45 relations: Apparent magnitude, Arabic, Asterism (astronomy), Astronomical spectroscopy, Azimuth, Bayer designation, Be star, Bright Star Catalogue, Canis Minor, Carnegie Institution for Science, Catalogues of Fundamental Stars, Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg, Chinese language, Constellation, CSIRO, Durchmusterung, Effective temperature, Epsilon Canis Minoris, Frequency, General Catalogue of Variable Stars, Henry Draper Catalogue, Hipparcos, IAU Working Group on Star Names, International Astronomical Union, IRAS, Latinisation of names, Main sequence, MOST (satellite), Parallax, Phi Persei, Procyon, Rotational speed, Shell star, Slowly pulsating B-type star, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog, Solar mass, Space telescope, Spectral line, Star, Stellar classification, Stellar rotation, Subdwarf O star, Thermonuclear fusion, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Well (Chinese constellation).
The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
In observational astronomy, an asterism is a popular known pattern or group of stars that are recognised in the night sky.
Astronomical spectroscopy is the study of astronomy using the techniques of spectroscopy to measure the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light and radio, which radiates from stars and other celestial objects.
An azimuth (from the pl. form of the Arabic noun "السَّمْت" as-samt, meaning "the direction") is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system.
A Bayer designation is a stellar designation in which a specific star is identified by a Greek letter, followed by the genitive form of its parent constellation's Latin name.
Be Stars are a heterogeneous set of stars with B spectral types and emission lines.
The Bright Star Catalogue, also known as the Yale Catalogue of Bright Stars or Yale Bright Star Catalogue, is a star catalogue that lists all stars of stellar magnitude 6.5 or brighter, which is roughly every star visible to the naked eye from Earth.
Canis Minor is a small constellation in the northern celestial hemisphere.
The Carnegie Institution of Washington (the organization's legal name), known also for public purposes as the Carnegie Institution for Science (CIS), is an organization in the United States established to fund and perform scientific research.
The Catalogue of Fundamental Stars is a series of six astrometric catalogues of high precision positional data for a small selection of stars to define a celestial reference frame, which is a standard coordinate system for measuring positions of stars.
The Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS; English translation: Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center) is a data hub which collects and distributes astronomical information.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
A constellation is a group of stars that are considered to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices.
The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is an independent Australian federal government agency responsible for scientific research.
In astronomy, Durchmusterung or Bonner Durchmusterung (BD), is the comprehensive astrometric star catalogue of the whole sky, compiled by the Bonn Observatory (Germany) from 1859 to 1903.
The effective temperature of a body such as a star or planet is the temperature of a black body that would emit the same total amount of electromagnetic radiation.
Epsilon Canis Minoris (ε Canis Minoris) is a suspected binary star system in the equatorial constellation of Canis Minor.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
The General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS) is a list of variable stars.
The Henry Draper Catalogue (HD) is an astronomical star catalogue published between 1918 and 1924, giving spectroscopic classifications for 225,300 stars; it was later expanded by the Henry Draper Extension (HDE), published between 1925 and 1936, which gave classifications for 46,850 more stars, and by the Henry Draper Extension Charts (HDEC), published from 1937 to 1949 in the form of charts, which gave classifications for 86,933 more stars.
Hipparcos was a scientific satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), launched in 1989 and operated until 1993.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU) established a Working Group on Star Names (WGSN) in May 2016 to catalog and standardize proper names for stars for the international astronomical community.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was the first-ever space telescope to perform a survey of the entire night sky at infrared wavelengths.
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appear on plots of stellar color versus brightness.
The Microvariability and Oscillations of STars telescope, better known simply as MOST, is Canada's first space telescope.
Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.
Phi Persei (Phi Per, φ Persei, φ Per) is a Class B2Vpe, fourth-magnitude star in the constellation Perseus.
Procyon, also designated Alpha Canis Minoris (α Canis Minoris, abbreviated Alpha CMi, α CMi), is the brightest star in the constellation of Canis Minor.
Rotational speed (or speed of revolution) of an object rotating around an axis is the number of turns of the object divided by time, specified as revolutions per minute (rpm), cycles per second (cps), radians per second (rad/s), etc..
A shell star is a star having a spectrum that exhibits features indicating a circumstellar disc of gas surrounding the star at the equator.
A slowly pulsating B-type star (SPB), formerly known as a 53 Persei variable, is a type of pulsating variable star.
The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog is an astrometric star catalogue.
The solar mass is a standard unit of mass in astronomy, equal to approximately.
A space telescope or space observatory is an instrument located in outer space to observe distant planets, galaxies and other astronomical objects.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.
Stellar rotation is the angular motion of a star about its axis.
A subdwarf O star (sdO) is a type of hot, but low-mass star.
Thermonuclear fusion is a way to achieve nuclear fusion by using extremely high temperatures.
The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.
The Well mansion (井宿, pinyin: Jǐng Xiù; Japanese: chichiri-boshi) is one of the Twenty-eight mansions of the Chinese constellations.