69 relations: Absorbed dose, Alpha particle, Aluminium, Antiparticle, Atomic nucleus, Beta decay, Binding energy, Bone tumor, Bremsstrahlung, Cathode ray tube, Centimetre–gram–second system of units, Cherenkov radiation, Delta ray, DNA, Electron, Electron neutrino, Electron-beam processing, Electronvolt, Epsilon radiation, Equivalent dose, Ernest Rutherford, Eye neoplasm, Fluorescence, Gamma ray, Geiger counter, Gray (unit), Half-life, Henri Becquerel, Ionization chamber, Ionizing radiation, Isotope, J. J. Thomson, Mass-to-charge ratio, Mutation, Neutrino, Neutron, Neutron radiation, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear reactor, Paper, Particle physics, Phosphor, Photography, Photon, Poly(methyl methacrylate), Pool-type reactor, Positron, Positron emission tomography, Proton, Quark, ..., Rad (unit), Radiant flux, Radiation, Radiation protection, Radiation therapy, Radioactive decay, Radioactive tracer, Roentgen equivalent man, Scintillation counter, Scintillator, Sievert, Strontium-90, Tritium, Tritium radioluminescence, United States Department of Energy, Uranium, Virtual particle, Weak interaction, X-ray. Expand index (19 more) » « Shrink index
Absorbed dose is a measure of the energy deposited in a medium by ionizing radiation.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
In particle physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges (such as electric charge).
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
Binding energy (also called separation energy) is the minimum energy required to disassemble a system of particles into separate parts.
A bone tumor (also spelled bone tumour) is a neoplastic growth of tissue in bone.
Bremsstrahlung, from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation"; i.e., "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation", is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle when deflected by another charged particle, typically an electron by an atomic nucleus.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
The centimetre–gram–second system of units (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time.
Cherenkov radiation (sometimes spelled "Cerenkov") is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) passes through a dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium.
A delta ray is a secondary electron with enough energy to escape a significant distance away from the primary radiation beam and produce further ionization", and is sometimes used to describe any recoil particle caused by secondary ionization.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
The electron neutrino is a subatomic lepton elementary particle which has no net electric charge.
Electron-beam processing or electron irradiation is a process that involves using beta radiation, usually of high energy, to treat an object for a variety of purposes.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
Epsilon radiation is tertiary radiation caused by secondary radiation (e.g., delta radiation).
Equivalent dose is a dose quantity H representing the stochastic health effects of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.
Eye neoplasms can affect all parts of the eye, and can be a benign tumor or a malignant tumor (cancer).
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
The Geiger counter is an instrument used for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation used widely in applications such as radiation dosimetry, radiological protection, experimental physics and the nuclear industry.
The gray (symbol: Gy) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI).
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Antoine Henri Becquerel (15 December 1852 – 25 August 1908) was a French physicist, Nobel laureate, and the first person to discover evidence of radioactivity.
The ionization chamber is the simplest of all gas-filled radiation detectors, and is widely used for the detection and measurement of certain types of ionizing radiation; X-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron; and with the discovery of the first subatomic particle.
The mass-to-charge ratio (m/Q) is a physical quantity that is most widely used in the electrodynamics of charged particles, e.g. in electron optics and ion optics.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
Neutron radiation is a form of ionizing radiation that presents as free neutrons.
Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.
Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also known as acrylic or acrylic glass as well as by the trade names Crylux, Plexiglas, Acrylite, Lucite, and Perspex among several others (see below), is a transparent thermoplastic often used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass.
NC State's PULSTAR Reactor is a 1 MW pool-type research reactor with 4% enriched, pin-type fuel consisting of '''UO2''' pellets in zircaloy cladding.NC State's Pulstar Nuclear Reactor. Pool-type reactors, also called swimming pool reactors, are a type of nuclear reactor that has a core (consisting of the fuel elements and the control rods) immersed in an open pool of usually water.
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
The rad is a unit of absorbed radiation dose, defined as 1 rad.
In radiometry, radiant flux or radiant power is the radiant energy emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit time, and spectral flux or spectral power is the radiant flux per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.
The roentgen equivalent man (or rem) is an older, CGS unit of equivalent dose, effective dose, and committed dose which are measures of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
A scintillation counter is an instrument for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation by using the excitation effect of incident radiation on a scintillator material, and detecting the resultant light pulses.
A scintillator is a material that exhibits scintillation—the property of luminescence, when excited by ionizing radiation.
The sievert (symbol: SvNot be confused with the sverdrup or the svedberg, two non-SI units that sometimes use the same symbol.) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI) and is a measure of the health effect of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
Strontium-90 is a radioactive isotope of strontium produced by nuclear fission, with a half-life of 28.8 years.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
Tritium lumination is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
In physics, a virtual particle is a transient fluctuation that exhibits some of the characteristics of an ordinary particle, but whose existence is limited by the uncertainty principle.
In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Beta Particle, Beta Particles, Beta Radiation, Beta Ray, Beta Rays, Beta particles, Beta radiation, Beta ray, Beta rays, Tertiary Radiation, Β radiation, Β+ radiation, Β- radiation, Β-particle, Β-radiation, Β⁺ radiation, Β⁻ radiation.