330 relations: Absolute zero, Acetylacetone, Aerospace, Aircraft, Airplane, AlBeMet, Alfred Stock, ALICE experiment, Alkali, Alkali metal, Alkaline earth metal, Alkalinity, Alloy, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Aluminium, Aluminium gallium arsenide, Aluminium hydroxide, Aluminium indium arsenide, Aluminium oxide, Aluminium silicate, Aluminium sulfate, Americium, Ammonia, Ammonium bifluoride, Amphoterism, Ancient Greek, Anhydrous, Antoine Bussy, Astronomer, Asymptotic giant branch, ATLAS experiment, Atmosphere of Earth, Atomic mass, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, Atomic radius, Barn (unit), Basic beryllium acetate, Beamline, Belur (town), Bertrandite, Beryl, Berylliosis, Beryllium bromide, Beryllium carbide, Beryllium chloride, Beryllium copper, Beryllium fluoride, ..., Beryllium hydroxide, Beryllium iodide, Beryllium nitrate, Beryllium nitride, Beryllium oxide, Beryllium sulfate, Beryllium-8, Bicycle frame, Big Bang, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, Binary phase, Bomb disposal, Boride, Boron, Brake, Bromine, Calcium fluoride, CANDU reactor, Carbon-12, Carbon-based life, Casting (metalworking), Cavity magnetron, Chemical element, Chemical pneumonitis, Chemical reaction, Chlorine, Chrysoberyl, Circulatory system, Coating, Common Era, Compact Muon Solenoid, Control system, Coordination number, Copper, Corrosion, Cosmic ray, Cosmic ray spallation, Covalent bond, Cryogenics, Crystal structure, Daily Press (Virginia), Delta, Utah, Density, Dental material, Diamagnetism, Differential diagnosis, Difluoride, Divalent, Dopant, Dravidian languages, E-Material, Elastic modulus, Electrical contacts, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electroless nickel plating, Electrolysis, Electron capture, Elementary particle, Emerald, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Environmental radioactivity, Enzyme, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Extrinsic semiconductor, Fatigue (material), Fiberglass, Fire-control system, Fissile material, Flexural rigidity, FLiBe, Fluorescent lamp, Fluorine, Formula One, Franz Karl Achard, Fred Hoyle, French language, Friedrich Wöhler, Fuze, Gallium arsenide, Gamma ray, Gemstone, Granuloma, Half-life, Halide, Halo nucleus, Hans Goldschmidt, Hardness, Heat sink, Herbert L. Anderson, Honeycomb mirror, Ice core, Immediately dangerous to life or health, Implosion (mechanical process), Indium gallium arsenide, Inertial navigation system, Institut de France, Insulator (electricity), Intermountain Power Agency, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Iodine, Ionic radius, Ionization energy, Ionizing radiation, Iron, ITER, James Chadwick, James Webb Space Telescope, Joint European Torus, Klystron, Large Hadron Collider, Laterite, Latin, Leopard 1, Leopard 2, LHCb experiment, Liquid fluoride thorium reactor, Liquid-propellant rocket, Liquid–liquid extraction, List of IARC Group 1 carcinogens, List of semiconductor materials, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, Lung, Lung cancer, Madelung constant, Magnesium, Magnetic cartridge, Magnetic resonance imaging, Main battle tank, Martin Heinrich Klaproth, Materion, McLaren, Melting point, Mercedes-Benz, Metal, Metal matrix composite, Methane, Microwave, Mirror, Missile, Modulated neutron initiator, Molecular beam epitaxy, Molten salt reactor, Monoisotopic element, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Natural History (Pliny), Naval mine, Network covalent bonding, Neutron, Neutron emission, Neutron generator, Neutron moderator, Neutron reflector, Neutron source, Neutron temperature, Nickel, Nitric acid, Nitrogen, Noble gas, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear transmutation, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapon design, Nuclear weapons testing, Nucleosynthesis, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Octahedral molecular geometry, Octet rule, Oxidation state, Oxidizing acid, Oxygen, Pali, Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis, Particle accelerator, Particle beam, Particle detector, Particle physics, Parts-per notation, Paul Lebeau, Pedogenesis, Periodic Videos, Permissible exposure limit, Phenakite, Phosphor, Pit (nuclear weapon), Pliny the Elder, Plutonium, Plutonium-239, Polonium, Potassium, Power semiconductor device, Prakrit, Printed circuit board, Professional audio, Proxy (climate), Ptolemaic dynasty, Public address system, Quartz, Radar, Radio, Radio frequency, Radionuclide, Radium, Recommended exposure limit, Refractory, René Just Haüy, Residence time, Rocket engine nozzle, Rocket propellant, Safety data sheet, Salt (chemistry), Sanskrit, Sarcoidosis, Satellite, Scuderia Ferrari, Selenide, Silicide, Silicon dioxide, Sintering, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Sodium fluoride, Sodium fluorosilicate, Sodium hydroxide, Soil, Soil erosion, Solar cycle, Solar wind, Spacecraft, Spallation, Speaker driver, Speed of sound, Spin (physics), Spitzer Space Telescope, Spot welding, Spring (device), Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Stiffness, Strong focusing, Sulfide, Sulfuric acid, Supernova, Surface-mount technology, Synchrotron, Telluride (chemistry), Tetrafluoroberyllate, Tevatron, Thermal conductivity, Thermal expansion, Thermal management (electronics), Thermal stability, Thermonuclear weapon, Titanium, Tonne, Torbern Bergman, Toxicity, Transistor, Transmitter, Transparency and translucency, Traveling-wave tube, Trimer (chemistry), Triple-alpha process, Tritium, Tungstate, Tweeter, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Universe, University of Sheffield, Uranium dioxide, Utah, Weather satellite, Willemite, X-ray, X-ray tube, Young's modulus, Yttrium(III) oxide, Zinc sulfide, Zirconium. Expand index (280 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.
Acetylacetone is an organic compound that exists in two tautomeric forms that interconvert rapidly and are treated as a single compound in most applications.
Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a powered, fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, propeller or rocket engine.
AlBeMet is the trade name for a beryllium and aluminium metal matrix composite material derived by a powder metallurgy process.
Alfred Stock (July 16, 1876 – August 12, 1946) was a German inorganic chemist.
ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of seven detector experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
The alkaline earth metals are six chemical elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
Alkalinity is the capacity of water to resist changes in pH that would make the water more acidic.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium gallium arsenide (also gallium aluminium arsenide) (AlxGa1−xAs) is a semiconductor material with very nearly the same lattice constant as GaAs, but a larger bandgap.
Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite.
Aluminium indium arsenide, also indium aluminium arsenide or AlInAs (AlxIn1−xAs), is a semiconductor material with very nearly the same lattice constant as GaInAs, but a larger bandgap.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
Aluminium silicate (or aluminum silicate) is a name commonly applied to chemical compounds which are derived from aluminium oxide, Al2O3 and silicon dioxide, SiO2 which may be anhydrous or hydrated, naturally occurring as minerals or synthetic.
Aluminium sulfate is a chemical compound with the formula Al2(SO4)3.
Americium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Ammonium hydrogen fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula NH4HF2 or NH4F·HF.
In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water.
Antoine Alexandre Brutus Bussy (29 May 1794, Marseille – 1 February 1882, Paris) was a French chemist who primarily studied pharmaceuticals.
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.
The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) is a region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram populated by evolved cool luminous stars.
ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is one of the seven particle detector experiments constructed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a particle accelerator at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) in Switzerland.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.
A barn (symbol: b) is a unit of area equal to 10−28 m2 (100 fm2).
Basic beryllium acetate is the chemical compound with the formula Be4O(O2CCH3)6.
In accelerator physics, a beamline refers to the trajectory of the beam of accelerated particles, including the overall construction of the path segment (vacuum tube, magnets, diagnostic devices) along a specific path of an accelerator facility.
Belur, (is a Town Municipal Council and taluka in Hassan district in the state of Karnataka, India. The town is renowned for its Chennakeshava Temple, one of the finest examples of Hoysala workmanship.
Bertrandite is a beryllium sorosilicate hydroxide mineral with composition: Be4Si2O7(OH)2.
Beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6.
Berylliosis, or chronic beryllium disease (CBD), is a chronic allergic-type lung response and chronic lung disease caused by exposure to beryllium and its compounds, a form of beryllium poisoning.
Beryllium bromide is the chemical compound with the formula BeBr2.
Beryllium carbide, or Be2C, is a metal carbide.
Beryllium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula BeCl2.
Beryllium copper (BeCu), also known as copper beryllium (CuBe), beryllium bronze and spring copper, is a copper alloy with 0.5—3% beryllium and sometimes other elements.
Beryllium fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula BeF2.
Beryllium hydroxide, Be(OH)2, is an amphoteric hydroxide, dissolving in both acids and alkalis.
Beryllium iodide is the chemical compound with the formula BeI2.
Beryllium nitrate, also known as beryllium dinitrate, is an ionic beryllium salt of nitric acid with the chemical formula Be(NO3)2.
Beryllium nitride, Be3N2, is a nitride of beryllium.
Beryllium oxide (BeO), also known as beryllia, is an inorganic compound with the formula BeO.
Beryllium sulfate normally encountered as the tetrahydrate, SO4 is a white crystalline solid.
Beryllium-8 is an isotope of beryllium with 4 neutrons and 4 protons, and four electrons when its oxidation state is 0.
A bicycle frame is the main component of a bicycle, onto which wheels and other components are fitted.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
In physical cosmology, Big Bang nucleosynthesis (abbreviated BBN, also known as primordial nucleosynthesis, arch(a)eonucleosynthesis, archonucleosynthesis, protonucleosynthesis and pal(a)eonucleosynthesis) refers to the production of nuclei other than those of the lightest isotope of hydrogen (hydrogen-1, 1H, having a single proton as a nucleus) during the early phases of the Universe.
In materials chemistry, a binary phase is chemical compound containing two different elements.
Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe.
A boride is a compound between boron and a less electronegative element, for example silicon boride (SiB3 and SiB6).
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving system.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Calcium fluoride is the inorganic compound of the elements calcium and fluorine with the formula CaF2.
The CANDU, for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used to generate electric power.
Carbon-12 is the more abundant of the two stable isotopes of carbon (Carbon-13 being the other), amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars.
Carbon is a key component of all known life on Earth, representing approximately 45-50% of all dry biomass.
In metalworking and jewellery making, casting is a process in which a liquid metal is somehow delivered into a mold (it is usually delivered by a crucible) that contains a hollow shape (i.e., a 3-dimensional negative image) of the intended shape.
The cavity magnetron is a high-powered vacuum tube that generates microwaves using the interaction of a stream of electrons with a magnetic field while moving past a series of open metal cavities (cavity resonators).
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemical pneumonitis is inflammation of the lung caused by aspirating or inhaling irritants.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
The mineral or gemstone chrysoberyl is an aluminate of beryllium with the formula BeAl2O4.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is one of two large general-purpose particle physics detectors built on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Switzerland and France.
A control system manages, commands, directs, or regulates the behavior of other devices or systems using control loops.
In chemistry, crystallography, and materials science the coordination number, also called ligancy, of a central atom in a molecule or crystal is the number of atoms, molecules or ions bonded to it.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
Cosmic ray spallation is a naturally occurring nuclear reaction causing nucleosynthesis.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
The Daily Press Inc. is a daily morning newspaper published in Newport News, Virginia, which covers the lower and middle Peninsula of Tidewater Virginia.
Delta is a city in Millard County, Utah, United States.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Dental materials are specially fabricated materials, designed for use in dentistry.
Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.
In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.
Difluorides are chemical compounds with two fluorine atoms per molecule (or per formula unit).
In chemistry, a divalent (sometimes bivalent) element, ion, functional group, or molecule has a valence of two.
A dopant, also called a doping agent, is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low concentrations) to alter the electrical or optical properties of the substance.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
E-Material, also called E Material, is a metal matrix composite consisting of beryllium matrix with beryllium oxide particles.
An elastic modulus (also known as modulus of elasticity) is a quantity that measures an object or substance's resistance to being deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a stress is applied to it.
An electrical contact is an electrical circuit component found in electrical switches, relays, connectors and circuit breakers.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electroless nickel plating (EN) is an auto-catalytic chemical technique used to deposit a layer of nickel-phosphorus or nickel-boron alloy on a solid workpiece, such as metal or plastic.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.
Emerald is a precious gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.
Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, EDX, EDXS or XEDS), sometimes called energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) or energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA), is an analytical technique used for the elemental analysis or chemical characterization of a sample.
Environmental radioactivity is produced by radioactive materials in the human environment.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also known by several other names, is a chemical originating in multiseasonal plants with dormancy stages as a lipidopreservative which helps to develop the stem, currently used for both industrial and medical purposes.
An extrinsic semiconductor is one that has been doped, that is, into which a doping agent has been introduced, giving it different electrical properties than the intrinsic (pure) semiconductor.
In materials science, fatigue is the weakening of a material caused by repeatedly applied loads.
Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.
A fire-control system is a number of components working together, usually a gun data computer, a director, and radar, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target.
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
Flexural rigidity is defined as the force couple required to bend a non-rigid structure in one unit of curvature or it can be defined as the resistance offered by a structure while undergoing bending.
FLiBe is a molten salt made from a mixture of lithium fluoride (LiF) and beryllium fluoride (BeF2).
A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.
Franz Karl Achard (April 28, 1753 – April 20, 1821) was a German (Prussian) chemist, physicist and biologist.
Sir Fred Hoyle FRS (24 June 1915 – 20 August 2001) was a British astronomer who formulated the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Friedrich Wöhler (31 July 1800 – 23 September 1882) was a German chemist, best known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several chemical elements.
In military munitions, a fuze (sometimes fuse) is the part of the device that initiates function.
Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
Granuloma is an inflammation found in many diseases.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
In nuclear physics, an atomic nucleus is called a halo nucleus or is said to have a nuclear halo when it has a core nucleus surrounded by a "halo" of orbiting protons or neutrons, which makes the radius of the nucleus appreciably larger than that predicted by the liquid drop model.
Johannes Wilhelm "Hans" Goldschmidt (January 18, 1861 – May 21, 1923) was a German chemist.
Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.
A heat sink (also commonly spelled heatsink) is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels.
Herbert Lawrence Anderson (May 24, 1914 – July 16, 1988) was a Jewish American nuclear physicist who contributed to the Manhattan Project.
A honeycomb mirror is a large mirror usually used as the primary mirror in astronomical reflecting telescopes whose face is supported by a ribbed structure that resembles a honeycomb.
An ice core is a core sample that is typically removed from an ice sheet or a high mountain glacier.
The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.
Implosion is a process in which objects are destroyed by collapsing (or being squeezed in) on themselves.
Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) (alternatively gallium indium arsenide, GaInAs) is a ternary alloy (chemical compound) of indium arsenide (InAs) and gallium arsenide (GaAs).
An inertial navigation system (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer, motion sensors (accelerometers), rotation sensors (gyroscopes), and occasionally magnetic sensors (magnetometers) to continuously calculate by dead reckoning the position, the orientation, and the velocity (direction and speed of movement) of a moving object without the need for external references.
The Institut de France (Institute of France) is a French learned society, grouping five académies, the most famous of which is the Académie française.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.
The Intermountain Power Agency, located in Utah, is a power generating cooperative of 23 municipalities in Utah and 6 in California.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Ionic radius, rion, is the radius of an atom's ion in ionic crystals structure.
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
ITER (Latin for "the way") is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which will be the world's largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment.
Sir James Chadwick, (20 October 1891 – 24 July 1974) was an English physicist who was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the neutron in 1932.
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space telescope developed in collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Canadian Space Agency that will be the scientific successor to the Hubble Space Telescope.
JET, the Joint European Torus, is the world's largest operational magnetically confined plasma physics experiment, located at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy in Oxfordshire, UK.
A klystron is a specialized linear-beam vacuum tube, invented in 1937 by American electrical engineers Russell and Sigurd Varian,Pond, Norman H. "The Tube Guys".
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, the most complex experimental facility ever built and the largest single machine in the world.
Laterite is a soil and rock type rich in iron and aluminium, and is commonly considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical areas.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Leopard (or Leopard 1) is a main battle tank designed and produced in West Germany that first entered service in 1965.
The Leopard 2 is a main battle tank developed by Krauss-Maffei in the 1970s for the West German Army.
The LHCb (standing for "Large Hadron Collider beauty") experiment is one of seven particle physics detector experiments collecting data at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.
The liquid fluoride thorium reactor (acronym LFTR; often pronounced lifter) is a type of molten salt reactor.
A liquid-propellant rocket or liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants.
Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).
Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1: The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans.
Semiconductor materials are nominally small band gap insulators.
Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos or LANL for short) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory initially organized during World War II for the design of nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project.
Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (16 May 1763 – 14 November 1829) was a French pharmacist and chemist.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
The Madelung constant is used in determining the electrostatic potential of a single ion in a crystal by approximating the ions by point charges.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
A magnetic cartridge, more commonly called a phonograph cartridge or phono cartridge or (colloquially) a pickup, is an electromechanical transducer used in the playback of analog sound recordings called records on a record player, now commonly called a turntable because of its most prominent component but formally known as a phonograph in the US and a gramophone in the UK.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
A main battle tank (MBT), also known as a battle tank or universal tank, is a tank that fills the armor-protected direct fire and maneuver role of many modern armies.
Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1 December 1743 – 1 January 1817) was a German chemist who discovered uranium (1789), zirconium (1789), and cerium (1803), and named titanium (1795) and tellurium (1798).
McLaren Racing Limited, competing as McLaren F1 Team, is a British Formula One team based at the McLaren Technology Centre, Woking, Surrey, England.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mercedes-Benz is a global automobile marque and a division of the German company Daimler AG.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
A metal matrix composite (MMC) is composite material with at least two constituent parts, one being a metal necessarily, the other material may be a different metal or another material, such as a ceramic or organic compound.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.
In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
A modulated neutron initiator is a neutron source capable of producing a burst of neutrons on activation.
Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is an epitaxy method for thin-film deposition of single crystals.
A molten salt reactor (MSR) is a class of generation IV nuclear fission reactor in which the primary nuclear reactor coolant, or even the fuel itself, is a molten salt mixture.
A monoisotopic element is one of 26 chemical elements which have only a single stable isotope (nuclide).
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.
A network solid or covalent network solid is a chemical compound (or element) in which the atoms are bonded by covalent bonds in a continuous network extending throughout the material.
Neutron emission is a mode of radioactive decay in which one or more neutrons are ejected from a nucleus.
Neutron generators are neutron source devices which contain compact linear accelerators and that produce neutrons by fusing isotopes of hydrogen together.
In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235 or a similar fissile nuclide.
A neutron reflector is any material that reflects neutrons.
A neutron source is any device that emits neutrons, irrespective of the mechanism used to produce the neutrons.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate.
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
In chemistry, octahedral molecular geometry describes the shape of compounds with six atoms or groups of atoms or ligands symmetrically arranged around a central atom, defining the vertices of an octahedron.
The octet rule is a chemical rule of thumb that reflects observation that atoms of main-group elements tend to combine in such a way that each atom has eight electrons in its valence shell, giving it the same electron configuration as a noble gas.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxidizing acid is a Brønsted acid that is a strong oxidizing agent.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.
The Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis (also known as the Stockholm papyrus) is a collection of craft recipes compiled in Egypt.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
A particle beam is a stream of charged or neutral particles, in many cases moving at near the speed of light.
In experimental and applied particle physics, nuclear physics, and nuclear engineering, a particle detector, also known as a radiation detector, is a device used to detect, track, and/or identify ionizing particles, such as those produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation, or reactions in a particle accelerator.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Paul Marie Alfred Lebeau (19 December 1868 – 18 November 1959) was a French chemist.
Pedogenesis (from the Greek pedo-, or pedon, meaning 'soil, earth,' and genesis, meaning 'origin, birth') (also termed soil development, soil evolution, soil formation, and soil genesis) is the process of soil formation as regulated by the effects of place, environment, and history.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
Phenakite or phenacite is a fairly rare nesosilicate mineral consisting of beryllium orthosilicate, Be2SiO4.
A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.
The pit, named after the hard core found in fruits such as peaches and apricots, is the core of an implosion nuclear weapon – the fissile material and any neutron reflector or tamper bonded to it.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
A power semiconductor device is a semiconductor device used as a switch or rectifier in power electronics; a switch-mode power supply is an example.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
Professional audio, abbreviated as pro audio, refers to both an activity and a category of high quality, studio-grade audio equipment.
In the study of past climates ("paleoclimatology"), climate proxies are preserved physical characteristics of the past that stand in for direct meteorological measurements and enable scientists to reconstruct the climatic conditions over a longer fraction of the Earth's history.
The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.
A public address system (PA system) is an electronic system comprising microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers, and related equipment.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
A refractory mineral is a mineral that is resistant to decomposition by heat, pressure, or chemical attack.
René Just Haüy FRS MWS FRSE (28 February 1743 – 3 June 1822) was a French priest and mineralogist, commonly styled the Abbé Haüy after he was made an honorary canon of Notre Dame.
For material flowing through a volume, the residence time is a measure of how much time the matter spends in it.
A rocket engine nozzle is a propelling nozzle (usually of the de Laval type) used in a rocket engine to expand and accelerate the combustion gases produced by burning propellants so that the exhaust gases exit the nozzle at hypersonic velocities.
Rocket propellant is a material used either directly by a rocket as the reaction mass (propulsive mass) that is ejected, typically with very high speed, from a rocket engine to produce thrust, and thus provide spacecraft propulsion, or indirectly to produce the reaction mass in a chemical reaction.
A safety data sheet (SDS), material safety data sheet (MSDS), or product safety data sheet (PSDS) is an important component of product stewardship, occupational safety and health, and spill-handling procedures.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sarcoidosis is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known as granulomas.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Scuderia Ferrari S.p.A. is the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer, Ferrari, and the racing team that competes in Formula One racing.
A selenide is a chemical compound containing a selenium anion with oxidation number of −2 (Se2&minus), much as sulfur does in a sulfide.
A silicide is a compound that has silicon with (usually) more electropositive elements.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, originally named Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is a United States Department of Energy National Laboratory operated by Stanford University under the programmatic direction of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science and located in Menlo Park, California.
Sodium fluoride (NaF) is an inorganic compound with the formula NaF.
Sodium fluorosilicate is a compound with the chemical formula Na2.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Soil erosion is the displacement of the upper layer of soil, one form of soil degradation.
The solar cycle or solar magnetic activity cycle is the nearly periodic 11-year change in the Sun's activity (including changes in the levels of solar radiation and ejection of solar material) and appearance (changes in the number and size of sunspots, flares, and other manifestations).
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Spallation is a process in which fragments of material (spall) are ejected from a body due to impact or stress.
A speaker driver is an individual loudspeaker transducer that converts an electrical audio signal to sound waves.
The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
The Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), is an infrared space telescope launched in 2003 and still operating as of 2018.
Resistance spot welding (RSW) is a process in which contacting metal surface points are joined by the heat obtained from resistance to electric current.
A spring is an elastic object that stores mechanical energy.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Stiffness is the rigidity of an object — the extent to which it resists deformation in response to an applied force.
In accelerator physics strong focusing or alternating-gradient focusing is the principle that the net effect on a particle beam of charged particles passing through alternating field gradients is to make the beam converge.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
Surface-mount technology (SMT) is a method for producing electronic circuits in which the components are mounted or placed directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs).
A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator, descended from the cyclotron, in which the accelerating particle beam travels around a fixed closed-loop path.
The telluride ion is the anion Te2− and its derivatives.
Tetrafluoroberyllate or orthofluoroberyllate BeF42− is an anion containing beryllium and fluorine.
The Tevatron was a circular particle accelerator (now inactive, since 2011) in the United States, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (also known as Fermilab), east of Batavia, Illinois, and holds the title of the second highest energy particle collider in the world, after the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) near Geneva, Switzerland.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
All electronic devices and circuitry generate excess heat and thus require thermal management to improve reliability and prevent premature failure.
Thermal stability also describes, as defined by Schmidt (1928), the stability of a water body and its resistance to mixing.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Torbern Olaf (Olof) Bergman (KVO) (20 March 17358 July 1784) was a Swedish chemist and mineralogist noted for his 1775 Dissertation on Elective Attractions, containing the largest chemical affinity tables ever published.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
A traveling-wave tube (TWT, pronounced "twit") or traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA, pronounced "tweeta") is a specialized vacuum tube that is used in electronics to amplify radio frequency (RF) signals in the microwave range.
In chemistry, a trimer is a molecule or an anion formed by combination or association of three molecules or ions of the same substance.
The triple-alpha process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions by which three helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles) are transformed into carbon.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
In chemistry, a tungstate is a compound that contains an oxoanion of tungsten or is a mixed oxide containing tungsten.
A tweeter or treble speaker is a special type of loudspeaker (usually dome or horn-type) that is designed to produce high audio frequencies, typically from around 2,000 Hz to 20,000 Hz (generally considered to be the upper limit of human hearing).
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The University of Sheffield (informally Sheffield University) is a public research university in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England.
Uranium dioxide or uranium(IV) oxide (2), also known as urania or uranous oxide, is an oxide of uranium, and is a black, radioactive, crystalline powder that naturally occurs in the mineral uraninite.
Utah is a state in the western United States.
The weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth.
Willemite is a zinc silicate mineral (Zn2SiO4) and a minor ore of zinc.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that converts electrical input power into X-rays.
Young's modulus, also known as the elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a solid material.
Yttrium oxide, also known as yttria, is Y2O3.
Zinc sulfide (or zinc sulphide) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula of ZnS.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.
Atomic number 4, Be (element), Be2+, Berillium, Berrylium, Berylium, Beryllium (element), Beryllium bonds, Beryllium metallurgy, Beryllium minerals, Berythium, Element 4, Glucinium, Glucinum, Glucium.