347 relations: Abayudaya, Abraham Isaac Kook, Abyssinian people, Abyssinian–Adal war, Adal Sultanate, Adar, Addis Ababa, Afroasiatic languages, Agaw languages, Agaw people, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, Airliner, Algemeiner Journal, Aliyah, Alliance Israélite Universelle, Alms, Amda Seyon I, Amhara Region, Amharas, Amharic, Ancient DNA, Ancient Egypt, Anseriformes, Anusim, Ark of the Covenant, Ashkenazi Jews, Assyrian siege of Jerusalem, Atbarah River, Augustus, Autosome, Av, Avraham Shapira, Axum, École pratique des hautes études, Baptism, Begemder, Bene Israel, Benito Mussolini, Benjamin of Tudela, Beta Abraham, Bible, Biblical canon, Book of Baruch, Book of Deuteronomy, Book of Enoch, Book of Esther, Book of Jeremiah, Book of Joshua, Book of Jubilees, Book of Judges, ..., Book of Judith, Book of Lamentations, Book of Leviticus, Book of Ruth, Book of Tobit, Books of Kings, Cabinet of Israel, Cahiers d'Études Africaines, Cattle, Chairman, Cheshvan, Chief Rabbi, Chief Rabbinate of Israel, Cholera, Christian, Christian mission, Christianity, Church's Ministry Among Jewish People, Civil war, Cleopatra, Communism, Conversion table for Y chromosome haplogroups, Conversion to Judaism, Copenhagen International Film Festival, Cuba, Cult image, Daily Bruin, David ben Solomon ibn Abi Zimra, Dembiya, Derg, Deuterocanonical books, Dhu Nuwas, DNA, E. A. Wallis Budge, Easter, Edinburgh, Edmond James de Rothschild, Egypt, El Al, Elazar Shach, Eldad ha-Dani, Elephantine, Eliezer Waldenberg, Elijah of Ferrara, Elul, Emperor of Ethiopia, Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, Eritrea, Esdras, Ethiopia, Ethiopia–Israel relations, Ethiopian calendar, Ethiopian Empire, Ethiopian Jews in Israel, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethnogenesis, Europe, Ezana of Axum, Falash Mura, Famines in Ethiopia, Fast of Esther, Federal government of the United States, Frumentius, Ge'ez, Gelawdewos, Geopolitics, Gid hanasheh, Gojjam, Gondar, Gored gored, Gudit, Haaretz, Haile Selassie, Halakha, Hanukkah, Haplogroup A (Y-DNA), Haplogroup E-M215 (Y-DNA), Haplogroup E-M329, Haplogroup J (Y-DNA), Hasdai ibn Shaprut, Haymanot, Hebrew calendar, Hebrew language, Hebrews, Hell, Herodotus, Hezekiah, HIAS, High Priest of Israel, Himyarite Kingdom, Hip hop, History of Ethiopia, History of the Jews in Africa, India, Islam, Israel, Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, Israeli Jews, Israelites, Iyar, Jacques Faitlovitch, James Bruce, Jeroboam, Jerusalem, Jesus, Jewish Defense League, Jewish ethnic divisions, Jewish holidays, Jewish languages, Jewish peoplehood, Jewish question, Jews, Jews of Bilad el-Sudan, Joseph Halévy, Josippon, Judaism, Judea, Kahen, Kaleb of Axum, Karaite Judaism, Kashrut, Kayla dialect, Kebra Nagast, Khoisan languages, Kingdom of Aksum, Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy), Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Judah, Kingdom of Kush, Kiryat Gat, Kislev, Kitfo, Lake Tana, Law of Return, Letter to the Falashas, Lingua franca, Live and Become, Lunar calendar, Mandatory Palestine, Manhattan, Manuel de Almeida, Marco Polo, Megadim (journal), Menachem Begin, Menachem Elon, Menas of Ethiopia, Menelik I, Mengistu Haile Mariam, Meqabyan, Mikveh, Military dictatorship, Milk and meat in Jewish law, Ministry of Interior (Israel), Missionary, Mobile home, Modern Hebrew, Moses, Moshe Feinstein, Mossad, Mount Herzl, MTV Europe Music Award for Best Israeli Act, Muslim, Nebuchadnezzar II, Neo-Babylonian Empire, Netivot, New Year, New York University Press, Nile, Nilo-Saharan languages, Nisan, Non-Zionism, Nubia, Obadiah ben Abraham Bartenura, Octateuch, Omotic languages, Operation Joshua, Operation Moses, Operation Solomon, Oral Torah, Oriental studies, Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox Tewahedo biblical canon, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Syria, Ovadia Yosef, Paganism, Palestine (region), Paris, Passover, Pesach Sheni, Pliny the Elder, Posek, Protestantism, Psamtik I, Psamtik II, Qemant people, Queen of Sheba, Qwara dialect, Qwara Province, Rabbinic Judaism, Rabbinic literature, Radu Mihăileanu, Red Sea, Regions of Ethiopia, Rehoboam, Rehovot, Religion, Responsa, Revolutions of 1989, Richard Pankhurst (academic), Rinderpest, Ritual purification, Rosh Chodesh, Rosh Hashanah, Sabaeans, Sacred language, Salo Wittmayer Baron, Samson, Sarsa Dengel, Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Semien Mountains, Semien Province, Semitic languages, Sennacherib, Sennar (state), Septuagint, Shabbat, Shavuot, Shebna, Shevat, Shlomo Amar, Shlomo Goren, Shlomo Zalman Auerbach, Sigd, Sirach, Sivan, Slavery, Smallpox, Society of Jesus, Solomon, Solomon's Temple, Solomonic dynasty, Song of Songs, South Arabia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region, Soviet Union, Stanford University, Steve Kaplan (professor), Strabo, Strong Black Coffee, Sudan, Sukkot, Susenyos I, Tammuz (Hebrew month), Tekezé River, Ten Lost Tribes, Testament of Abraham, Testament of Isaac, Testament of Jacob, Tevet, Tewodros II, The Jerusalem Post, The Jewish Exponent, Tigray Province, Tigray Region, Tigrayan People's Liberation Front, Tigrayans, Tigrinya language, Tishrei, Torah, Traditional African religions, Tribe of Dan, Typhus, United States Air Force, Wegera (woreda), Welkait, Wolleka, World War II, Yemen, Yemenite Jews, Yeshaq I, Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, Yitzhak Rabin, Ynet, Yom Kippur, Yom Kippur Katan, Yosef Shalom Eliashiv, Zadok, Zagwe dynasty, Zemene Mesafint, 1 Esdras, 1890s African rinderpest epizootic, 1983–1985 famine in Ethiopia, 1990s Post-Soviet aliyah, 2 Esdras, 2015 MTV Europe Music Awards, 4 Baruch. Expand index (297 more) » « Shrink index
The Abayudaya (Abayudaya is Luganda for "People of Judah") are a Baganda community in eastern Uganda near the town of Mbale who practice a form of Judaism.
Abraham Isaac Kook (Abraham Yitshak ha-Kohen Kuk; 8 September 1865 – 11 September 1935) was an Orthodox rabbi, the first Ashkenazi chief rabbi of British Mandatory Palestine, the founder of Yeshiva Mercaz HaRav Kook (The Central Universal Yeshiva), a Jewish thinker, Halakhist, Kabbalist, and a renowned Torah scholar.
Abyssinian people (ሐበሻይት), also known as the Habesha or Abesha, are a population inhabiting the Horn of Africa.
The Abyssinian–Adal war was a military conflict between the Ethiopian Empire and the Adal Sultanate that took place from 1529 until 1543.
The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal (alt. spelling Adel Sultanate), was a Muslim Sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat. The kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the local inhabitants of Harar. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region immediately east of the Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia). The Adal Empire maintained a robust commercial and political relationship with the Ottoman Empire.
Adar (אֲדָר; from Akkadian adaru) is the sixth month of the civil year and the twelfth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar, roughly corresponding to the month of March in the Gregorian calendar.
Addis Ababa (አዲስ አበባ,, "new flower"; or Addis Abeba (the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority); Finfinne "natural spring") is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
The Agaw or Central Cushitic languages are spoken by small groups in Ethiopia and, in one case, Eritrea.
The Agaw (አገው Agäw, modern Agew) are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia and neighboring Eritrea.
Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Axmad Ibraahim al-Gaasi, Harari: አሕመድ ኢቢን ኢብራሂም አል ጋዚ, "Acmad Ibni Ibrahim Al-Gaazi" Afar, أحمد بن إبراهيم الغازي) "the Conqueror" (c. 1506 – February 21, 1543) was an Imam and General of the Adal Sultanate who fought against the Abyssinian empire and defeated several Abysinian Emperors.
An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo.
The Algemeiner Journal is a New York-based newspaper, covering American and international Jewish and Israel-related news.
Aliyah (עֲלִיָּה aliyah, "ascent") is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel (Eretz Israel in Hebrew).
The Alliance israélite universelle (כל ישראל חברים) is a Paris-based international Jewish organization founded in 1860 by the French statesman Adolphe Crémieux to safeguard the human rights of Jews around the world.
Alms or almsgiving involves giving to others as an act of virtue, either materially or in the sense of providing capabilities (e.g. education) free.
Amda Seyon I (also Amde Tsiyon and other variants, Ge'ez ዐምደ ፡ ጽዮን ʿamda ṣiyōn, Amharic āmde ṣiyōn, "Pillar of Zion") was Emperor of Ethiopia (1314–1344; throne name Gebre Mesqel Ge'ez ገብረ ፡ መስቀል gabra masḳal, Amh. gebre mesḳel, "slave of the cross"), and a member of the Solomonic dynasty.
Amhara (Amharic: አማራ) is one of the nine ethnic divisions (kililoch) of Ethiopia, containing the homeland of the Amhara people.
Amharas (አማራ, Āmara; አምሐራ, ʾÄməḥära), also known as Abyssinians, are an ethnic group traditionally inhabiting the northern and central highlands of Ethiopia, particularly the Amhara Region.
Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.
Ancient DNA (aDNA) is DNA isolated from ancient specimens.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Anseriformes is an order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and Anatidae, the largest family, which includes over 170 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans.
Anusim (אֲנוּסִים,; singular male, Anús, אָנוּס; singular female, Anusáh,, meaning "Coerced") is a legal category of Jews in halakha (Jewish law) who were forced to abandon Judaism against their will, typically while forcibly converted to another religion.
The Ark of the Covenant, also known as the Ark of the Testimony, is a gold-covered wooden chest with lid cover described in the Book of Exodus as containing the two stone tablets of the Ten Commandments.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
In approximately 701 BCE, Sennacherib, king of Assyria, attacked the fortified cities of Judah, laying siege on Jerusalem, but failed to capture it (it is the only city mentioned as being besieged on Sennacherib's Stele, of which the capture is not mentioned).
The Atbarah River (نهر عطبرة; transliterated: Nahr 'Atbarah) in northeast Africa rises in northwest Ethiopia, approximately 50 km north of Lake Tana and 30 km west of Gondar.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).
Av (אָב, Standard Av Tiberian ʾĀḇ Aramaic אבא Abba; from Akkadian abu; "father") is the eleventh month of the civil year and the fifth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar.
Avraham Shapira (אברהם אלקנה כהנא שפירא; 20 May 1914, Jerusalem – 27 September 2007) was a prominent rabbi in the Religious Zionist world.
Axum or Aksum (ኣኽሱም, አክሱም) is a city in the northern part of Ethiopia.
The École pratique des hautes études, abbreviated EPHE, is a Grand Établissement in Paris, France, and a constituent college of PSL Research University.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
Begemder (Amharic: በጌምድር) (also Gondar or Gonder after its 20th century capital) was a province in the northwestern part of Ethiopia.
The Bene Israel ("Sons of Israel"), formerly known in India as the "Shanivar Teli" caste (Saturday Oil Presser caste) and later as the "Native Jew Caste", are a historic community of Jews in India.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Benjamin of Tudela (בִּנְיָמִין מִטּוּדֶלָה,; بنيامين التطيلي;‎ Tudela, Kingdom of Navarre, 1130Castile, 1173) was a medieval Jewish traveler who visited Europe, Asia, and Africa in the 12th century.
Beta Abraham (בֵּיתֶא אַבְרָהָם, Ge'ez: Bēta Abreham, "House of Abraham") other terms by which the community have been known include Tebiban ("possessor of secret knowledge"), Balla Ejj (Ge'ez: "Craftsmens"), Buda (Ge'ez: "evil eye") and Kayla (the Agaw language spoken by them).
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular religious community regards as authoritative scripture.
The Book of Baruch, occasionally referred to as 1 Baruch, is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible in some Christian traditions.
The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law," from Greek deuteros + nomos) is the fifth book of the Torah (a section of the Hebrew Bible) and the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Enoch (also 1 Enoch; Ge'ez: መጽሐፈ ሄኖክ mets’iḥāfe hēnoki) is an ancient Jewish religious work, ascribed by tradition to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah.
The Book of Esther, also known in Hebrew as "the Scroll" (Megillah), is a book in the third section (Ketuvim, "Writings") of the Jewish Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) and in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Jeremiah (ספר יִרְמְיָהוּ; abbreviated Jer. or Jerm. in citations) is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and the second of the Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Joshua (ספר יהושע) is the sixth book in the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) and the first book of the Deuteronomistic history, the story of Israel from the conquest of Canaan to the Babylonian exile.
The Book of Jubilees, sometimes called Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work of 50 chapters, considered canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church as well as Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jews), where it is known as the Book of Division (Ge'ez: መጽሃፈ ኩፋሌ Mets'hafe Kufale).
The Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is the seventh book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the Septuagint and the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christian Old Testament of the Bible, but excluded from Jewish texts and assigned by Protestants to the Apocrypha.
The Book of Lamentations (אֵיכָה, ‘Êykhôh, from its incipit meaning "how") is a collection of poetic laments for the destruction of Jerusalem.
The Book of Leviticus is the third book of the Torah and of the Old Testament.
The Book of Ruth (מגילת רות, Ashkenazi pronunciation:, Megilath Ruth, "the Scroll of Ruth", one of the Five Megillot) is included in the third division, or the Writings (Ketuvim), of the Hebrew Bible; in most Christian canons it is treated as a history book and placed between Judges and 1 Samuel, as it is set "in the days when the judges judged", although the Syriac Christian tradition places it later, between Ecclesiastes and the Song of Songs.
The Book of Tobit is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox biblical canons, pronounced canonical by the Council of Hippo (in 393), Councils of Carthage of 397 and 417, Council of Florence (in 1442) and confirmed for Roman Catholics by the Council of Trent (1546).
The two Books of Kings, originally a single book, are the eleventh and twelfth books of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament.
The Government of Israel (officially: ממשלת ישראל Memshelet Yisrael) exercises executive authority in the State of Israel.
The Cahiers d'Études Africaines is a peer-reviewed open access academic journal covering topics in the social sciences as relating to Africa, the West Indies, and the African diaspora.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
The chairman (also chairperson, chairwoman or chair) is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly.
Marcheshvan (מַרְחֶשְׁוָן, Standard Marḥešvan Tiberian Marḥešwān; from Akkadian waraḫsamnu, literally, "eighth month"), sometimes shortened to Cheshvan (Standard Ḥešvan Tiberian Ḥešwān), is the second month of the civil year (which starts on 1 Tishrei), and the eighth month of the ecclesiastical year (which starts on 1 Nisan) on the Hebrew calendar.
Chief Rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognised religious leader of that country's Jewish community, or to a rabbinic leader appointed by the local secular authorities.
The Chief Rabbinate of Israel (הרבנות הראשית לישראל, Ha-Rabanut Ha-Rashit Li-Yisra'el) is recognized by law as the supreme rabbinic and spiritual authority for Judaism in Israel.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Church's Ministry Among Jewish People (CMJ) (formerly the London Jews' Society and the London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews) is an Anglican missionary society founded in 1809.
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.
Cleopatra VII Philopator (Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ Cleopatra Philopator; 69 – August 10 or 12, 30 BC)Theodore Cressy Skeat, in, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
In human population genetics, Y-Chromosome haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor in Africa.
Conversion to Judaism (גיור, giyur) is the religious conversion of non-Jews to become members of the Jewish religion and Jewish ethnoreligious community.
Copenhagen International Film Festival (CIFF) was a film festival held annually in Copenhagen, Denmark from 2003 to 2008.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
In the practice of religion, a cult image is a human-made object that is venerated or worshipped for the deity, spirit or daemon that it embodies or represents.
The Daily Bruin is the student newspaper at the University of California, Los Angeles.
Rabbi David ben Solomon ibn (Abi) Zimra (דוד בן שלמה אבן אבי זמרא), also called Radbaz (רדב"ז) after the initials of his name, Rabbi David iBn Zimra, was an early Acharon of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries who was a leading posek, rosh yeshiva, chief rabbi, and author of more than 3,000 responsa (halakhic decisions) as well as several scholarly works.
Dembiya (Amharic: ደምቢያ, dembīyā; also transliterated Dembea, Dambya, Dembya, Dambiya, etc.) is a historic region of Ethiopia, intimately linked with Lake Tana.
The Derg, Common Derg or Dergue (Ge'ez: ደርግ, meaning "committee" or "council") is the short name of the Coordinating Committee of the Armed Forces, Police and Territorial Army that ruled Ethiopia from 1974 to 1987.
The deuterocanonical books (from the Greek meaning "belonging to the second canon") is a term adopted in the 16th century by the Roman Catholic Church to denote those books and passages of the Christian Old Testament, as defined in 1546 by the Council of Trent, that were not found in the Hebrew Bible.
Dhū Nuwās, (ذو نواس) or Yūsuf Ibn Sharhabeel (يوسف بن شرحبيل) Syriac Masruq; Greek Dounaas (Δουναας), was a Judaic king of Ḥimyar between 517 and 525-27 CE, who came to renown on account of his military exploits against people of other religions living in his kingdom.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Sir Ernest Alfred Thompson Wallis Budge (27 July 185723 November 1934) was an English Egyptologist, Orientalist, and philologist who worked for the British Museum and published numerous works on the ancient Near East.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
Baron Abraham Edmond Benjamin James de Rothschild (19 August 1845 – 2 November 1934) was a French member of the Rothschild banking family.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
El Al Israel Airlines Ltd. (TASE: ELAL), trading as El Al (אל על, "To the Skies" or "Skywards", إل-عال), is the flag carrier of Israel.
Elazar Menachem Man Shach (אלעזר מנחם מן שך) Elazar Shach (January 1, 1899 O.S. – November 2, 2001) was a leading Lithuanian-Jewish Haredi rabbi in Bnei Brak, Israel.
Eldad ha-Dani or Eldad HaDani or Eldad ben Mahli ha-Dani (אלדד הדני) was a Jewish, Hebrew-writing merchant and traveler of the ninth century.
Elephantine (Gazīrat il-Fantīn; Ἐλεφαντίνη) is an island on the Nile, forming part of the city of Aswan in Upper Egypt.
Eliezer Yehuda Waldenberg (הרב אליאזר יהודה וולדנברג, December 10, 1915 – November 21, 2006) was a rabbi, posek, and dayan in Jerusalem.
Elijah of Ferrara (Hebrew: אליהו מפררה, or אליהו מפרארה) was a Jewish-Italian Talmudist and traveler of the earlier part of the 15th century.
Elul (אֱלוּל, Standard Elul Tiberian ʾĔlûl) is the twelfth month of the Jewish civil year and the sixth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar.
The Emperor of Ethiopia (ንጉሠ ነገሥት, nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings") was the hereditary ruler of the Ethiopian Empire, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975.
The Encyclopaedia Aethiopica (EAe) is a basic Encyclopaedia for Ethiopian and Eritrean Studies.
Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
Esdras (Ἔσδρας) is a Greco-Latin variation of the name of Hebrew Ezra the Scribe (עזרא).
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Ethiopia–Israel relations are foreign relations between Ethiopia and Israel.
The Ethiopian calendar (የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር; yä'Ityoṗṗya zämän aḳoṭaṭär) is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and also serves as the liturgical year for Christians in Eritrea and Ethiopia belonging to the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eastern Catholic Churches and Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.
The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia.
Ethiopian Jews in Israel are immigrants and descendants of the immigrants of the Beta Israel communities of Ethiopia, who now reside in Israel.
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (የኢትዮጵያ:ኦርቶዶክስ:ተዋሕዶ:ቤተ:ክርስቲያን; Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is the largest of the Oriental Orthodox Christian Churches.
Ethnogenesis (from Greek ethnos ἔθνος, "group of people, nation", and genesis γένεσις, "beginning, coming into being"; plural ethnogeneses) is "the formation and development of an ethnic group." This can originate through a process of self-identification as well as come about as the result of outside identification.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
‘Ezana of Axum (ዔዛና ‘Ezana, unvocalized ዐዘነ ‘zn; also spelled Aezana or Aizan) was ruler of the Kingdom of Aksum (320s – c. 360 CE) located in present-day northern Ethiopia, Yemen, part of southern Saudi Arabia, northern Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea, and parts of Sudan.
Falash Mura is the name given to those of the Beta Israel community in Ethiopia and Eritrea who converted to Christianity under pressure from the mission during the 19th and 20th centuries.
Subjectively the Economy of Ethiopia was based on subsistence agriculture, with an aristocracy that consumed the surplus.
The Fast of Esther (Ta'anit Ester, תַּעֲנִית אֶסְתֵּר) is a fast from dawn until dusk on Purim eve, commemorating the three-day fast observed by the Jewish people in the story of Purim.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
Saint Frumentius (ፍሬምናጦስ Fremnāṭos; born in Tyre, Eastern Roman Empire, in the early fourth century, died circa 383, Kingdom of Aksum) was the first bishop of Axum, and is credited with bringing Christianity to the Kingdom of Aksum.
Ge'ez (ግዕዝ,; also transliterated Giʻiz) is an ancient South Semitic language and a member of the Ethiopian Semitic group.
Gelawdewos (ገላውዴዎስ galāwdēwōs, modern gelāwdēwōs, "Claudius"; 1521/1522 – 23 March 1559) was Emperor (throne name Asnaf Sagad I (አጽናፍ ሰገድ aṣnāf sagad, modern āṣnāf seged, "to whom the horizon bows" or "the remotest regions submit "; September 3, 1540 – March 23, 1559) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty. He was a younger son of Dawit II by Sabla Wengel.
Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ gê "earth, land" and πολιτική politikḗ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations.
Gid hanasheh (גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה), often translated as "displaced tendon," is the term for sciatic nerve in Judaism.
Gojjam (Amharic: ጎጃም gōjjām or Goǧǧam, originally ጐዛም gʷazzam, later ጐዣም gʷažžām, ጎዣም gōžžām) was a kingdom in the north-western part of Ethiopia, with its capital city at Debre Marqos.
Gondar or Gonder (Amharic: ጎንደር, Gonder or Gondär; formerly ጐንደር, Gʷandar or Gʷender) is a city and separate woreda in Ethiopia.
Gored gored is a raw beef dish eaten in Ethiopia.
Gudit (ጉዲት, Judith) was a non-Christian queen (flourished c. 960) who laid waste to Axum and its countryside, destroyed churches and monuments, and attempted to exterminate the members of the ruling dynasty of the Kingdom of Aksum.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Haile Selassie I (ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ, qädamawi haylä səllasé,;, born Ras Tafari Makonnen, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Hanukkah (חֲנֻכָּה, Tiberian:, usually spelled rtl, pronounced in Modern Hebrew, or in Yiddish; a transliteration also romanized as Chanukah or Ḥanukah) is a Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple (the Second Temple) in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire.
Haplogroup A is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
E-M215, also known as E1b1b and formerly E3b, is a major human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
E1b1a2 is defined by the SNP mutation M329.
Haplogroup J-M304, also known as J, (2 February 2016).
Hasdai (Abu Yusuf ben Yitzhak ben Ezra) ibn Shaprut (חסדאי אבן שפרוט) born about 915 at Jaén, Spain; died about 970 at Córdoba, Andalusia, was a Jewish scholar, physician, diplomat, and patron of science.
Haymanot (Ge'ez: ሃይማኖት) is the branch of Judaism practiced by the Beta Israel, also known as Ethiopian Jews.
The Hebrew or Jewish calendar (Ha-Luah ha-Ivri) is a lunisolar calendar used today predominantly for Jewish religious observances.
Hebrews (Hebrew: עברים or עבריים, Tiberian ʿIḇrîm, ʿIḇriyyîm; Modern Hebrew ʿIvrim, ʿIvriyyim; ISO 259-3 ʕibrim, ʕibriyim) is a term appearing 34 times within 32 verses of the Hebrew Bible.
Hell, in many religious and folkloric traditions, is a place of torment and punishment in the afterlife.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hezekiah was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the son of Ahaz and the 13th king of Judah.
HIAS (founded as the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society) is an American nonprofit organization that provides humanitarian aid and assistance to refugees.
High priest (כהן גדול kohen gadol; with definite article ha'kohen ha'gadol, the high priest; Aramaic kahana rabba) was the title of the chief religious official of Judaism from the early post-Exilic times until the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE.
The Ḥimyarite Kingdom or Ḥimyar (مملكة حِمْيَر, Mamlakat Ḥimyar, Musnad: 𐩢𐩣𐩺𐩧𐩣, ממלכת חִמְיָר) (fl. 110 BCE–520s CE), historically referred to as the Homerite Kingdom by the Greeks and the Romans, was a kingdom in ancient Yemen.
Hip hop, or hip-hop, is a subculture and art movement developed in the Bronx in New York City during the late 1970s.
This article covers the prehistory & history of Ethiopia, from emergence as an empire under the Aksumites to its current form as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, as well as the history of other areas in what is now Ethiopia such as the Afar Triangle.
African Jewish communities include.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (הלשכה המרכזית לסטטיסטיקה, HaLishka HaMerkazit LiStatistika), abbreviated CBS, is an Israeli government office established in 1949 to carry out research and publish statistical data on all aspects of Israeli life, including population, society, economy, industry, education, and physical infrastructure.
Israeli Jews (יהודים ישראלים, Yehudim Yisraelim), also known as Jewish Israelis, refers to Israeli citizens of the Jewish ethnicity or faith, and also the descendants of Israeli-Jewish emigrants outside of Israel.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Iyar (אִייָר or אִיָּר, Standard Iyyar Tiberian ʾIyyār; from Akkadian ayyaru, meaning "Rosette; blossom") is the eighth month of the civil year (which starts on 1 Tishrei) and the second month of the ecclesiastical year (which starts on 1 Nisan) on the Hebrew calendar.
Jacques Faitlovitch (1881–1955), an Ashkenazi Jew born in Łódź, Congress Poland, studied Ethiopian languages at the Sorbonne under Joseph Halévy.
James Bruce of Kinnaird (14 December 1730 – 27 April 1794) was a Scottish traveller and travel writer who spent more than a dozen years in North Africa and Ethiopia, where he traced the origins of the Blue Nile.
Jeroboam I (Hebrew: Yārāḇə‘ām; Ierovoám) was the first king of the northern Kingdom of Israel after the revolt of the ten northern Israelite tribes against Rehoboam that put an end to the United Monarchy.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
The Jewish Defense League (JDL) is a Jewish far-right religious-political organization in the United States, whose stated goal is to "protect Jews from antisemitism by whatever means necessary".
Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinctive communities within the world's ethnically Jewish population.
Jewish holidays, also known as Jewish festivals or Yamim Tovim ("Good Days", or singular Yom Tov, in transliterated Hebrew), are holidays observed in Judaism and by JewsThis article focuses on practices of mainstream Rabbinic Judaism.
Jewish languages are the various languages and dialects that developed in Jewish communities in the diaspora.
Jewish peoplehood (Hebrew: עמיות יהודית, Amiut Yehudit) is the conception of the awareness of the underlying unity that makes an individual a part of the Jewish people.
The Jewish question was a wide-ranging debate in 19th- and 20th-century European society pertaining to the appropriate status and treatment of Jews in society.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jews of the Bilad al-Sudan (Judeo-Arabic) describes West African Jewish communities who were connected to known Jewish communities from the Middle East, North Africa, or Spain and Portugal.
Joseph Halévy (15 December 1827, Adrianople – 21 January 1917, Paris) was an Ottoman born Jewish-French Orientalist and traveller.
Josippon is a chronicle of Jewish history from Adam to the age of Titus believed to have been written by Josippon or Joseph ben Gorion.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
Kahen (ካሀን kahən "priest", plural ካሀንት kahənat) is a religious role in Beta Israel second only to the monk or falasyan.
Kaleb (c. 520) is perhaps the best-documented, if not best-known, King of Axum situated in modern-day Eritrea and North Ethiopia.
Karaite Judaism or Karaism (also spelt Qaraite Judaism or Qaraism) is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the Tanakh alone as its supreme authority in Halakha (Jewish religious law) and theology.
Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.
Kayla, or Kayliñña (Ge'ez: ካይላ kāylā, for the people, Ge'ez: ካይልኛ kāylññā, Kayla, Amharic, and Tigrinya for the language) is one of two Agaw dialects formerly spoken by a subgroup of the Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jews).
The Kebra Nagast (var. Kebra Negast, Ge'ez ክብረ ነገሥት, kəbrä nägäśt) is a 14th-century account written in Ge'ez, an ancient South Semitic language that originated in modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The Khoisan languages (also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg.
The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The United Monarchy is the name given to the Israelite kingdom of Israel and Judah, during the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon, as depicted in the Hebrew Bible.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Judah (מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה, Mamlekhet Yehudāh) was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant.
The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and the Atbarah River in what are now Sudan and South Sudan.
Kiryat Gat (קִרְיַת גַּת), is a city in the Southern District of Israel.
Kislev (Hebrew: כִּסְלֵו, Standard Kislev Tiberian Kislēw; also Chislev) is the third month of the civil year and the ninth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar.
Kitfo (ክትፎ), sometimes spelled ketfo, is a traditional dish found in Ethiopian cuisine.
Lake Tana (also spelled T'ana, ጣና ሀይቅ,,; an older variant is Tsana, Ge'ez: ጻና Ṣānā; sometimes called "Dembiya" after the region to the north of the lake) is the source of the Blue Nile and is the largest lake in Ethiopia.
The Law of Return (חֹוק הַשְׁבוּת, ḥok ha-shvūt) is an Israeli law, passed on 5 July 1950, which gives Jews the right to come and live in Israel and to gain Israeli citizenship.
This is the letter written in 1905 by the Karaite Jews of Saint Petersburg under Samuel ben Moses Shapshal to the Falashas.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Live and Become (Va, vis et deviens) is a 2005 French drama film about an Ethiopian Christian boy who disguises himself as an Ethiopian Jew to escape famine and emigrates to Israel.
A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases (synodic months), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly upon the solar year.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.
Manuel de Almeida (sometimes Manoel de Almeida, 1580–1646) was a native of Viseu who entered at an early age into the Society of Jesus and went out as a missionary to India.
Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
Megadim (מגדים) is a Hebrew language journal about the Hebrew Bible.
Menachem Begin (Menaḥem Begin,; Menakhem Volfovich Begin; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of Israel.
Menachem Elon (Menachem_elon.ogg) (November 1, 1923 – February 6, 2013) was an Israeli jurist and Professor of Law specializing in Mishpat Ivri, an Orthodox rabbi, and a prolific author on traditional Jewish law (Halakha).
Menas (Ge'ez: ሜናስ mēnās) or Minas, throne name Admas Sagad I (Ge'ez: አድማስ ሰገድ admās sagad, Amh. ādmās seged, "to whom the horizon bows"), (? – 1 February 1563) was nəgusä nägäst (1559 - February 1, 1563) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty.
Menelik I (called Bäynä Ləḥkəm in the Kebra Nagast; also named Ebna la-Hakim; ابن الحكماء,, "Son of the Wise"), first Solomonic Emperor of Ethiopia, is traditionally believed to be the son of King Solomon of ancient Israel and Makeda, ancient Queen of Sheba.
Mengistu Haile Mariam (መንግስቱ ኃይለ ማርያም, pronounced; born 21 May 1937) is an Ethiopian soldier and politician who was the dictator of Ethiopia from 1977 to 1991.
Meqabyan, also referred to as Ethiopian Maccabees or Ethiopic Maccabees (Amharic: መቃብያን, which is also transliterated as Makabian), are three books found only in the Ethiopian Orthodox Old Testament and Beta Israel Mäṣḥafä Kedus Biblical canon.
Mikveh or mikvah (mikva'ot, mikvoth, mikvot, or (Yiddish) mikves, "a collection") is a bath used for the purpose of ritual immersion in Judaism to achieve ritual purity.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
Mixtures of milk and meat (בשר בחלב, basar bechalav, literally "meat in milk") are prohibited according to Jewish law.
The Ministry of Interior (משרד הפנים, Misrad HaPnim; وزارة الداخلية) in the State of Israel is one of the government offices that is responsible for local government, citizenship and residency, identity cards, and student and entry visas.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
A mobile home (also trailer, trailer home, house trailer, static caravan, residential caravan) is a prefabricated structure, built in a factory on a permanently attached chassis before being transported to site (either by being towed or on a trailer).
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
Rabbi Moses Feinstein (משה פײַנשטיין Moshe Faynshteyn; March 3, 1895 – March 23, 1986) was a Haredi Orthodox rabbi, scholar, and posek (an authoritative adjudicator of questions related to Jewish law), who was world-renowned for his expertise in Halakha, gentleness, and compassion, and was regarded by many as the de facto supreme halakhic authority for observant Jews in North America.
Mossad (הַמוֹסָד,; الموساد,,; literally meaning "the Institute"), short for (המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, meaning "Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations"), is the national intelligence agency of Israel.
Mount Herzl (הר הרצל Har Hertsl), also Har ha-Zikaron (lit. "Mount of Remembrance"), is the site of Israel's national cemetery and other memorial and educational facilities, found on the west side of Jerusalem beside the Jerusalem Forest.
The following is a list of the MTV Europe Music Award winners and nominees for Best Israeli Act.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Nebuchadnezzar II (from Akkadian dNabû-kudurri-uṣur), meaning "O god Nabu, preserve/defend my firstborn son") was king of Babylon c. 605 BC – c. 562 BC, the longest and most powerful reign of any monarch in the Neo-Babylonian empire.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire (also Second Babylonian Empire) was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.
Netivot (נְתִיבוֹת, "paths") is a city in the Southern District of Israel located between Beersheba and Gaza.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New York University Press (or NYU Press) is a university press that is part of New York University.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
The Nilo-Saharan languages are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile meet.
Nisan (or Nissan; נִיסָן, Standard Nisan Tiberian Nîsān) on the Assyrian calendar is the first month, and on the Hebrew calendar is the first month of the ecclesiastical year and the seventh month (eighth, in leap year) of the civil year.
Non-Zionism is the political stance of Jews who "were willing to help support depoliticized Jewish settlement in Palestine (...) but will not come on aliyah."David Polish, Prospects for Post-Holocaust Zionism, in Moshe David (editor), Zionism in Transition, Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Arno Press, 1980, p.315.
Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.
Ovadiah ben Abraham of Bertinoro (עובדיה בן אברהם מברטנורא) (1445 – 1515) was a 15th-century Italian rabbi best known for his popular commentary on the Mishnah, commonly known as "The Bartenura".
The Octateuch is a traditional name for the first eight books of the Bible, comprising the Pentateuch, plus the Book of Joshua, the Book of Judges and the Book of Ruth.
The Omotic languages are group of languages spoken in southwestern Ethiopia.
Operation Joshua, also known as Operation Sheba, was the 1985 airlifting of Ethiopian Jews from refugee camps in Sudan to Israel.
Operation Moses (מִבְצָע מֹשֶׁה, Mivtza Moshe) refers to the covert evacuation of Ethiopian Jews (known as the "Beta Israel" community or "Falashas") from Sudan during a civil war that caused a famine in 1984.
Operation Solomon (מבצע שלמה, Mivtza Shlomo) was a covert Israeli military operation to airlift Ethiopian Jews to Israel from May 24 to May 25, 1991.
According to Rabbinic Judaism, the Oral Torah or Oral Law (lit. "Torah that is on the mouth") represents those laws, statutes, and legal interpretations that were not recorded in the Five Books of Moses, the "Written Torah" (lit. "Torah that is in writing"), but nonetheless are regarded by Orthodox Jews as prescriptive and co-given.
Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, peoples, history and archaeology; in recent years the subject has often been turned into the newer terms of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies.
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.
The Orthodox Tewahedo churches within the Oriental Orthodox Church currently have the largest and most diverse biblical canon in traditional Christendom.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Syria refers to the parts of modern-day Syria or of Greater Syria which were subjected to Ottoman rule, anytime between the Ottoman conquests on the Mamluk Sultanate in the early 16th century and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire in 1922.
Ovadia Yosef (עובדיה יוסף Ovadya Yosef,; September 24, 1920 – October 7, 2013) was an Iraqi-born Talmudic scholar, a posek, the Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel from 1973 to 1983, and the founder and long-time spiritual leader of Israel's ultra-Orthodox Shas party.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Passover or Pesach (from Hebrew Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday.
Pesach Sheni (Hebrew: פסח שני, trans. Second Passover) occurs every year on 14 Iyar.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Posek (פוסק, pl. Poskim) is the term in Jewish law for "decisor"—a legal scholar who decides the Halakha in cases of law where previous authorities are inconclusive or in those situations where no halakhic precedent exists.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Wahibre Psamtik I, known by the Greeks as Psammeticus or Psammetichus (Latinization of translit), who ruled 664–610 BC, was the first of three kings of that name of the Saite, or Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt.
Psamtik II (also spelled Psammetichus or Psammeticus) was a king of the Saite-based Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (595 BC – 589 BC).
The Qemant are a small subgroup of the Agaw people in Ethiopia, who traditionally practiced an early Hebrew religion.
The Queen of Sheba (Musnad: 𐩣𐩡𐩫𐩩𐩪𐩨𐩱) is a figure first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible.
Qwara, or Qwareña (called "Falasha" (Hwarasa) in some older sources), was one of two Agaw dialects, spoken by a subgroup of the Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jews) of the Qwara area.
Qwara (Amharic: ቋራ) (also spelled K'wara) was a province in Ethiopia, located between Lake Tana and the frontier with Sudan, and stretching from Agawmeder in the south as far north as Metemma.
Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism (יהדות רבנית Yahadut Rabanit) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Babylonian Talmud.
Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history.
Radu Mihăileanu (born 23 April 1958) is a Romanian-born French film director and screenwriter.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Ethiopia is a federal state subdivided into ethno-linguistically based regional states (plural: kililoch; singular: kilil) and chartered cities (plural: astedader akababiwach; singular: astedader akabibi).
Rehoboam was the fourth king of Israel according to the Hebrew Bible.
Rehovot (רְחוֹבוֹת) is a city in the Central District of Israel, about south of Tel Aviv.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Responsa (Latin: plural of responsum, "answers") comprise a body of written decisions and rulings given by legal scholars in response to questions addressed to them.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Richard Keir Pethick Pankhurst OBE (3 December 1927 – 16 February 2017) was a British academic, founding member of the Institute of Ethiopian Studies, and former professor at the University of Addis Ababa in Ethiopia.
Rinderpest (also cattle plague or steppe murrain) was an infectious viral disease of cattle, domestic buffalo, and many other species of even-toed ungulates, including buffaloes, large antelope and deer, giraffes, wildebeests, and warthogs.
Ritual purification is the purification ritual prescribed by a religion by which a person about to perform some ritual is considered to be free of uncleanliness, especially prior to the worship of a deity, and ritual purity is a state of ritual cleanliness.
Rosh Chodesh or Rosh Hodesh (ראש חודש; trans. Beginning of the Month; lit. Head of the Month) is the name for the first day of every month in the Hebrew calendar, marked by the birth of a new moon.
Rosh Hashanah (רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה), literally meaning the "beginning (also head) the year" is the Jewish New Year.
The Sabaeans or Sabeans (اَلـسَّـبَـئِـيُّـون,; שבא; Musnad: 𐩪𐩨𐩱) were an ancient people speaking an Old South Arabian language who lived in the southern Arabian Peninsula.
A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily life.
Salo Wittmayer Baron (May 26, 1895 – November 25, 1989) was a Polish-born American historian, described as "the greatest Jewish historian of the 20th century".
Samson (Shimshon, "man of the sun") was the last of the judges of the ancient Israelites mentioned in the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible (chapters 13 to 16) and one of the last of the leaders who "judged" Israel before the institution of the monarchy.
Sarsa Dengel (Ge'ez ሠረጸ ድንግል śarṣa dingil, Amh. serṣe dingil "Sprout of the Virgin", 1550 – 4 October 1597) was nəgusä nägäst (throne name Malak Sagad I, Ge'ez መልአክ ሰገድ mal'ak sagad, Amh. mel'āk seged, "to whom the angel bows") (1563–1597) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.
The Semien Mountains (Amharic: ስሜን ተራሮች) (or Səmen; also spelled Simien and Simen), in northern Ethiopia, north east of Gondar in Amhara region, are part of the Ethiopian Highlands.
Semien Province was a historical province of northwest Ethiopia, often called Gondar.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Sennacherib was the king of Assyria from 705 BCE to 681 BCE.
Sennar is one of the 18 wilayat or states of Sudan.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.
Shavuot or Shovuos, in Ashkenazi usage; Shavuʿoth in Sephardi and Mizrahi Hebrew (שבועות, lit. "Weeks"), is known as the Feast of Weeks in English and as Pentecost (Πεντηκοστή) in Ancient Greek.
Shebna was "treasurer over the house" (meaning comptroller or governor of the palace) in the reign of king Hezekiah of Judah, according to the Hebrew Bible.
Shevat (Hebrew: שְׁבָט, Standard Šəvat Tiberian Šəḇāṭ; from Akkadian Šabātu) is the fifth month of the civil year starting in Tishre (or Tishri) and the eleventh month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar starting in Nisan.
Shlomo Moshe Amar (שלמה משה עמאר; born in 1948)Gantz, Nesanel.
Shlomo Goren (שלמה גורן) (February 3, 1917 – October 29, 1994), was an Orthodox Religious Zionist rabbi in Israel, a Talmudic scholar and foremost authority on Jewish law.
Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (שלמה זלמן אויערבאך; July 20, 1910 - February 20, 1995) was a renowned Orthodox Jewish rabbi, posek, and rosh yeshiva of the Kol Torah yeshiva in Jerusalem, Israel.
Mehlella (ምህልላ; "Supplication"), also Amata Saww (ዐመተ ሰወ; "Grouping Day") or in its popular name Sigd, also spelled Sig'd (ሰግድ; "Prostration"), is one of the unique holidays of the Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jewish) community, and is celebrated on the 29th of the Hebrew month of Cheshvan.
The Book of the All-Virtuous Wisdom of Yeshua ben Sira, commonly called the Wisdom of Sirach or simply Sirach, and also known as the Book of Ecclesiasticus (abbreviated Ecclus.) or Ben Sira, is a work of ethical teachings, from approximately 200 to 175 BCE, written by the Jewish scribe Ben Sira of Jerusalem, on the inspiration of his father Joshua son of Sirach, sometimes called Jesus son of Sirach or Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira.
Sivan (Hebrew: סִיוָן, Standard Sivan Tiberian Sîwān; from Akkadian simānu, meaning "Season; time") is the ninth month of the civil year and the third month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ: Beit HaMikdash) in ancient Jerusalem before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE and its subsequent replacement with the Second Temple in the 6th century BCE.
The Solomonic dynasty, also known as the House of Solomon, is the former ruling Imperial House of the Ethiopian Empire.
The Song of Songs, also Song of Solomon or Canticles (Hebrew:, Šîr HašŠîrîm, Greek: ᾎσμα ᾎσμάτων, asma asmaton, both meaning Song of Songs), is one of the megillot (scrolls) found in the last section of the Tanakh, known as the Ketuvim (or "Writings"), and a book of the Old Testament.
South Arabia is a historical region that consists of the southern region of the Arabian Peninsula, mainly centered in what is now the Republic of Yemen, yet it has also historically included Najran, Jizan, and 'Asir, which are presently in Saudi Arabia, and the Dhofar of present-day Oman.
Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (often abbreviated as SNNPR; የደቡብ ብሔር ብሔረሰቦችና ህዝቦች ክልል) is one of the nine ethnically based regional states (kililoch) of Ethiopia.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
Steven Kaplan (born October 5, 1953 in New York, United States) is a professor of African studies and comparative religion at Hebrew University in Jerusalem.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Strong Black Coffee (קפה שחור חזק, Café Shahor Hazak) is an Israeli hip hop duo, of Ethiopian origins.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת,, commonly translated as Feast of Tabernacles or Feast of the Ingathering, traditional Ashkenazi pronunciation Sukkos or Succos, literally Feast of Booths) is a biblical Jewish holiday celebrated on the 15th day of the seventh month, Tishrei (varies from late September to late October).
Susenyos I (also Sisinios, in Greek, Ge'ez ሱስንዮስ sūsinyōs; throne name Malak Sagad III, Ge'ez መልአክ ሰገድ, mal'ak sagad, Amh. mel'āk seged, "to whom the angel bows"; 1572 – 1632) was Emperor of Ethiopia from 1606 to 1632.
Tammuz (תמוז: Standard, Tiberian), or Tamuz, is the tenth month of the civil year and the fourth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar, and the Assyrian calendar.
The Tekezé River (ተከዘ or ተከዜ), also known as the Takkaze River, is a major river of Ethiopia.
The ten lost tribes were the ten of the twelve tribes of ancient Israel that were said to have been deported from the Kingdom of Israel after its conquest by the Neo-Assyrian Empire circa 722 BCE.
The Testament of Abraham is a pseudepigraphic text of the Old Testament.
The Testament of Isaac is a work now regarded as part of the Old Testament apocrypha.
The Testament of Jacob is a work now regarded as part of the Old Testament apocrypha.
Tevet (Hebrew: טֵבֵת, Standard Tevet; Sephardim/Yemenite/Mizrachim "Tebeth"; Ashkenazi Teves; Tiberian Ṭēḇēṯ; from Akkadian ṭebētu) is the fourth month of the civil year and the tenth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar.
Téwodros II (ቴዎድሮስ, baptized as Sahle Dingil, and often referred to in English by the equivalent Theodore II) (c. 1818 – April 13, 1868) was the Emperor of Ethiopia from 1855 until his death.
The Jerusalem Post is a broadsheet newspaper based in Jerusalem, founded in 1932 during the British Mandate of Palestine by Gershon Agron as The Palestine Post.
The Jewish Exponent brand consists of a weekly community newspaper, a website, and a quarterly magazine.
Tigray was a province of the Ethiopian Empire and of the PDRE until 1995.
Tigray Region (Geez: ክልል ትግራይ, kilil Tigrāy; Official name: Geez:ብሔራዊ ከልላቂ መንግሥቲ ትግራይ, Bəh̩erawi Kəllelawi Mängəśti Təgray, "Tigray National Regional State") is the northernmost of the nine regions (kililat) of Ethiopia.
The Tigrayan People's Liberation Front (TPLF) (Ge'ez: ህወሓት), known more commonly and sometimes as Weyane or Second Weyane (Ge'ez: ወያነ/ ካልኣይ ወያነ) (Ge'ez: ህዝባዊ ወያነ ሓርነት ትግራይ, ህዝባዊ ወያነ ሓርነት ትግራይ (ሕወሓት), "Popular revolution (for) the freedom of Tigray") is a political party in Tigray, Ethiopia.
Tigrayans (ተጋሩ) also called Agazian, are an ethnolinguistic group primarily inhabiting the Eritrean highlands and the northern Tigray region of Ethiopia.
Tigrinya (often written as Tigrigna) is an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch.
Tishrei (or Tishri; תִּשְׁרֵי tishré or tishrí); from Akkadian tašrītu "Beginning", from šurrû "To begin") is the first month of the civil year (which starts on 1 Tishrei) and the seventh month of the ecclesiastical year (which starts on 1 Nisan) in the Hebrew calendar. The name of the month is Babylonian. It is an autumn month of 30 days. Tishrei usually occurs in September–October on the Gregorian calendar. In the Hebrew Bible, before the Babylonian Exile, the month is called Ethanim (אֵתָנִים -). Edwin R. Thiele has concluded, in The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, that the ancient Kingdom of Judah counted years using the civil year starting in Tishrei, while the Kingdom of Israel counted years using the ecclesiastical new year starting in Nisan. Tishrei is the month used for the counting of the epoch year - i.e., the count of the year is incremented on 1 Tishrei.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
The traditional African religions (or traditional beliefs and practices of African people) are a set of highly diverse beliefs that include various ethnic religions.
The Tribe of Dan, meaning, "Judge," was one of the tribes of Israel, according to the Torah.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
Wegera or Wogera is one of the woredas in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia.
Welkait is a woreda and region in northwestern Ethiopia, part of the West Zone of Tigray Region.
Wolleka (ወለቃ) is a village in Ethiopia, near Gondar, with a latitude and longitude of.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Yemenite Jews or Yemeni Jews or Teimanim (from Yehudey Teman; اليهود اليمنيون) are those Jews who live, or once lived, in Yemen.
Yeshaq I or Isaac (Ge'ez ይሥሓቅ, yisḥāḳ; throne name: Gabra Masqal II ገብረ መስቀል, gabra masḳal) was Emperor (nəgusä nägäst) (1414–29) of Ethiopia.
Yitzhak Ben-Zvi (יצחק בן־צבי Yitshak Ben-Tsvi; 24 November 188423 April 1963) was a historian, Labor Zionist leader and the second and longest-serving President of Israel.
Yitzhak Rabin (יצחק רבין,; 1 March 1922 – 4 November 1995) was an Israeli politician, statesman and general.
Ynet (Hebrew: וואינט) is an Israeli news and general content website, which is the online outlet for Yedioth Ahronot.
Yom Kippur (יוֹם כִּיפּוּר,, or), also known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism.
Yom Kippur Katan (translation from Hebrew: "Minor Day of Atonement"), is a practice observed by some Jews on the day preceding each Rosh Chodesh or New-Moon Day, the observance consisting of fasting and supplication, but being much less rigorous than that of Yom Kippur proper.
Yosef Shalom Elyashiv (יוֹסֵף שָׁלוֹם אֶלְיָשִׁיב; 10 April 1910 – 18 July 2012) was a Haredi rabbi and posek (arbiter of Jewish law) who lived in Jerusalem, Israel.
Zadok (or 'Zadok HaKohen, also spelled 'Sadok, Zadoq or Tzadok צדוק הכהן), meaning "Righteous" "Justified", was a Kohen (priest), biblically recorded to be a descendant from Eleazar the son of Aaron (1 Chron 6:4-8).
The Zagwe dynasty (ዛጉዌ ሥርወ መንግስት) was the ruling dynasty of a Medieval kingdom in present-day northern Ethiopia.
The Zemene Mesafint (ዘመነ መሳፍንት zamana masāfint, modern zemene mesāfint, variously translated "Era of Judges," "Era of the Princes," "Age of Princes," etc.; named after the Book of Judges) was a period in Ethiopian history between the mid-18th and mid-19th centuries when the country was de facto divided within itself into several regions with no effective central authority.
1 Esdras (Ἔσδρας Αʹ), also Greek Esdras, Greek Ezra, or 3 Esdras, is an ancient Greek version of the biblical Book of Ezra in use among the early church, and many modern Christians with varying degrees of canonicity.
In the 1890s, an epizootic of the rinderpest virus struck Africa, considered to be "the most devastating epidemic to hit southern Africa in the late nineteenth century".
A widespread famine affected Ethiopia from 1983 to 1985.
The 1990s Post-Soviet aliyah began en masse in late 1980s when the government of Mikhail Gorbachev opened the borders of the USSR and allowed Jews to leave the country for Israel.
2 Esdras (also called 4 Esdras, Latin Esdras, or Latin Ezra) is the name of an apocalyptic book in many English versions of the BibleIncluding the KJB, RSV, NRSV, NEB, REB, and GNB (see Naming conventions below).
The 2015 MTV EMAs (also known as the MTV Europe Music Awards) were held at the Mediolanum Forum in Assago, near Milan, Italy, on 25 October 2015.
Fourth Baruch is a pseudepigraphical text of the Old Testament.
Aliyah of the Jewish Ethiopians, Beta Esrael, Beta Israelis, Beta Israels, Beta Yisrael, Bete Israel, Color of original hebrews, Ethiopian Israeli, Ethiopian Israelis, Ethiopian Jew, Ethiopian Jewish, Ethiopian Jews, Ethopian Jews, Falasha, Falasha Mura, Falasha jews, Falashah, Falashah Jews, Falashas, Felasha, History of Jews in Ethiopia, History of the Jews in Ethiopia, Jewish community in Ethiopia, Jews and Judaism in Ethiopia, Jews in Ethiopia, Judaism in Ethiopia, Oppression of the Ethiopian Jews.