowski (18 January 1908 – 22 August 1974) was a Polish-born British mathematician, historian of science, theatre author, poet and inventor.

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Jakin (magazine)

Jakin is a Basque cultural group, magazine, and publishing house.

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James II of England

James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.

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James Joyce

James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, and poet.

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James Ward (psychologist)

James Ward, FBA (27 January 1843 – 4 March 1925) was an English psychologist and philosopher.

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Jawaharlal Nehru

Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.

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Jean-Paul Sartre

Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.

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Jerusalem Prize

The Jerusalem Prize for the Freedom of the Individual in Society is a biennial literary award given to writers whose works have dealt with themes of human freedom in society.

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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John Arden

John Arden (26 October 1930 – 28 March 2012) was an English Marxist playwright who at his death was lauded as "one of the most significant British playwrights of the late 1950s and early 60s".

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John Baker Holroyd, 1st Earl of Sheffield

John Baker Holroyd, 1st Earl of Sheffield (21 December 1735 – 30 May 1821) was an English politician who came from a Yorkshire family, a branch of which had settled in the Kingdom of Ireland.

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John Dewey

John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.

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John F. Kennedy

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.

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John Foster Dulles

John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888May 24, 1959) was an American diplomat.

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John Lewis (philosopher)

John Lewis (1 February 1889 – 12 February 1976) was a British Unitarian minister and Marxist philosopher and author of many works on philosophy, anthropology, and religion.

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John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.

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John Russell, 1st Earl Russell

John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, (18 August 1792 – 28 May 1878), known by his courtesy title Lord John Russell before 1861, was a leading Whig and Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on two occasions during the early Victorian era.

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John Russell, 4th Earl Russell

John Conrad Russell, 4th Earl Russell (16 November 1921 – 16 December 1987) was the eldest son of the philosopher and mathematician Bertrand Russell (the 3rd Earl) and his second wife, Dora Black.

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John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford

John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford (6 July 1766 – 20 October 1839), known as Lord John Russell until 1802, was a British Whig politician who notably served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in the Ministry of All the Talents.

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John Russell, Viscount Amberley

John Russell, Viscount Amberley (10 December 1842 – 9 January 1876), was a British politician and writer.

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John Searle

John Rogers Searle (born 31 July 1932) is an American philosopher.

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John Stanley, 1st Baron Stanley of Alderley

John Thomas Stanley, 1st Baron Stanley of Alderley (26 November 1766 – 23 October 1850), known as Sir John Stanley, 7th Baronet, from 1807 to 1839, was a British peer and politician.

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John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.

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John von Neumann

John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.

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Joseph Rotblat

Sir Joseph Rotblat (4 November 1908 – 31 August 2005) was a Polish physicist, a self-described "Pole with a British passport".

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Joxe Azurmendi

Joxe Azurmendi Otaegi (born 19 March 1941) is a Basque writer, philosopher, essayist and poet.

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Kalinga Prize

The Kalinga Prize for the Popularization of Science is an award given by UNESCO for exceptional skill in presenting scientific ideas to lay people.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Karl Popper

Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.

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Katharine Russell, Viscountess Amberley

Katharine Louisa Russell, Viscountess Amberley (née Stanley; 3 April 1842 – 28 June 1874), often referred to as Kate, was a British suffragist and an early advocate of birth control in the United Kingdom.

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King James Version

The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.

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Knowledge by acquaintance

In philosophy, a distinction is often made between two different kinds of knowledge: knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description.

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Kurt Gödel

Kurt Friedrich Gödel (April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was an Austrian, and later American, logician, mathematician, and philosopher.

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Kurt Vonnegut

Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (November 11, 1922April 11, 2007) was an American writer.

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Labour Party (UK)

The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.

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Lady Constance Malleson

Lady Constance Malleson (24 October 1895 – 5 October 1975) was a British writer and actress (appearing as Colette O'Niel).

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Lady Katharine Tait

Lady Katharine Jane Tait (née Russell; born 29 December 1923) is a British author and essayist.

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Lady Ottoline Morrell

Lady Ottoline Violet Anne Morrell (16 June 1873 – 21 April 1938) was an English aristocrat and society hostess.

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Leon Chwistek

Leon Chwistek (Kraków, Austria-Hungary, 13 June 1884 – 20 August 1944, Barvikha near Moscow, Russia) was a Polish avant-garde painter, theoretician of modern art, literary critic, logician, philosopher and mathematician.

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Liberal Democrats (UK)

The Liberal Democrats (often referred to as Lib Dems) are a liberal British political party, formed in 1988 as a merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party (SDP), a splinter group from the Labour Party, which had formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance from 1981.

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Liberal Party (UK)

The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom – with the opposing Conservative Party – in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

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Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.

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Linguistic turn

The linguistic turn was a major development in Western philosophy during the early 20th century, the most important characteristic of which is the focusing of philosophy and the other humanities primarily on the relationship between philosophy and language.

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Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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Lionel Rogosin

Lionel Rogosin (January 22, 1924, New York City, New York – December 8, 2000, Los Angeles, California) was an independent American filmmaker.

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List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1908

This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1908.

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List of Nobel laureates

The Nobel Prizes (Nobelpriset, Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.

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List of nuclear weapons tests of the Soviet Union

The nuclear weapons tests of the Soviet Union were performed between 1949 and 1990 as part of the nuclear arms race.

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List of peace activists

This list of peace activists includes people who have proactively advocated diplomatic, philosophical, and non-military resolution of major territorial or ideological disputes through nonviolent means and methods.

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List of pioneers in computer science

This article presents a list of individuals who made transformative breakthroughs in the creation, development and imagining of what computers and electronics could do.

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List of premature obituaries

A premature obituary is an obituary published whose subject is not actually deceased at the time of publication.

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Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.

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Logical atomism

Logical atomism is a philosophical belief that originated in the early 20th century with the development of analytic philosophy.

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Logical connective

In logic, a logical connective (also called a logical operator, sentential connective, or sentential operator) is a symbol or word used to connect two or more sentences (of either a formal or a natural language) in a grammatically valid way, such that the value of the compound sentence produced depends only on that of the original sentences and on the meaning of the connective.

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Logical form

In philosophy and mathematics, a logical form of a syntactic expression is a precisely-specified semantic version of that expression in a formal system.

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Logicism is one of the schools of thought in the philosophy of mathematics, putting forth the theory that mathematics is an extension of logic and therefore some or all mathematics is reducible to logic.

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London School of Economics

The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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Lucy Donnelly

Lucy Martin Donnelly (September 18, 1870 – August 3, 1948) was a teacher of English at Bryn Mawr College.

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Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Mark Lane (author)

Mark Lane (February 24, 1927 – May 10, 2016) was an American attorney, New York state legislator, civil rights activist, and Vietnam war-crimes investigator.

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Marriage and Morals

Marriage and Morals is a 1929 book by philosopher Bertrand Russell, in which the author questions the Victorian notions of morality regarding sex and marriage.

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Martin Gardner

Martin Gardner (October 21, 1914May 22, 2010) was an American popular mathematics and popular science writer, with interests also encompassing scientific skepticism, micromagic, philosophy, religion, and literature—especially the writings of Lewis Carroll, L. Frank Baum, and G. K. Chesterton.

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Marvin Minsky

Marvin Lee Minsky (August 9, 1927 – January 24, 2016) was an American cognitive scientist concerned largely with research of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's AI laboratory, and author of several texts concerning AI and philosophy.

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Mary Baker Eddy

Mary Baker Eddy (July 16, 1821 – December 3, 1910) established the Church of Christ, Scientist, as a Christian denomination and worldwide movement of spiritual healers.

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Mathematical beauty

Mathematical beauty describes the notion that some mathematicians may derive aesthetic pleasure from their work, and from mathematics in general.

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Mathematical logic

Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.

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Mathematical Tripos

The Mathematical Tripos is the mathematics course that is taught in the Faculty of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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McMaster University

McMaster University (commonly referred to as McMaster or Mac) is a public research university in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

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Meaning (philosophy of language)

The nature of meaning, its definition, elements, and types, was discussed by philosophers Aristotle, Augustine, and Aquinas.

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Mediated reference theory

A mediated reference theory is any semantic theory that posits that words refer to something in the external world, but insists that there is more to the meaning of a name than simply the object to which it refers.

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Member of parliament

A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.

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Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

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Metamathematics is the study of mathematics itself using mathematical methods.

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Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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Michael Albert

Michael Albert (born April 8, 1947) is an American activist, economist, speaker, and writer.

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Michael Foot

Michael Mackintosh Foot (23 July 1913 – 3 March 2010) was a British Labour Party politician and man of letters.

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Michael Polanyi

Michael Polanyi, (11 March 1891 – 22 February 1976) was a Hungarian-British polymath, who made important theoretical contributions to physical chemistry, economics, and philosophy.

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Mind (journal)

Mind is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Mind Association.

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Mohan Kumar

Mohan Kumar (June 1, 1934 in Sialkot – November 10, 2017) was an Indian film director, producer and screenwriter, who worked in the Bollywood (Hindi) film industry of India.

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Monmouthshire (historic)

Monmouthshire, also known as the County of Monmouth (Sir Fynwy), is one of thirteen historic counties of Wales and a former administrative county.

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Moritz Schlick

Friedrich Albert Moritz Schlick (April 14, 1882 – June 22, 1936) was a German philosopher, physicist, and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle.

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Morris Raphael Cohen

Morris Raphael Cohen (Мо́ррис Рафаэ́ль Ко́эн; July 25, 1880 – January 28, 1947) was an American philosopher, lawyer, and legal scholar who united pragmatism with logical positivism and linguistic analysis.

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My Philosophical Development

My Philosophical Development is a 1959 book by Bertrand Russell, in which Russell summarizes his philosophical beliefs and explains how they changed during his life.

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() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.

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Naive set theory

Naïve set theory is any of several theories of sets used in the discussion of the foundations of mathematics.

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Nathan Salmon

Nathan U. Salmon (né Nathan Salmon Ucuzoglu in 1951) is an American philosopher in the analytic tradition, specializing in metaphysics, philosophy of language, and philosophy of logic.

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National Portrait Gallery, London

The National Portrait Gallery (NPG) is an art gallery in London housing a collection of portraits of historically important and famous British people.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Neutral monism

In the philosophy of mind, neutral monism is the view that the mental and the physical are two ways of organizing or describing the same elements, which are themselves "neutral", that is, neither physical nor mental.

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New Left

The New Left was a broad political movement mainly in the 1960s and 1970s consisting of activists in the Western world who campaigned for a broad range of social issues such as civil and political rights, feminism, gay rights, abortion rights, gender roles and drug policy reforms.

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New York Supreme Court

The Supreme Court of the State of New York is the trial-level court of general jurisdiction in the New York State Unified Court System.

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Nigel Lawson

Nigel Lawson, Baron Lawson of Blaby, (born 11 March 1932) is a British Conservative politician and journalist.

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Nikita Khrushchev

Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.

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Noam Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.

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Nobel Prize in Literature

The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").

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Non-Euclidean geometry

In mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry consists of two geometries based on axioms closely related to those specifying Euclidean geometry.

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Norbert Wiener

Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894 – March 18, 1964) was an American mathematician and philosopher.

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Nuclear disarmament

Nuclear disarmament is the act of reducing or eliminating nuclear weapons.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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Oder–Neisse line

The Oder–Neisse line (granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej, Oder-Neiße-Grenze) is the international border between Germany and Poland.

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On Denoting

"On Denoting" is an essay by Bertrand Russell.

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Opposition to World War I

Opposition to World War I included socialist, anarchist, syndicalist, and Marxist groups on the left, as well as Christian pacifists, Canadian and Irish nationalists, women's groups, intellectuals, and rural folk.

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Order of Merit

The Order of Merit (Ordre du Mérite) is an order of merit recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture.

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Ordinary language philosophy

Ordinary language philosophy is a philosophical methodology that sees traditional philosophical problems as rooted in misunderstandings philosophers develop by distorting or forgetting what words actually mean in everyday use.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence.

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Paradoxes of set theory

This article contains a discussion of paradoxes of set theory.

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.

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Patricia Russell, Countess Russell

Patricia Russell, Countess Russell (1910–2004) was the third wife of philosopher Bertrand Russell, and a significant contributor to his book A History of Western Philosophy.

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Paul Arthur Schilpp

Paul Arthur Schilpp (February 6, 1897 – September 6, 1993) was an American educator.

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Paul Kurtz

Paul Kurtz (December 21, 1925 – October 20, 2012) was a prominent American scientific skeptic and secular humanist.

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Peano–Russell notation

In mathematical logic, Peano–Russell notation was Bertrand Russell's application of Giuseppe Peano's logical notation to the logical notions of Frege and was used in the writing of Principia Mathematica in collaboration with Alfred North Whitehead: "The notation adopted in the present work is based upon that of Peano, and the following explanations are to some extent modelled on those which he prefixes to his Formulario Mathematico." (Chapter I: Preliminary Explanations of Ideas and Notations, page 4).

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Pembroke Lodge, Richmond Park

Pembroke Lodge is a Grade II listed Georgian mansion in Richmond Park in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames.

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Penrhyndeudraeth ("peninsula with two beaches") is a small town in the Welsh county of Gwynedd.

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Percy Bysshe Shelley

Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 17928 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric and philosophical poets in the English language, and one of the most influential.

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Pervez Hoodbhoy

Pervez Amirali Hoodbhoy (Urdu:; born 11 July 1950) is a Pakistani nuclear physicist and activist who serves as at the Forman Christian College and previously taught physics at the Quaid-e-Azam University.

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Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.

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Philip Snowden, 1st Viscount Snowden

Philip Snowden, 1st Viscount Snowden, PC (18 July 1864 – 15 May 1937) was a British politician.

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Philosophical logic

Philosophical logic refers to those areas of philosophy in which recognized methods of logic have traditionally been used to solve or advance the discussion of philosophical problems.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Philosophy of language

Philosophy of language explores the relationship between language and reality.

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Philosophy of logic

Following the developments in formal logic with symbolic logic in the late nineteenth century and mathematical logic in the twentieth, topics traditionally treated by logic not being part of formal logic have tended to be termed either philosophy of logic or philosophical logic if no longer simply logic.

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Philosophy of mathematics

The philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics, and purports to provide a viewpoint of the nature and methodology of mathematics, and to understand the place of mathematics in people's lives.

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Philosophy of mind

Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.

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Philosophy of perception

The philosophy of perception is concerned with the nature of perceptual experience and the status of perceptual data, in particular how they relate to beliefs about, or knowledge of, the world.

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Philosophy of religion

Philosophy of religion is "the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions." These sorts of philosophical discussion are ancient, and can be found in the earliest known manuscripts concerning philosophy.

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Philosophy of science

Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.

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A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder, defined by a persistent and excessive fear of an object or situation.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Plan Totality

Plan Totality was a nuclear plan established by U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower in August 1945 on the direction of President Harry S. Truman, after the end of the Potsdam Conference.

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Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.

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Porthcurno (Porthkornow, meaning "Port (or Bay) of Cornwall") is a small village covering a small valley and beach on the south coast of Cornwall, England in the United Kingdom.

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Power: A New Social Analysis

Power: A New Social Analysis by Bertrand Russell (1st imp. London 1938, Allen & Unwin, 328 pp.) is a work in social philosophy written by Bertrand Russell.

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Pre-emptive nuclear strike

In nuclear strategy, a first strike is a preemptive surprise attack employing overwhelming force.

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Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.

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Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.

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Principia Mathematica

The Principia Mathematica (often abbreviated PM) is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics written by Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell and published in 1910, 1912, and 1913.

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Prisoner of war

A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.

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The term proposition has a broad use in contemporary analytic philosophy.

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Propositional calculus

Propositional calculus is a branch of logic.

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Propositional formula

In propositional logic, a propositional formula is a type of syntactic formula which is well formed and has a truth value.

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Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.

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Quantifier (logic)

In logic, quantification specifies the quantity of specimens in the domain of discourse that satisfy an open formula.

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Queen Victoria

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.

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Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore FRAS, also written Ravīndranātha Ṭhākura (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Ramsay MacDonald

James Ramsay MacDonald, (né James McDonald Ramsay; 12 October 18669 November 1937) was a British statesman who was the first Labour Party politician to become Prime Minister, leading minority Labour governments in 1924 and in 1929–31.

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Ray Kurzweil

Raymond Kurzweil (born February 12, 1948) is an American author, computer scientist, inventor and futurist.

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Ray Monk

Ray Monk (born 15 February 1957) is a British philosopher.

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Red Lion Square

Red Lion Square is a small square in Holborn, London.

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Reform Act 1832

The Representation of the People Act 1832 (known informally as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales.

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Reith Lectures

The Reith Lectures is a series of annual radio lectures given by leading figures of the day, commissioned by the BBC and broadcast on BBC Radio 4 and the BBC World Service.

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Richard Dawkins

Clinton Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author.

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Richmond Park

Richmond Park, in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, was created by Charles I in the 17th century as a deer park.

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Robert Rumsey Webb

Robert Rumsey Webb (9 July 1850 – 29 July 1936), known as R. R. Webb, was a successful coach for the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos.

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Ronald W. Clark

Ronald William Clark (2 November 1916 – 9 March 1987) was a British author of biography, fiction and non-fiction.

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Round square copula

The "round square copula" is a common example of the dual copula strategy used in reference to the problem of nonexistent objects as well as their relation to problems in modern philosophy of language.

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Rudolf Carnap

Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 – September 14, 1970) was a German-born philosopher who was active in Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter.

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Russell Tribunal

The Russell Tribunal, also known as the International War Crimes Tribunal, Russell-Sartre Tribunal, or Stockholm Tribunal, was a private body organised by British philosopher and Nobel Prize winner Bertrand Russell and hosted by French philosopher and writer Jean-Paul Sartre.

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Russell's paradox

In the foundations of mathematics, Russell's paradox (also known as Russell's antinomy), discovered by Bertrand Russell in 1901, showed that some attempted formalizations of the naïve set theory created by Georg Cantor led to a contradiction.

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Russell's teapot

Russell's teapot is an analogy, formulated by the philosopher Bertrand Russell (1872–1970), to illustrate that the philosophic burden of proof lies upon a person making unfalsifiable claims, rather than shifting the burden of disproof to others.

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Russell–Einstein Manifesto

The Russell–Einstein Manifesto was issued in London on 9 July 1955 by Bertrand Russell in the midst of the Cold War.

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Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.

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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.

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Saul Kripke

Saul Aaron Kripke (born November 13, 1940) is an American philosopher and logician.

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Self-refuting idea

Self-refuting ideas or self-defeating ideas are ideas or statements whose falsehood is a logical consequence of the act or situation of holding them to be true.

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Set theory

Set theory is a branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.

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Set-theoretic definition of natural numbers

Several ways have been proposed to construct the natural numbers using set theory.

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Sexual ethics

Sexual ethics or sex ethics (also called sexual morality) is the study of human sexuality and the expression of human sexual behavior.

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Sidney Hook

Sidney Hook (December 20, 1902 – July 12, 1989) was an American philosopher of the Pragmatist school known for his contributions to the philosophy of history, the philosophy of education, political theory, and ethics.

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Sidney Webb, 1st Baron Passfield

Sidney James Webb, 1st Baron Passfield, (13 July 1859 – 13 October 1947) was a British socialist, economist, reformer and a co-founder of the London School of Economics.

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Singleton (mathematics)

In mathematics, a singleton, also known as a unit set, is a set with exactly one element.

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Six-Day War

The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.

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Social criticism

The term social criticism often refers to a mode of criticism that locates the reasons for malicious conditions in a society considered to be in a flawed social structure.

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Social justice

Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.

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Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.

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South Vietnam

South Vietnam, officially the Republic of Vietnam (RVN, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa), was a country that existed from 1955 to 1975 and comprised the southern half of what is now the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Sphere of influence

In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.

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Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).

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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.

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Stephen Hawking

Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.

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Stephen Hobhouse

Stephen Henry Hobhouse (5 August 1881 – 2 April 1961) was a prominent English peace activist, prison reformer, and religious writer.

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Structuralism (philosophy of science)

Structuralism (also known as scientific structuralism or as the structuralistic theory-concept) is an active research program in the philosophy of science, which was first developed in the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s by several analytic philosophers.

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Style (manner of address)

A style of office or honorific is an official or legally recognized title.

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Suez Canal

thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.

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Suez Crisis

The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.

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Superstition is a pejorative term for any belief or practice that is considered irrational: for example, if it arises from ignorance, a misunderstanding of science or causality, a positive belief in fate or magic, or fear of that which is unknown.

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Sylvester Medal

The Sylvester Medal is a bronze medal awarded by the Royal Society (London) for the encouragement of mathematical research, and accompanied by a £1,000 prize.

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T. S. Eliot

Thomas Stearns Eliot, (26 September 1888 – 4 January 1965), was an essayist, publisher, playwright, literary and social critic, and "one of the twentieth century's major poets".

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Tariq Ali

Tariq Ali (Punjabi, طارق علی; born 21 October 1943) is a British Pakistani writer, journalist, historian, filmmaker, political activist, and public intellectual.

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Tensor product of graphs

In graph theory, the tensor product G × H of graphs G and H is a graph such that.

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The Bertrand Russell Case

The Bertrand Russell Case, edited by John Dewey and Horace M Kallen, is a collection of articles on the 1940 dismissal of Bertrand Russell as Professor of Philosophy from the College of the City of New York.

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The Brains Trust

The Brains Trust was a popular informational BBC radio and later television programme in the United Kingdom during the 1940s and 1950s, on which a panel of experts tried to answer questions sent in by the audience.

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The Nation

The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.

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The New Republic

The New Republic is a liberal American magazine of commentary on politics and the arts, published since 1914, with influence on American political and cultural thinking.

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The Observer

The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.

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The Principles of Mathematics

The Principles of Mathematics (PoM) is a book written by Bertrand Russell in 1903.

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The Problems of Philosophy

The Problems of Philosophy is a 1912 book by Bertrand Russell, in which Russell attempts to create a brief and accessible guide to the problems of philosophy.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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The Will to Doubt

The Will to Doubt: An Essay in Philosophy for the General Thinker is a book published in 1907 by University of Michigan professor Alfred Henry Lloyd.

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Theory of descriptions

The theory of descriptions is the philosopher Bertrand Russell's most significant contribution to the philosophy of language.

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Thermonuclear weapon

A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.

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Thomas Kuhn

Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom.

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Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.

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Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (TLP) (Latin for "Logico-Philosophical Treatise") is the only book-length philosophical work published by the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in his lifetime.

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Trellech (occasionally spelt Trelech, Treleck or Trelleck; Tryleg) is a village and parish in Monmouthshire, south-east Wales.

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Trinity College, Cambridge

Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England.

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Trondheim (historically Kaupangen, Nidaros and Trondhjem) is a city and municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway.

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Twelve Olympians

relief (1st century BCendash1st century AD) depicting the twelve Olympians carrying their attributes in procession; from left to right, Hestia (scepter), Hermes (winged cap and staff), Aphrodite (veiled), Ares (helmet and spear), Demeter (scepter and wheat sheaf), Hephaestus (staff), Hera (scepter), Poseidon (trident), Athena (owl and helmet), Zeus (thunderbolt and staff), Artemis (bow and quiver), Apollo (lyre), from the Walters Art Museum.Walters Art Museum, http://art.thewalters.org/detail/38764 accession number 23.40. In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the twelve Olympians are the major deities of the Greek pantheon, commonly considered to be Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Hermes, and either Hestia or Dionysus.

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José Luis Álvarez Enparantza (27 September 1929 – 14 January 2012), better known by his pseudonym Txillardegi, was a Basque linguist, politician and writer from Spain.

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Type system

In programming languages, a type system is a set of rules that assigns a property called type to the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.

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Type theory

In mathematics, logic, and computer science, a type theory is any of a class of formal systems, some of which can serve as alternatives to set theory as a foundation for all mathematics.

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U Thant

Thant (22 January 1909 – 25 November 1974), known honorifically as U Thant, was a Burmese diplomat and the third Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1961 to 1971, the first non-European to hold the position.

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UCLA Department of Philosophy

The UCLA Department of Philosophy is a constituent department of the Division of Humanities in the UCLA College of Letters and Science.

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Union of Soviet Writers

Union of Soviet Writers, USSR Union of Writers, or Soviet Union of Writers (translit) was a creative union of professional writers in the Soviet Union.

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United Kingdom general election, 1922

The 1922 United Kingdom general election was held on Wednesday 15 November 1922.

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United Kingdom general election, 1923

The 1923 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 6 December 1923.

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United Nations Security Council

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.

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Unity of the proposition

In philosophy, the unity of the proposition is the problem of explaining how a sentence in the indicative mood expresses more than just what a list of proper names expresses.

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Universe (mathematics)

In mathematics, and particularly in set theory, category theory, type theory, and the foundations of mathematics, a universe is a collection that contains all the entities one wishes to consider in a given situation.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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Unmoved mover

The unmoved mover (that which moves without being moved) or prime mover (primum movens) is a concept advanced by Aristotle as a primary cause or "mover" of all the motion in the universe.

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Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.

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V. K. Krishna Menon

Vengalil Krishnan Krishna Menon (3 May 1896 – 6 October 1974) was an Indian nationalist, diplomat, and politician, described by some as the second most powerful man in India, after his ally, 1st Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru.

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Ved Mehta

Ved Parkash Mehta (born 21 March 1934) is a India-Born writer who was born in Lahore, British India (now a Pakistani city) to a Punjabi Hindu family.

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Victor Gollancz

Sir Victor Gollancz (9 April 1893 – 8 February 1967) was a British publisher and humanitarian.

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Victorian morality

Victorian morality is a distillation of the moral views of people living during the time of Queen Victoria's reign (1837–1901), the Victorian era, and of the moral climate of Great Britain in the mid-19th century in general.

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Vienna Circle

The Vienna Circle (Wiener Kreis) of Logical Empiricism was a group of philosophers and scientists drawn from the natural and social sciences, logic and mathematics who met regularly from 1924 to 1936 at the University of Vienna, chaired by Moritz Schlick.

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Vietnam War

The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

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Vivienne Haigh-Wood Eliot

Vivienne Haigh-Wood Eliot (28 May 1888 – 22 January 1947) was an English governess and writer, who became known for her marriage in 1915 to the American poet T. S. Eliot.

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Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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Volga River

The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.

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War of Attrition

The War of Attrition (حرب الاستنزاف Ḥarb al-Istinzāf, מלחמת ההתשה Milhemet haHatashah) involved fighting between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, PLO and their allies from 1967 to 1970.

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Warren Commission

The President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as the Warren Commission, was established by President Lyndon B. Johnson through on November 29, 1963 to investigate the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy that had taken place on November 22, 1963.

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Western philosophy

Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.

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What I Believe

"What I Believe" is the title of two essays espousing humanism, one by Bertrand Russell (1925) and one by E. M. Forster (1938).

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Whigs (British political party)

The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.

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Why I Am Not a Christian

Why I Am Not a Christian is an essay by the British philosopher Bertrand Russell.

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William Ready Division of Archives and Research Collections

The William Ready Division of Archives and Research Collections is the principal repository for rare books, archives, maps and historical material at McMaster University.

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Wolfgang Paalen

Wolfgang Robert Paalen (July 22, 1905 in Vienna, Austria – September 24, 1959 in Taxco, Mexico) was a German-Austrian-Mexican painter, sculptor and art philosopher.

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World Congress of Philosophy

The World Congress of Philosophy (originally known as the International Conference of Philosophy) is a global meeting of philosophers held every five years under the auspices of the International Federation of Philosophical Societies (FISP).

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World government

World government or global government is the notion of a common political authority for all of humanity, yielding a global government and a single state that exercises authority over the entire Earth.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Wrangler (University of Cambridge)

At the University of Cambridge in England, a "Wrangler" is a student who gains first-class honours in the third year of the University's undergraduate degree in mathematics.

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Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).

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20th-century philosophy

20th-century philosophy saw the development of a number of new philosophical schools—including logical positivism, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, existentialism, and poststructuralism.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bertrand_Russell

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