141 relations: Afghanistan, Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Aluminium, American Mineralogist, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greek, Andes, Austria, Ångström, Bahia, Beaver County, Utah, Beryl, Beryl (disambiguation), Beryl (given name), Beryllium, Bighorn Mountains, Birefringence, Bixbyite, Black Range, Brazil, Caesium, California, Carat (mass), Chemical formula, Chromium, Chrysoberyl, Colombia, Colombian emeralds, Colorado, Conchoidal fracture, Connecticut, Cordillera Oriental (Colombia), Crystal, Cyan, Dark Kingdom, Dom Pedro aquamarine, Double terminated crystal, Emerald, Espírito Santo, Fillmore, Utah, Gamma ray, Gemstone, Georgia (U.S. state), Germany, Goshen, Massachusetts, Granite, Greek language, Heliodorus, Hematite, Hermann–Mauguin notation, ..., Hexagonal crystal family, Hiddenite, North Carolina, Idaho, Incentive, Inclusion (mineral), India, J. P. Morgan, Juab County, Utah, Kenya, Latin, Limestone, List of Latin phrases (I), List of minerals, Lustre (mineralogy), Madagascar, Maine, Malawi, Maynard Bixby, Medieval Latin, Merriam-Webster, Miarolitic cavity, Mica, Middle English, Minas Gerais, Mineral, Mount Antero, Mozambique, National Museum of Natural History, Neutron, New England, New Hampshire, New York Academy of Sciences, North Carolina, Norway, Old French, Orthoclase, Pakistan, Pala, California, Pegmatite, Pezzottaite, Placer mining, Powder River Pass, Prakrit, Priestly breastplate, Pseudobrookite, Quartz, Refractive index, Republic of Ireland, Rhyolite, Rio Grande do Norte, Russia, Sanskrit, Sawatch Range, Sawtooth Range (Idaho), Schist, Seawater, Semitic languages, Sierra County, New Mexico, Silicate minerals, Silicon, Smithsonian Institution, South Africa, South Dakota, South Oxford, Maine, Spessartine, Spodumene, Sri Lanka, Stanley, Idaho, Sugarcane, Swat District, Sweden, Tanzania, TheFreeDictionary.com, Tin, Tonne, Topaz, Tourmaline, Tungsten, Type locality (geology), Ural Mountains, Uranium, Utah, Vanadium, Wah Wah Mountains, Washington, D.C., World Jewellery Confederation, Wyoming, X-ray, Yukon, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Expand index (91 more) » « Shrink index
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Altiplano Cundiboyacense is a high plateau located in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes covering parts of the departments of Cundinamarca and Boyacá.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
American Mineralogist: An International Journal of Earth and Planetary Materials is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the general fields of mineralogy, crystallography, geochemistry, and petrology.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
Bahia (locally) is one of the 26 states of Brazil and is located in the northeastern part of the country on the Atlantic coast.
Beaver County is a county located in west central Utah, United States.
Beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6.
Beryl is a mineral.
Beryl is a given name that has overwhelmingly been borne by females with reference to the mineral beryl.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
The Bighorn Mountains (Apsáalookěi: Basawaxaawúua or Iisaxpúatahchee Isawaxaawúua) are a mountain range in northern Wyoming and southern Montana in the United States, forming a northwest-trending spur from the Rocky Mountains extending approximately 200 miles (320 km) northward on the Great Plains.
Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.
Bixbyite is a manganese iron oxide mineral with chemical formula: (Mn,Fe)2O3.
The Black Range (also called the Devil's Mountains or Sierra Diablo) is an igneous mountain range running north-south in Sierra and Grant counties in west-central New Mexico, in the southwestern United States.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The carat (ct) (not to be confused with the karat, sometimes spelled carat, a unit of purity of gold alloys), is a unit of mass equal to 200 mg (0.2 g; 0.007055 oz) and is used for measuring gemstones and pearls.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
The mineral or gemstone chrysoberyl is an aluminate of beryllium with the formula BeAl2O4.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Emeralds are green precious gemstones that are mined in various geological settings.
Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.
Conchoidal fracture describes the way that brittle materials break or fracture when they do not follow any natural planes of separation.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Cordillera Oriental (Eastern Ranges) is the widest of the three branches of the Colombian Andes.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Cyan is a greenish-blue color.
The is a group of fictional characters who serve as antagonists in the Sailor Moon manga series by Naoko Takeuchi.
The Dom Pedro aquamarine is the world's largest cut aquamarine gem.
A double terminated crystal is a crystal with two naturally faceted ends.
Emerald is a precious gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.
Espírito Santo (meaning "Holy Spirit") is a state in southeastern Brazil.
Fillmore is a city in Millard County, Utah, United States.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Goshen is a town in Hampshire County, Massachusetts, United States.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Heliodorus is a Greek name meaning "Gift of the Sun".
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.
In geometry, Hermann–Mauguin notation is used to represent the symmetry elements in point groups, plane groups and space groups.
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families, which includes 2 crystal systems (hexagonal and trigonal) and 2 lattice systems (hexagonal and rhombohedral).
Hiddenite is an unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) in east-central Alexander County, North Carolina.
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States.
An incentive is something that motivates an individual to perform an action.
In mineralogy, an inclusion is any material that is trapped inside a mineral during its formation.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
John Pierpont Morgan Sr. (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier and banker who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation in the United States of America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Juab County is a county in western Utah, United States.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
This is a list of minerals for which there are articles on Wikipedia.
Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.
Maynard Bixby (June 28, 1853 – February 18, 1935) was an American mineralogist and mineral collector.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
Miarolitic cavities (or miarolitic texture) are typically crystal-lined irregular cavities or vugs most commonly found in granitic pegmatites, and also in a variety of igneous rocks.
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Minas Gerais is a state in the north of Southeastern Brazil.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mount Antero is the highest summit of the southern Sawatch Range of the Rocky Mountains of North America.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
The National Museum of Natural History is a natural-history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., United States.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The New York Academy of Sciences (originally the Lyceum of Natural History) was founded in January 1817.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Orthoclase, or orthoclase feldspar (endmember formula KAlSi3O8), is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Pala is a small, mostly Native American, community located in the Pala Indian Reservation, located within San Diego County, California near Fallbrook.
A pegmatite is a holocrystalline, intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking phaneritic crystals usually larger than 2.5 cm in size (1 in); such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic.
Pezzottaite, marketed under the name raspberyl or raspberry beryl, is a newly identified mineral species, first recognized by the International Mineralogical Association in September 2003.
Placer mining is the mining of stream bed (alluvial) deposits for minerals.
Powder River Pass (el. 9666 ft.) is a mountain pass in the Bighorn Mountains in Wyoming traversed by U.S. Highway 16.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
The priestly breastplate (חֹשֶׁן ẖošen) was a sacred breastplate worn by the High Priest of the Israelites, according to the Book of Exodus.
Pseudobrookite is an iron titanium oxide mineral with formula: Fe2TiO5 or (Fe3+,Fe2+)2(Ti,Fe2+)O5.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Rhyolite is an igneous, volcanic rock, of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 – see the TAS classification).
Rio Grande do Norte (lit. "Great Northern River", in reference to the mouth of the Potenji River) is one of the states of Brazil, located in the northeastern region of the country, occupying the northeasternmost tip of the South American continent.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
The Sawatch Range The place name "Sawatch" is pronounced.
The Sawtooth Range is a mountain range of the Rocky Mountains in central Idaho, United States, reaching a maximum elevation of at the summit of Thompson Peak.
Schist (pronounced) is a medium-grade metamorphic rock with medium to large, flat, sheet-like grains in a preferred orientation (nearby grains are roughly parallel).
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Sierra County is a county in the U.S. state of New Mexico.
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Dakota is a U.S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
South Oxford is an unorganized territory located in Oxford County, Maine, United States.
Spessartine, sometimes mistakenly referred to as spessartite, is a nesosilicate, manganese aluminium garnet species, Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3.Gemological Institute of America, GIA Gem Reference Guide 1995, The mineral spessartine should not be confused with a type of igneous rock (a lamprophyre) called spessartite. Spessartine's name is a derivative of Spessart in Bavaria, Germany, the type locality of the mineral. It occurs most often in granite pegmatite and allied rock types and in certain low-grade metamorphic phyllites. Sources include Australia, Myanmar, India, Afghanistan, Israel, Madagascar, Tanzania and the United States. Spessartine of an orange-yellow has been called Mandarin garnet and is found in Madagascar. Violet-red spessartines are found in rhyolites in Colorado and Maine. In Madagascar, spessartines are exploited either in their bedrock or in alluvium. The orange garnets result from sodium-rich pegmatites. Spessartines are found in bedrock in the highlands in the Sahatany valley. Those in alluvium are generally found in southern Madagascar or in the Maevatanana region. Spessartine forms a solid solution series with the garnet species almandine. Well-formed crystals from this series, varying in color from very dark-red to bright yellow-orange, were found in Latinka, Rhodope Mountains, Kardzhali Province, Bulgaria. Spessartine, like the other garnets, always occurs as a blend with other species. Gems with high spessartine content tend toward a light orange hue, while almandine prevalence induces red or brownish hues.
Spodumene is a pyroxene mineral consisting of lithium aluminium inosilicate, LiAl(SiO3)2, and is a source of lithium.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Stanley is a town in Custer County, Idaho, United States.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Swāt (Pashto, Urdu: سوات) is a valley and an administrative district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
TheFreeDictionary.com is an American online dictionary and encyclopedia that gathers information from a variety of sources.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F, OH)2.
Tourmaline is a crystalline boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Type locality, also called type area, type site, or type section, is the locality where a particular rock type, stratigraphic unit or mineral species is first identified.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Utah is a state in the western United States.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
The Wah Wah Mountains are a north-south trending range in west-central Utah, part of the larger Basin and Range Province.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
World Jewellery Confederation, (in French Confédération Internationale de la Bijouterie, Joaillerie, Orfèvrerie des Diamants, Perles et Pierres) (CIBJO), has its headquarters in Bern, Switzerland.
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Yukon (also commonly called the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories (the other two are the Northwest Territories and Nunavut).
Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
Aquamarine (Gemstone), Aquamarine (gemstone), Aquamarines, Bericle, Beril, Beryl/Aquamarine, Beryllium aluminium meta-silicate, Beryllium aluminium silicate, Beryllium aluminum silicate, Bixbite, Colorado state gemstone, Golden beryl, Goshenite, Green Beryl, Green beryl, Heliodor, Maxixe (Gemstone), Morganite, Red beryl, Sailors gem, Scarlet emerald.