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Beta blocker

Index Beta blocker

Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention). [1]

173 relations: ACE inhibitor, Acebutolol, Action potential, Adrenaline, Adrenergic receptor, Adverse drug reaction, Agonist, Aldosterone, Alpha blocker, Angina, Angiotensin II receptor blocker, Anticholinergic, Antihypertensive drug, Anxiety, Anxiety disorder, Anxiolytic, Aortic dissection, Aqueous humour, Arteriole, Artery, Artificial cardiac pacemaker, Atenolol, Atrial fibrillation, Atrioventricular node, Atrium (heart), Audition, Australian Medicines Handbook, Beta-1 adrenergic receptor, Beta-2 adrenergic receptor, Beta-3 adrenergic receptor, Beta-adrenergic agonist, Betaxolol, Bisoprolol, Blood–brain barrier, Bradycardia, British National Formulary, Bronchospasm, Bucindolol, Butaxamine, Calcium channel blocker, Cardiac output, Cardiomyopathy, Carteolol, Carvedilol, Catecholamine, Celiprolol, Central nervous system, Chronotropic, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Dance, ..., Diabetes mellitus, Diarrhea, Diuretic, Dizziness, Don Poldermans, Edema, Endogeny (biology), Erectile dysfunction, Esmolol, Essential tremor, Fatigue, Fight-or-flight response, Food and Drug Administration, Furosemide, Glaucoma, Glucagon, Glucose, Glycogen, Glycogenolysis, Golf, Hair loss, Hallucination, Heart, Heart arrhythmia, Heart block, Heart failure, Hormone, Hyperhidrosis, Hyperkalemia, Hypertension, Hyperthyroidism, Hypoglycemia, Hyponatremia, Hypotension, ICI-118,551, Inotrope, Insomnia, International Conference of Symphony and Opera Musicians, International Olympic Committee, Intraocular pressure, Ipratropium bromide, Isoprenaline, James Black (pharmacologist), Kidney, Kim Jong-su, Labetalol, Landiolol, Levobunolol, Lipid, Lipolysis, Liver, Long QT syndrome, Macula densa, Marfan syndrome, Membrane stabilizing effect, Meta-analysis, Metabolism, Metipranolol, Metoprolol, Migraine, Mitral valve prolapse, Myocardial infarction, Nadolol, Nausea, Nebivolol, Nightmare, Nitroglycerin (drug), Norepinephrine, Orthostatic hypotension, Oxprenolol, Partial agonist, Penbutolol, Pharmacology, Phentolamine, Pheochromocytoma, Pindolol, Pineal gland, Placebo, Portal hypertension, Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, Potassium channel, Preventive healthcare, Pronethalol, Propranolol, Raynaud syndrome, Receptor antagonist, Refractory period (physiology), Renin, Renin–angiotensin system, Respiratory tract, Salbutamol, Schizoid personality disorder, Sexual dysfunction, Shooting at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Men's 10 metre air pistol, Shooting at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Men's 50 metre pistol, Shooting sports, Shortness of breath, Sinoatrial node, Skeletal formula, Skeletal muscle, Smooth muscle tissue, Snooker, Social anxiety disorder, Sotalol, SR 59230A, Stage fright, Stroke, Sympathetic nervous system, Tachycardia, Target archery, The Atlantic, The Independent, The Lancet, The New York Times, Theophylline, Timolol, Tremor, Variant angina, Vascular resistance, Vasodilation, Ventricle (heart), World Anti-Doping Agency, 2008 Summer Olympics. Expand index (123 more) »

ACE inhibitor

An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.

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Acebutolol (trade names Sectral, Prent) is a beta blocker for the treatment of hypertension and arrhythmias.

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Action potential

In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.

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Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.

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Adrenergic receptor

The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).

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Adverse drug reaction

An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication.

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An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.

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Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.

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Alpha blocker

Alpha-blockers, also known as α-blockers or α-adrenoreceptor antagonists, are a class of pharmacological agents that act as antagonists on α-adrenergic receptors (α-adrenoceptors).

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Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.

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Angiotensin II receptor blocker

Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists, AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin–angiotensin system.

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An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.

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Antihypertensive drug

Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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Anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.

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An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.

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Aortic dissection

Aortic dissection (AD) occurs when an injury to the innermost layer of the aorta allows blood to flow between the layers of the aortic wall, forcing the layers apart.

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Aqueous humour

The aqueous humour is a transparent, watery fluid similar to plasma, but containing low protein concentrations.

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An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.

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An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).

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Artificial cardiac pacemaker

A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker) is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to contract the heart muscles and regulate the electrical conduction system of the heart.

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Atenolol is a selective β1 receptor antagonist, a drug belonging to the group of beta blockers (sometimes written β-blockers), a class of drugs used primarily in cardiovascular diseases.

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Atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.

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Atrioventricular node

The atrioventricular node, or AV node is a part of the electrical conduction system of the heart that coordinates the top of the heart.

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Atrium (heart)

The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.

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An audition is a sample performance by an actor, singer, musician, dancer or other performer.

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Australian Medicines Handbook

Australian Medicines Handbook (AMH) is a peer-reviewed medicines prescribing guide for Australian health professionals.

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Beta-1 adrenergic receptor

The beta-1 adrenergic receptor (β1 adrenoceptor), also known as ADRB1, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.

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Beta-2 adrenergic receptor

The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB2, is a cell membrane-spanning beta-adrenergic receptor that interacts with (binds) epinephrine, a hormone and neurotransmitter (ligand synonym, adrenaline) whose signaling, via a downstream L-type calcium channel interaction, mediates physiologic responses such as smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation.

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Beta-3 adrenergic receptor

The beta-3 adrenergic receptor (β3 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB3, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.

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Beta-adrenergic agonist

Beta adrenergic agonists or beta agonists are medications that relax muscles of the airways, which widen the airways and result in easier breathing.

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Betaxolol (trade names Betoptic, Betoptic S, Lokren, Kerlone) is a selective beta1 receptor blocker used in the treatment of hypertension and glaucoma.

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Bisoprolol, marketed under the tradename Zebeta among others, is a medication most commonly used for heart diseases.

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Blood–brain barrier

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).

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Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.

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British National Formulary

The British National Formulary (BNF) is a United Kingdom (UK) pharmaceutical reference book that contains a wide spectrum of information and advice on prescribing and pharmacology, along with specific facts and details about many medicines available on the UK National Health Service (NHS).

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Bronchospasm or a bronchial spasm is a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles.

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Bucindolol is a non-selective beta blocker with additional weak alpha-blocking properties and some intrinsic sympathomimetic activity.

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Butaxamine (INN, also known as butoxamine) is a β2-selective beta blocker.

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Calcium channel blocker

Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.

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Cardiac output

Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by the left or right ventricle, per unit time.

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Cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle.

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Carteolol (trade names Cartrol, Ocupress, Teoptic, Arteolol, Arteoptic, Calte, Cartéabak, Carteol, Cartéol, Cartrol, Elebloc, Endak, Glauteolol, Mikelan, Poenglaucol, Singlauc) is a non-selective beta blocker used to treat glaucoma.

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Carvedilol, sold under the brand name Coreg among others, is a medication used for treating mild to severe congestive heart failure (CHF), left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) following heart attack in people who are otherwise stable, and for treating high blood pressure.

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A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.

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Celiprolol (brand names Cardem, Selectol, Celipres, Celipro, Celol, Cordiax, Dilanorm) is a medication in the class of beta blockers, used in the treatment of high blood pressure.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Chronotropic effects (from chrono-, meaning time, and tropos, "a turn") are those that change the heart rate.

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Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.

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Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.

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Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.

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Don Poldermans

Don Poldermans is a Dutch former cardiovascular medicine researcher who was fired for scientific misconduct and ethics concerns over informed consent.

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Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.

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Endogeny (biology)

Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.

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Erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.

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Esmolol (trade name Brevibloc) is a cardioselective beta1 receptor blocker with rapid onset, a very short duration of action, and no significant intrinsic sympathomimetic or membrane stabilising activity at therapeutic dosages.

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Essential tremor

Essential tremor (ET, also referred to as benign tremor, familial tremor, or idiopathic tremor) is a progressive neurological disorder that is also the most common movement disorder.

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Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.

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Fight-or-flight response

The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Furosemide, sold under the brand name Lasix among others, is a medication used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.

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Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.

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Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.

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Glycogenolysis is the breakdown of glycogen (n) to glucose-6-phosphate and glycogen (n-1).

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Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.

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Hair loss

Hair loss, also known as alopecia or baldness, refers to a loss of hair from part of the head or body.

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A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.

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The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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Heart block

Heart block is a disease or inherited condition that causes a fault within the heart's natural pacemaker due to some kind of obstruction (or "block") in the electrical conduction system of the heart.

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Heart failure

Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Hyperhidrosis is a condition characterized by abnormally increased sweating, in excess of that required for regulation of body temperature.

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Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.

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Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.

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Hyponatremia is a low sodium level in the blood.

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Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.

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ICI-118,551 is a selective β2 adrenergic receptor (adrenoreceptor) antagonist.

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An inotrope is an agent that alters the force or energy of muscular contractions.

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Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.

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International Conference of Symphony and Opera Musicians

The International Conference of Symphony and Opera Musicians (ICSOM) is a Players' Conference of the American Federation of Musicians (AFM) In 1962, members of US and Canadian orchestras began to meet and discuss ways they could communicate with each other, drafted bylaws, and began pushing the AFM for formal recognition of ICSOM as a conference of the AFM.

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International Olympic Committee

The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.

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Intraocular pressure

Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the fluid pressure inside the eye.

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Ipratropium bromide

Ipratropium bromide, sold under the trade name Atrovent among others, is a medication which opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs.

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Isoprenaline, or isoproterenol, is a medication used for the treatment of bradycardia (slow heart rate), heart block, and rarely for asthma.

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James Black (pharmacologist)

Sir James Whyte Black (14 June 1924 – 22 March 2010) was a Scottish physician and pharmacologist.

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Kim Jong-su

Kim Jong-su (or; born January 1, 1977) is a North Korean sport shooter who competed at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens and 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.

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Labetalol is a medication used to treat high blood pressure.

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Landiolol (INN) is a drug which acts as a highly cardioselective, ultra short-acting beta blocker.

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Levobunolol (AK-Beta, Liquifilm, Betegan) is a non-selective beta blocker.

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In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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Lipolysis is the breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Long QT syndrome

Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a condition which affects repolarization of the heart after a heartbeat.

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Macula densa

In the kidney, the macula densa is an area of closely packed specialized cells lining the wall of the distal tubule, at the point where the thick ascending limb meets the distal convoluted tubule.

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Marfan syndrome

Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a genetic disorder of the connective tissue.

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Membrane stabilizing effect

Membrane stabilizing effects involve the inhibition or total abolishing of action potentials from being propagated across the membrane.

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A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Metipranolol (OptiPranolol, Betanol, Disorat, Trimepranol) is a non-selective beta blocker used in eye drops to treat glaucoma.

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Metoprolol, marketed under the tradename Lopressor among others, is a medication of the selective β1 receptor blocker type.

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A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.

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Mitral valve prolapse

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP; a.k.a. floppy mitral valve syndrome, systolic click murmur syndrome or billowing mitral leaflet) is a valvular heart disease characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole.

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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

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Nadolol (Corgard) is a non-selective beta blocker used in the treatment of high blood pressure and chest pain.

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Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.

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Nebivolol is a β1 receptor blocker with nitric oxide-potentiating vasodilatory effect used in treatment of hypertension and, in Europe, also for left ventricular failure.

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A nightmare, also called a bad dream, Retrieved July 11, 2016.

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Nitroglycerin (drug)

Nitroglycerin, also known as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), is a medication used for heart failure, high blood pressure, and to treat and prevent chest pain from not enough blood flow to the heart (angina) or due to cocaine.

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Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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Orthostatic hypotension

Orthostatic hypotension, also known as postural hypotension, occurs when a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position.

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Oxprenolol (brand names Trasacor, Trasicor, Coretal, Laracor, Slow-Pren, Captol, Corbeton, Slow-Trasicor, Tevacor, Trasitensin, Trasidex) is a non-selective beta blocker with some intrinsic sympathomimetic activity.

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Partial agonist

In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.

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Penbutolol (brand names Levatol, Levatolol, Lobeta, Paginol, Hostabloc, Betapressin) is a medication in the class of beta blockers, used in the treatment of high blood pressure.

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Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).

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Phentolamine (Regitine) is a reversible nonselective α-adrenergic antagonist.

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Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth, that secretes high amounts of catecholamines, mostly norepinephrine, plus epinephrine to a lesser extent.

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Pindolol, sold under the brand name Visken among others, is a beta blocker which is used in the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris.

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Pineal gland

The pineal gland, also known as the conarium, kônarion or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain.

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A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.

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Portal hypertension

Portal hypertension is hypertension (high blood pressure) in the hepatic portal system – made up of the portal vein and its branches, that drain from most of the intestine to the liver.

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Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a condition in which a change from lying to standing causes an abnormally large increase in heart rate.

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Potassium channel

Potassium channels are the most widely distributed type of ion channel and are found in virtually all living organisms.

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Preventive healthcare

Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.

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Pronethalol (Alderlin, Nethalide) was an early non-selective beta blocker clinical candidate.

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Propranolol, sold under the brand name Inderal among others, is a medication of the beta blocker type. It is used to treat high blood pressure, a number of types of irregular heart rate, thyrotoxicosis, capillary hemangiomas, performance anxiety, and essential tremors. It is used to prevent migraine headaches, and to prevent further heart problems in those with angina or previous heart attacks. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein. The formulation that is taken by mouth comes in short-acting and long-acting versions. Propranolol appears in the blood after 30 minutes and has a maximum effect between 60 and 90 minutes when taken by mouth. Common side effects include nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation. It should not be used in those with an already slow heart rate and most of those with heart failure. Quickly stopping the medication in those with coronary artery disease may worsen symptoms. It may worsen the symptoms of asthma. Caution is recommended in those with liver or kidney problems. Propranolol may cause harmful effects in the baby if taken during pregnancy. Its use during breastfeeding is probably safe, but the baby should be monitored for side effects. It is a non-selective beta blocker which works by blocking β-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol was discovered in 1964. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Propranolol is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.24 and 2.16 per month as of 2014. In the United States it costs about $15 per month at a typical dose.

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Raynaud syndrome

Raynaud syndrome, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon, is a medical condition in which spasm of arteries cause episodes of reduced blood flow.

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Receptor antagonist

A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.

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Refractory period (physiology)

Refractoriness is the fundamental property of any object of autowave nature (especially excitable medium) not to respond on stimuli, if the object stays in the specific refractory state.

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Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an aspartic protease protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys that participates in the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis—that mediates the volume of extracellular fluid (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid), and arterial vasoconstriction.

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Renin–angiotensin system

The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) or the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.

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Respiratory tract

In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.

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Salbutamol, also known as albuterol and marketed as Ventolin among other names, is a medication that opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs.

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Schizoid personality disorder

Schizoid personality disorder (often abbreviated as SPD or SzPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency towards a solitary or sheltered lifestyle, secretiveness, emotional coldness, detachment, and apathy.

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Sexual dysfunction

Sexual dysfunction (or sexual malfunction or sexual disorder) is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm.

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Shooting at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Men's 10 metre air pistol

The men's 10 metre air pistol event at the 2008 Olympic Games took place on August 9 at the Beijing Shooting Range Hall, and was won by the reigning World champion, Pang Wei of the host country, who thus became the first male gold medal winner of the Beijing Olympics.

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Shooting at the 2008 Summer Olympics – Men's 50 metre pistol

The Men's 50 metre pistol event at the 2008 Olympic Games took place on August 12 at the Beijing Shooting Range Hall.

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Shooting sports

Shooting sports is a collective group of competitive and recreational sporting activities involving proficiency tests of accuracy, precision and speed in using various types of ranged weapons, mainly referring to man-portable guns (firearms and airguns, in forms such as handguns, rifles and shotguns) and bows/crossbows.

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Shortness of breath

Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.

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Sinoatrial node

The sinoatrial node (SA node), also known as sinus node, is a group of cells located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart.

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Skeletal formula

The skeletal formula, also called line-angle formula or shorthand formula, of an organic compound is a type of molecular structural formula that serves as a shorthand representation of a molecule's bonding and some details of its molecular geometry.

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Skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.

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Smooth muscle tissue

Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.

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Snooker is a cue sport which originated among British Army officers stationed in India in the latter half of the 19th century.

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Social anxiety disorder

Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.

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Sotalol is a medication used to treat abnormal heart rhythms.

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SR 59230A

SR 59230A is a selective antagonist of the beta-3 adrenergic receptor, but was subsequently shown to also act at α1 adrenoceptors at high doses.

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Stage fright

Stage fright or performance anxiety is the anxiety, fear, or persistent phobia which may be aroused in an individual by the requirement to perform in front of an audience, whether actually or potentially (for example, when performing before a camera).

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Sympathetic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.

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Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.

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Target archery

Modern competitive archery is governed by the World Archery Federation (abbreviated WA), formerly FITA – Fédération Internationale de Tir à l'Arc.

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The Atlantic

The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British online newspaper.

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The Lancet

The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names.

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Timolol is a medication used either by mouth or as eye drops.

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A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.

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Variant angina

Variant angina, often termed Prinzmetal's angina, Prinzmetal angina, and less commonly vasospastic angina, angina inversa, coronary vessel spasm, or coronary artery vasospasm, is a syndrome typically consisting of angina (cardiac chest pain) that unlike classical angina, which is triggered by exertion or exercise, commonly occurs in individuals at rest or even asleep.

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Vascular resistance

Vascular resistance is the resistance that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create flow.

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Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.

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Ventricle (heart)

A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.

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World Anti-Doping Agency

The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA; Agence mondiale antidopage, AMA) is a foundation initiated by the International Olympic Committee based in Canada to promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against drugs in sports.

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2008 Summer Olympics

The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta_blocker

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