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Betelgeuse

Index Betelgeuse

Betelgeuse, also designated Alpha Orionis (α Orionis, abbreviated Alpha Ori, α Ori), is the ninth-brightest star in the night sky and second-brightest in the constellation of Orion. [1]

312 relations: Aboriginal Australians, Absolute magnitude, Adaptive optics, AE Aurigae, Albert A. Michelson, Aldebaran, Alfonsine tables, Aluminium oxide, American Association of Variable Star Observers, Angelo Secchi, Angular diameter, Angular resolution, Antarctica, Antares, Antoine Émile Henry Labeyrie, Aperture, Aperture masking interferometry, Apparent magnitude, Arabic, Archetype, Ardra (nakshatra), Asteroid belt, Astrology, Astrometry, Astronomical interferometer, Astronomical seeing, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Astronomical spectroscopy, Astronomical unit, Astronomy (magazine), Astronomy Picture of the Day, Atacama Large Millimeter Array, August Derleth, Batak, Bayer designation, Beetlejuice, Bernard Lyot Telescope, Beta Crucis, Betelguese, a Trip Through Hell, Black hole, Blue supergiant star, Boss General Catalogue, Bow shocks in astrophysics, Bright Star Catalogue, Cambridge Optical Aperture Synthesis Telescope, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Carbon, Carbon monoxide, Carbon-12, Carbon-13, ..., Catalog of Components of Double and Multiple Stars, Catalogues of Fundamental Stars, Cavendish Astrophysics Group, Celestial pole, Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg, Chinese astronomy, Chromosphere, Circumstellar envelope, Classical antiquity, CNO cycle, Cobalt, Color index, Comet, Common Era, Constellation, Convection, Convection zone, Coptic language, Cosmic noise, Cthulhu Mythos, Cthulhu Mythos deities, Dave Matthews Band, Deneb, Depth perception, Diameter, Doppler effect, Douglas Adams, Dover Publications, Dredge-up, Durchmusterung, Dynamo theory, Earth, Edmund Chilmead, Effective temperature, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic spectrum, ESO 3.6 m Telescope, European Southern Observatory, European Space Agency, EV Carinae, Faint Object Camera, First magnitude star, Flamsteed designation, Fluid dynamics, Ford Prefect (character), Fourier analysis, Francis G. Pease, Friedrich Bessel, Gaia (spacecraft), Galactic plane, Gamma-ray burst, Gemini (constellation), General Catalogue of Variable Stars, German language, Giovanni Battista Riccioli, Glossary of astronomy, Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph, Granule (solar physics), Grapefruit, Gravity wave, Gustav Holst, H band (infrared), H. P. Lovecraft, Hōei Nojiri, Heliosphere, Helium, Henry Draper Catalogue, Herschel Space Observatory, Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, Hindu astrology, Hipparcos, Hippolyte Fizeau, History of astronomy, History of Japan, Hubble Space Telescope, Humbert Wolfe, Hydrogen, IAU Working Group on Star Names, Infrared astronomy, Infrared Optical Telescope Array, Infrared photography, Infrared Spatial Interferometer, Instability strip, Interferometry, International Astronomical Union, Interstellar medium, Inuit, Iron, J band (infrared), J. R. R. Tolkien, Jakob Christmann, Johann Bayer, Johann Elert Bode, John August Anderson, John E. Baldwin, John Herschel, Jupiter, K band (infrared), Kelvin, Kinematics, Kuiper belt, L band (infrared), Lacandon, Lakota people, Latin, Latinisation of names, Light-year, Limb darkening, List of brightest stars, List of largest stars, List of most luminous stars, Luminosity, Magnesium, Magnitude (astronomy), Main sequence, Mango, Margin of error, Mars, Mars (mythology), Martin Schwarzschild, Massachusetts, Mauna Kea Observatories, Maxima and minima, McDonald Observatory, Measurement, Medieval Latin, Mercury (planet), MERLIN, Michael McDowell (author), Michelson interferometer, Micrometer, Minamoto clan, Minute and second of arc, Molecular cloud, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mu Cephei, Mu Columbae, Mythology, Nakshatra, Natural abundance, Neon, Neutrino, Neutron star, New York (state), New York City, Nitrogen, NML Cygni, Normal mode, Northern Hemisphere, Optical resolution, Orion (constellation), Orion in Chinese astronomy, Orion OB1 Association, Orion's Belt, Otto Harrassowitz, Overtone, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxygen, Palomar Observatory, Parallax, Parsec, Parts-per notation, Pearl, Pelops, Pemon, Philip K. Dick, Philip Larkin, Photosphere, Pic du Midi de Bigorre, Polarimetry, Polarization (waves), Position angle, Princeton University, Procyon, Ptolemy, R Doradus, Radial velocity, Radiant energy, Radio astronomy, Radius, Red supergiant star, Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia, Renaissance, Reprint, Rigel, Rigvedic deities, Robert Burnham Jr., Root (linguistics), Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Rudra, Sanskrit, Scientific Revolution, Semiregular variable star, Silicon, Silicon monoxide, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog, SN 1987A, Society of Jesus, Solar System, Space telescope, Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Science, Speckle imaging, Spectral line, Sphere, Spitzer Space Telescope, Star, Star formation, Star Names, Stellar atmosphere, Stellar classification, Stellar evolution, Stellar kinematics, Stellar mass loss, Stellar parallax, Stellar pulsation, Stellar wind, Stochastic, Stralsund, Stratoscope, Sun, Sunspot, Supernova, Supernova remnant, Taira clan, Telescope, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, The Lord of the Rings, The North Ship, Three Stars (Chinese constellation), Transliteration, Twinkling, Type II supernova, Ultraviolet, Ultraviolet astronomy, Ulugh Beg, Uranometria, Venus, Very Large Array, Very Large Telescope, Very Long Baseline Array, Visible spectrum, VizieR, VV Cephei, Wardaman people, Wave interference, Wave turbulence, Wavelength, Wembley Stadium, Whiddy Island, Whiddy Island disaster, Wiesbaden, William Herschel Telescope, Winter Hexagon, Winter Triangle, Wolf–Rayet star, X-ray, Yellow supergiant star, Zij-i Sultani, 2012 phenomenon, 25 Orionis, 53 Arietis. Expand index (262 more) »

Aboriginal Australians

Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).

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Absolute magnitude

Absolute magnitude is a measure of the luminosity of a celestial object, on a logarithmic astronomical magnitude scale.

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Adaptive optics

Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effect of incoming wavefront distortions by deforming a mirror in order to compensate for the distortion.

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AE Aurigae

AE Aurigae (abbreviated as AE Aur) is a runaway star in the constellation Auriga; it lights the Flaming Star Nebula.

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Albert A. Michelson

Albert Abraham Michelson FFRS HFRSE (December 19, 1852 – May 9, 1931) was an American physicist known for his work on measuring the speed of light and especially for the Michelson–Morley experiment.

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Aldebaran

Aldebaran, designated Alpha Tauri (α Tauri, abbreviated Alpha Tau, α Tau), is an orange giant star located about 65 light-years from the Sun in the zodiac constellation of Taurus.

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Alfonsine tables

The Alfonsine tables (Tablas alfonsíes, tabulae alphonsinae), sometimes spelled Alphonsine tables, provided data for computing the position of the Sun, Moon and planets relative to the fixed stars.

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Aluminium oxide

Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.

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American Association of Variable Star Observers

Since its founding in 1911, the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) has coordinated, collected, evaluated, analyzed, published, and archived variable star observations made largely by amateur astronomers and makes the records available to professional astronomers, researchers, and educators.

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Angelo Secchi

Fr.

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Angular diameter

The angular diameter, angular size, apparent diameter, or apparent size is an angular measurement describing how large a sphere or circle appears from a given point of view.

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Angular resolution

Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.

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Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.

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Antares

Antares, also designated Alpha Scorpii (α Scorpii, abbreviated Alpha Sco, α Sco), is on average the fifteenth-brightest star in the night sky, and the brightest star in the constellation of Scorpius.

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Antoine Émile Henry Labeyrie

Antoine Émile Henry Labeyrie (born 12 May 1943) is a French astronomer, who held the Observational astrophysics chair at the Collège de France between 1991 and 2014, where he is currently professor emeritus.

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Aperture

In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels.

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Aperture masking interferometry

Aperture Masking Interferometry is a form of speckle interferometry, that allows diffraction limited imaging from ground-based telescopes, and is a planned high contrast imaging mode on the James Webb Space Telescope.

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Apparent magnitude

The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Archetype

The concept of an archetype appears in areas relating to behavior, modern psychological theory, and literary analysis.

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Ardra (nakshatra)

Ardra is the name of a nákṣatra in Hindu astrology, the sixth depending on numbering scheme used.

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Asteroid belt

The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.

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Astrology

Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.

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Astrometry

Astrometry is the branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies.

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Astronomical interferometer

An astronomical interferometer is an array of separate telescopes, mirror segments, or radio telescope antennas that work together as a single telescope to provide higher resolution images of astronomical objects such as stars, nebulas and galaxies by means of interferometry.

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Astronomical seeing

Astronomical seeing is the blurring and twinkling of astronomical objects like stars due to turbulent mixing in the Earth's atmosphere, causing variations of the optical refractive index.

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Astronomical Society of the Pacific

The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) is an American scientific and educational organization, founded in San Francisco on February 7, 1889.

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Astronomical spectroscopy

Astronomical spectroscopy is the study of astronomy using the techniques of spectroscopy to measure the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light and radio, which radiates from stars and other celestial objects.

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Astronomical unit

The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.

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Astronomy (magazine)

Astronomy is a monthly American magazine about astronomy.

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Astronomy Picture of the Day

Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) is a website provided by NASA and Michigan Technological University (MTU).

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Atacama Large Millimeter Array

The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is an astronomical interferometer of radio telescopes in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.

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August Derleth

August William Derleth (February 24, 1909 – July 4, 1971) was an American writer and anthologist.

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Batak

Batak is a collective term used to identify a number of closely related Austronesian ethnic groups predominantly found in North Sumatra, Indonesia who speak Batak languages.

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Bayer designation

A Bayer designation is a stellar designation in which a specific star is identified by a Greek letter, followed by the genitive form of its parent constellation's Latin name.

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Beetlejuice

Beetlejuice is a 1988 American comedy-fantasy film directed by Tim Burton, produced by The Geffen Film Company and distributed by Warner Bros. The plot revolves around a recently deceased young couple (Alec Baldwin and Geena Davis) who become ghosts haunting their former home, and an obnoxious, devious ghost named Betelgeuse (pronounced "Beetlejuice", portrayed by Michael Keaton) from the Netherworld who tries to scare away the new inhabitants (Catherine O'Hara, Jeffrey Jones, and Winona Ryder) permanently.

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Bernard Lyot Telescope

The Bernard Lyot Telescope (Téléscope Bernard Lyot, or TBL) is a 2 m Cassegrain telescope operating in the visible domain, since 1980.

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Beta Crucis

Beta Crucis (β Crucis, abbreviated Beta Cru, β Cru), also named Mimosa, is a binary star system; the second-brightest star in the constellation of Crux (after Alpha Crucis or Acrux) and the 19th-brightest star in the night sky.

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Betelguese, a Trip Through Hell

Betelguese, a Trip Through Hell is a 1908 lyrical poem book written by Jean Louis De Esque.

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Black hole

A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.

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Blue supergiant star

Blue supergiant stars are hot luminous stars, referred to scientifically as OB supergiants.

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Boss General Catalogue

Boss General Catalogue (GC, sometimes General Catalogue) is an astronomical catalogue containing 33,342 stars.

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Bow shocks in astrophysics

Bow shocks form the boundary between a magnetosphere and an ambient magnetized medium.

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Bright Star Catalogue

The Bright Star Catalogue, also known as the Yale Catalogue of Bright Stars or Yale Bright Star Catalogue, is a star catalogue that lists all stars of stellar magnitude 6.5 or brighter, which is roughly every star visible to the naked eye from Earth.

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Cambridge Optical Aperture Synthesis Telescope

COAST, the Cambridge Optical Aperture Synthesis Telescope, is a multi-element optical astronomical interferometer with baselines of up to 100 metres, which uses aperture synthesis to observe stars with angular resolution as high as one thousandth of one arcsecond (producing images with much higher resolution than can be obtained using individual telescopes such as the Hubble Space Telescope).

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Cambridge, Massachusetts

Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbon-12

Carbon-12 is the more abundant of the two stable isotopes of carbon (Carbon-13 being the other), amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars.

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Carbon-13

Carbon-13 (13C) is a natural, stable isotope of carbon with a nucleus containing six protons and seven neutrons.

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Catalog of Components of Double and Multiple Stars

The Catalog of Components of Double and Multiple Stars, or CCDM, is an astrometric star catalogue of double and multiple stars.

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Catalogues of Fundamental Stars

The Catalogue of Fundamental Stars is a series of six astrometric catalogues of high precision positional data for a small selection of stars to define a celestial reference frame, which is a standard coordinate system for measuring positions of stars.

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Cavendish Astrophysics Group

The Cavendish Astrophysics Group (formerly the Radio Astronomy Group) is based at the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge.

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Celestial pole

The north and south celestial poles are the two imaginary points in the sky where the Earth's axis of rotation, indefinitely extended, intersects the celestial sphere.

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Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg

The Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS; English translation: Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center) is a data hub which collects and distributes astronomical information.

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Chinese astronomy

Astronomy in China has a long history, beginning from the Shang Dynasty (Chinese Bronze Age).

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Chromosphere

The chromosphere (literally, "sphere of color") is the second of the three main layers in the Sun's atmosphere and is roughly 3,000 to 5,000 kilometers deep.

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Circumstellar envelope

A circumstellar envelope (CSE) is a part of a star that has a roughly spherical shape and is not gravitationally bound to the star core.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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CNO cycle

The CNO cycle (for carbon–nitrogen–oxygen) is one of the two known sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium, the other being the proton–proton chain reaction.

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Cobalt

Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.

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Color index

In astronomy, the color index is a simple numerical expression that determines the color of an object, which in the case of a star gives its temperature.

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Comet

A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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Constellation

A constellation is a group of stars that are considered to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices.

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Convection

Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).

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Convection zone

A convection zone, convective zone or convective region of a star is a layer which is unstable to convection.

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Coptic language

Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.

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Cosmic noise

Cosmic noise and galactic radio noise is random noise that originates outside the Earth's atmosphere.

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Cthulhu Mythos

The Cthulhu Mythos is a shared fictional universe, based on the work of American horror writer H. P. Lovecraft.

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Cthulhu Mythos deities

H. P. Lovecraft created a number of deities throughout the course of his literary career, including the "Great Old Ones" and aliens, such as the "Elder Things", with sporadic references to other miscellaneous deities (e.g. Nodens) whereas the "Outer Gods" are a later creation of other prolific writers such as August Derleth, who was credited with formalizing the Cthulhu Mythos.

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Dave Matthews Band

Dave Matthews Band, also known by the acronym DMB, is an American rock band that was formed in Charlottesville, Virginia in 1991.

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Deneb

Deneb, also designated α Cygni (Latinised alpha Cygni, abbreviated Alpha Cyg, α Cyg), is the brightest star in the constellation of Cygnus.

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Depth perception

Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions (3D) and the distance of an object.

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Diameter

In geometry, a diameter of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle.

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Doppler effect

The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.

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Douglas Adams

Douglas Noel Adams (11 March 1952 – 11 May 2001) was an English author, scriptwriter, essayist, humorist, satirist and dramatist.

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Dover Publications

Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.

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Dredge-up

A dredge-up is a period in the evolution of a star where a surface convection zone extends down to the layers where material has undergone nuclear fusion.

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Durchmusterung

In astronomy, Durchmusterung or Bonner Durchmusterung (BD), is the comprehensive astrometric star catalogue of the whole sky, compiled by the Bonn Observatory (Germany) from 1859 to 1903.

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Dynamo theory

In physics, the dynamo theory proposes a mechanism by which a celestial body such as Earth or a star generates a magnetic field.

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Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Edmund Chilmead

Edmund Chilmead (1610 – 19 February 1654) was an English writer and translator, who produced both scholarly works and hack-writing.

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Effective temperature

The effective temperature of a body such as a star or planet is the temperature of a black body that would emit the same total amount of electromagnetic radiation.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Electromagnetic spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.

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ESO 3.6 m Telescope

The ESO 3.6 m Telescope is an optical reflecting telescope run by the European Southern Observatory at La Silla Observatory, Chile since 1977, with a clear aperture of about and area.

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European Southern Observatory

The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is a 15-nation intergovernmental research organization for ground-based astronomy.

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European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.

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EV Carinae

EV Carinae is a red supergiant and pulsating variable star of spectral type M4Ia in the constellation Carina.

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Faint Object Camera

The Faint Object Camera (FOC) was a camera installed on the Hubble Space Telescope from launch in 1990 until 2002.

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First magnitude star

First magnitude stars are the brightest stars in the night sky, with a magnitude of -1, 0 and +1.

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Flamsteed designation

A Flamsteed designation is a combination of a number and constellation name that uniquely identifies most naked eye stars in the modern constellations visible from southern England.

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Fluid dynamics

In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.

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Ford Prefect (character)

Ford Prefect (also called Ix) is a fictional character in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy by the British author Douglas Adams.

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Fourier analysis

In mathematics, Fourier analysis is the study of the way general functions may be represented or approximated by sums of simpler trigonometric functions.

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Francis G. Pease

Francis Gladheim Pease (January 14, 1881 – February 7, 1938) was an American astronomer.

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Friedrich Bessel

Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (22 July 1784 – 17 March 1846) was a German astronomer, mathematician, physicist and geodesist.

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Gaia (spacecraft)

Gaia is a space observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA) designed for astrometry: measuring the positions and distances of stars with unprecedented precision.

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Galactic plane

The galactic plane is the plane on which the majority of a disk-shaped galaxy's mass lies.

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Gamma-ray burst

In gamma-ray astronomy, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are extremely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies.

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Gemini (constellation)

Gemini is one of the constellations of the zodiac.

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General Catalogue of Variable Stars

The General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS) is a list of variable stars.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Giovanni Battista Riccioli

Giovanni Battista Riccioli (17 April 1598 – 25 June 1671) was an Italian astronomer and a Catholic priest in the Jesuit order.

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Glossary of astronomy

This page is a glossary of astronomy.

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Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph

The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS or HRS) was an ultraviolet spectrograph installed on the Hubble Space Telescope during its original construction, and it was launched into space as part of that space telescope aboard the Space Shuttle on April 24, 1990 (STS-31).

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Granule (solar physics)

Granules on the photosphere of the Sun are caused by convection currents (thermal columns, Bénard cells) of plasma within the Sun's convective zone.

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Grapefruit

The grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) is a subtropical citrus tree known for its sour to semi-sweet, somewhat bitter fruit.

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Gravity wave

In fluid dynamics, gravity waves are waves generated in a fluid medium or at the interface between two media when the force of gravity or buoyancy tries to restore equilibrium.

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Gustav Holst

Gustav Theodore Holst (born Gustavus Theodore von Holst; 21 September 1874 – 25 May 1934) was an English composer, arranger and teacher.

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H band (infrared)

In infrared astronomy, the H band refers to an atmospheric transmission window centred on 1.65 micrometres with a Full width at half maximum of 0.35 micrometresIan McClean, Electronic Imaging in Astronomy, Second Edition, Springer, 2008.

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H. P. Lovecraft

Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American writer who achieved posthumous fame through his influential works of horror fiction.

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Hōei Nojiri

was a Japanese essayist and astronomer.

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Heliosphere

The heliosphere is the bubble-like region of space dominated by the Sun, which extends far beyond the orbit of Pluto.

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Helium

Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Henry Draper Catalogue

The Henry Draper Catalogue (HD) is an astronomical star catalogue published between 1918 and 1924, giving spectroscopic classifications for 225,300 stars; it was later expanded by the Henry Draper Extension (HDE), published between 1925 and 1936, which gave classifications for 46,850 more stars, and by the Henry Draper Extension Charts (HDEC), published from 1937 to 1949 in the form of charts, which gave classifications for 86,933 more stars.

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Herschel Space Observatory

The Herschel Space Observatory was a space observatory built and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA).

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Hertzsprung–Russell diagram

The Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, abbreviated H–R diagram, HR diagram or HRD, is a scatter plot of stars showing the relationship between the stars' absolute magnitudes or luminosities versus their stellar classifications or effective temperatures.

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Hindu astrology

Jyotisha (or Jyotishyam from Sanskrit, from "light, heavenly body") is the traditional Hindu system of astrology, also known as Hindu astrology, Nepalese Shastra, Indian astrology, and more recently Vedic astrology.

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Hipparcos

Hipparcos was a scientific satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), launched in 1989 and operated until 1993.

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Hippolyte Fizeau

Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau FRS FRSE MIF (23 September 181918 September 1896) was a French physicist, best known for measuring the speed of light in the namesake Fizeau experiment.

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History of astronomy

Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences, dating back to antiquity, with its origins in the religious, mythological, cosmological, calendrical, and astrological beliefs and practices of prehistory: vestiges of these are still found in astrology, a discipline long interwoven with public and governmental astronomy, and not completely disentangled from it until a few centuries ago in the Western World (see astrology and astronomy).

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History of Japan

The first human habitation in the Japanese archipelago has been traced to prehistoric times.

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Hubble Space Telescope

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.

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Humbert Wolfe

Humbert Wolfe CB CBE (5 January 1885 – 5 January 1940) was an Italian-born British poet, man of letters and civil servant.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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IAU Working Group on Star Names

The International Astronomical Union (IAU) established a Working Group on Star Names (WGSN) in May 2016 to catalog and standardize proper names for stars for the international astronomical community.

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Infrared astronomy

Infrared astronomy is the branch of astronomy and astrophysics that studies astronomical objects visible in infrared (IR) radiation.

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Infrared Optical Telescope Array

The Infrared Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) was a stellar interferometer array.

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Infrared photography

Top: tree photographed in the near infrared range.

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Infrared Spatial Interferometer

The Infrared Spatial Interferometer (ISI) is an astronomical interferometer array of three 65 inch (1.65 m) telescopes operating in the mid-infrared.

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Instability strip

The unqualified term instability strip usually refers to a region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram largely occupied by several related classes of pulsating variable stars: Delta Scuti variables, SX Phoenicis variables, and rapidly oscillating Ap stars (roAps) near the main sequence; RR Lyrae variables where it intersects the horizontal branch; and the Cepheid variables where it crosses the supergiants.

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Interferometry

Interferometry is a family of techniques in which waves, usually electromagnetic waves, are superimposed causing the phenomenon of interference in order to extract information.

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International Astronomical Union

The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.

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Interstellar medium

In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.

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Inuit

The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.

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Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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J band (infrared)

In infrared astronomy, the J band refers to an atmospheric transmission window centred on 1.25 micrometres (in the near-infrared).

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J. R. R. Tolkien

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, (Tolkien pronounced his surname, see his phonetic transcription published on the illustration in The Return of the Shadow: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part One. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (The History of Middle-earth; 6). In General American the surname is also pronounced. This pronunciation no doubt arose by analogy with such words as toll and polka, or because speakers of General American realise as, while often hearing British as; thus or General American become the closest possible approximation to the Received Pronunciation for many American speakers. Wells, John. 1990. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow: Longman, 3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.

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Jakob Christmann

Jakob Christmann (born November 1554 in Johannisberg (Rheingau), Geisenheim – 16 June 1613 in Heidelberg) was a German Orientalist who also studied problems of astronomy.

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Johann Bayer

Johann Bayer (1572 – 7 March 1625) was a German lawyer and uranographer (celestial cartographer).

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Johann Elert Bode

Johann Elert Bode (19 January 1747 – 23 November 1826) was a German astronomer known for his reformulation and popularisation of the Titius–Bode law.

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John August Anderson

John August Anderson (August 7, 1876 – December 2, 1959) was an American astronomer.

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John E. Baldwin

John Evan Baldwin FRS (–) was a British Astronomer who worked at the Cavendish Astrophysics Group (formerly Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory) from 1954.

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John Herschel

Sir John Frederick William Herschel, 1st Baronet (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English polymath, mathematician, astronomer, chemist, inventor, experimental photographer who invented the blueprint, and did botanical work.

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Jupiter

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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K band (infrared)

In infrared astronomy, the K band is an atmospheric transmission window centered on 2.2 μm (in the near-infrared 136 THz range).

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Kelvin

The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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Kinematics

Kinematics is a branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without considering the mass of each or the forces that caused the motion.

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Kuiper belt

The Kuiper belt, occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.

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L band (infrared)

In infrared astronomy, the L band is an atmospheric transmission window centred on 3.5 micrometres (in the mid-infrared).

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Lacandon

The Lacandon are one of the Maya peoples who live in the jungles of the Mexican state of Chiapas, near the southern border with Guatemala.

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Lakota people

The Lakota (pronounced, Lakota language: Lakȟóta) are a Native American tribe.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latinisation of names

Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.

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Light-year

The light-year is a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.5 trillion kilometres or 5.9 trillion miles.

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Limb darkening

Limb darkening is an optical effect seen in stars (including the Sun), where the center part of the disk appears brighter than the edge or limb of the image.

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List of brightest stars

This is a list of the brightest naked eye stars to +2.50 magnitude, as determined by their maximum, total, or combined apparent visual magnitudes as seen from Earth.

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List of largest stars

Below is an ordered list of the largest stars currently known by radius.

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List of most luminous stars

Below is a list of stars arranged in order of decreasing luminosity (increasing bolometric magnitude).

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Luminosity

In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted per unit of time by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object.

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Magnesium

Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Magnitude (astronomy)

In astronomy, magnitude is a logarithmic measure of the brightness of an object in a defined passband, often in the visible or infrared spectrum, but sometimes across all wavelengths.

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Main sequence

In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appear on plots of stellar color versus brightness.

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Mango

Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.

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Margin of error

The margin of error is a statistic expressing the amount of random sampling error in a survey's results.

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Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Mars (mythology)

In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars (Mārs) was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome.

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Martin Schwarzschild

Martin Schwarzschild (May 31, 1912 – April 10, 1997) was a German-born American astrophysicist.

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Massachusetts

Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Mauna Kea Observatories

The Mauna Kea Observatories (MKO) are a number of independent astronomical research facilities and large telescope observatories that are located at the summit of Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaiʻi, United States.

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Maxima and minima

In mathematical analysis, the maxima and minima (the respective plurals of maximum and minimum) of a function, known collectively as extrema (the plural of extremum), are the largest and smallest value of the function, either within a given range (the local or relative extrema) or on the entire domain of a function (the global or absolute extrema).

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McDonald Observatory

The McDonald Observatory is an astronomical observatory located near the unincorporated community of Fort Davis in Jeff Davis County, Texas, United States.

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Measurement

Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.

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Medieval Latin

Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.

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Mercury (planet)

Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.

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MERLIN

The Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) is an interferometer array of radio telescopes spread across England.

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Michael McDowell (author)

Michael McEachern McDowell (June 1, 1950 – December 27, 1999) was an American novelist and screenwriter described by author Stephen King as "the finest writer of paperback originals in America today".

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Michelson interferometer

The Michelson interferometer is a common configuration for optical interferometry and was invented by Albert Abraham Michelson.

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Micrometer

A micrometer, sometimes known as a micrometer screw gauge, is a device incorporating a calibrated screw widely used for precise measurement of components in mechanical engineering and machining as well as most mechanical trades, along with other metrological instruments such as dial, vernier, and digital calipers.

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Minamoto clan

was one of the surnames bestowed by the Emperors of Japan upon members of the imperial family who were excluded from the line of succession and demoted into the ranks of the nobility.

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Minute and second of arc

A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.

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Molecular cloud

A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery (if star formation is occurring within), is a type of interstellar cloud, the density and size of which permit the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2).

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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.

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Mount Wilson Observatory

The Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) is an astronomical observatory in Los Angeles County, California, United States.

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Mu Cephei

Mu Cephei (μ Cep, μ Cephei), also known as Herschel's Garnet Star, is a red supergiant star in the constellation Cepheus.

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Mu Columbae

Mu Columbae (μ Col, μ Columbae) is a star in the constellation of Columba.

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Mythology

Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.

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Nakshatra

Nakshatra (Sanskrit: नक्षत्र, IAST: Nakṣatra) is the term for lunar mansion in Hindu astrology.

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Natural abundance

In physics, natural abundance (NA) refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet.

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Neon

Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.

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Neutrino

A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.

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Neutron star

A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.

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New York (state)

New York is a state in the northeastern United States.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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NML Cygni

NML Cygni or V1489 Cygni is a red hypergiant and one of the largest stars currently known with a radius of or between.

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Normal mode

A normal mode of an oscillating system is a pattern of motion in which all parts of the system move sinusoidally with the same frequency and with a fixed phase relation.

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Northern Hemisphere

The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.

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Optical resolution

Optical resolution describes the ability of an imaging system to resolve detail in the object that is being imaged.

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Orion (constellation)

Orion is a prominent constellation located on the celestial equator and visible throughout the world.

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Orion in Chinese astronomy

The modern constellation Orion lies across two of the quadrants, symbolized by the White Tiger of the West (西方白虎, Xī Fāng Bái Hǔ) and Vermilion Bird of the South (南方朱雀, Nán Fāng Zhū Què), that divide the sky in traditional Chinese uranography.

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Orion OB1 Association

The Orion OB1 stellar association is a contingent group of several dozen hot giant stars of spectral types O and B. Associated are thousands of lower-mass stars, and a (smaller but significant) number of protostars.

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Orion's Belt

Orion's Belt or the Belt of Orion, also known as the Three Kings or Three Sisters, is an asterism in the constellation Orion.

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Otto Harrassowitz

Otto Wilhelm Harrassowitz (December 18, 1845, in La Guayra, Venezuela – June 24, 1920 in, Gaschwitz near Leipzig) was a German book seller and publisher.

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Overtone

An overtone is any frequency greater than the fundamental frequency of a sound.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Palomar Observatory

Palomar Observatory is an astronomical observatory located in San Diego County, California, United States, southeast of Los Angeles, California, in the Palomar Mountain Range.

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Parallax

Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.

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Parsec

The parsec (symbol: pc) is a unit of length used to measure large distances to astronomical objects outside the Solar System.

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Parts-per notation

In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.

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Pearl

A pearl is a hard glistening object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as a conulariid.

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Pelops

In Greek mythology, Pelops (Greek: Πέλοψ), was king of Pisa in the Peloponnesus.

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Pemon

The Pemon or Pemón (Pemong) are indigenous people living in areas of Venezuela, Brazil, and Guyana.

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Philip K. Dick

Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer known for his work in science fiction.

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Philip Larkin

Philip Arthur Larkin (9 August 1922 – 2 December 1985) was an English poet, novelist and librarian.

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Photosphere

The photosphere is a star's outer shell from which light is radiated.

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Pic du Midi de Bigorre

The Pic du Midi de Bigorre or simply the Pic du Midi (altitude) is a mountain in the French Pyrenees famous for its Pic du Midi Observatory.

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Polarimetry

Polarimetry is the measurement and interpretation of the polarization of transverse waves, most notably electromagnetic waves, such as radio or light waves.

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Polarization (waves)

Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.

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Position angle

Position angle, usually abbreviated PA, is the convention for measuring angles on the sky in astronomy.

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Princeton University

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.

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Procyon

Procyon, also designated Alpha Canis Minoris (α Canis Minoris, abbreviated Alpha CMi, α CMi), is the brightest star in the constellation of Canis Minor.

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Ptolemy

Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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R Doradus

R Doradus (HD 29712 or P Doradus) is the name of a red giant Mira variable star in the far-southern constellation Dorado, although visually it appears more closely associated with the constellation Reticulum.

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Radial velocity

The radial velocity of an object with respect to a given point is the rate of change of the distance between the object and the point.

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Radiant energy

In physics, and in particular as measured by radiometry, radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation.

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Radio astronomy

Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies.

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Radius

In classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its center to its perimeter, and in more modern usage, it is also their length.

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Red supergiant star

Red supergiants are stars with a supergiant luminosity class (Yerkes class I) of spectral type K or M. They are the largest stars in the universe in terms of volume, although they are not the most massive or luminous.

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Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia

Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia was a mix of polytheism, Christianity, Judaism, and Iranian religions.

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Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Reprint

A reprint is a re-publication of material that has already been previously published.

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Rigel

Rigel, also designated Beta Orionis (β Orionis, abbreviated Beta Ori, β Ori), is generally the seventh-brightest star in the night sky and the brightest star in the constellation of Orion—though periodically it is outshone within the constellation by the variable Betelgeuse.

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Rigvedic deities

There are 1000 hymns in the Rigveda, most of them dedicated to specific deities.

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Robert Burnham Jr.

Robert Burnham Jr. (June 16, 1931 – March 20, 1993) was an American astronomer, best known for writing the classic three-volume Burnham's Celestial Handbook.

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Root (linguistics)

A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.

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Royal Astronomical Society of Canada

The Royal Astronomical Society of Canada (RASC) is a national, non-profit, charitable organization devoted to the advancement of astronomy and related sciences.

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Rudra

(Sanskrit: रुद्र) is a Rigvedic deity, associated with wind or storm and the hunt.

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Sanskrit

Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.

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Semiregular variable star

Semiregular variable stars are giants or supergiants of intermediate and late spectral type showing considerable periodicity in their light changes, accompanied or sometimes interrupted by various irregularities.

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Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Silicon monoxide

Silicon monoxide is the chemical compound with the formula SiO where silicon is present in the oxidation state +2.

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Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog

The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog is an astrometric star catalogue.

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SN 1987A

SN 1987A was a peculiar type II supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a dwarf galaxy satellite of the Milky Way.

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Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Space telescope

A space telescope or space observatory is an instrument located in outer space to observe distant planets, galaxies and other astronomical objects.

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Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Science

The Special Astrophysical Observatory (Специальная Астрофизическая Обсерватория), or SAO RAS for short, is an astronomical observatory, set up in 1966 in the USSR, now operated by the Russian Academy of Sciences.

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Speckle imaging

Image:Zeta_bootis_short_exposure.png|Typical short-exposure image of a binary star (Zeta Bootis in this case) as seen through atmospheric seeing.

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Spectral line

A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.

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Sphere

A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").

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Spitzer Space Telescope

The Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), is an infrared space telescope launched in 2003 and still operating as of 2018.

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Star

A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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Star formation

Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", collapse and form stars.

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Star Names

Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning is an 1899 book by Richard Hinckley Allen that discusses the names of stars, constellations, and their histories.

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Stellar atmosphere

The stellar atmosphere is the outer region of the volume of a star, lying above the stellar core, radiation zone and convection zone.

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Stellar classification

In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.

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Stellar evolution

Stellar evolution is the process by which a star changes over the course of time.

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Stellar kinematics

In astronomy, stellar kinematics is the observational study or measurement of the kinematics or motions of stars through space.

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Stellar mass loss

Stellar mass loss is a phenomenon observed in some massive stars.

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Stellar parallax

Stellar parallax is the apparent shift of position of any nearby star (or other object) against the background of distant objects.

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Stellar pulsation

Stellar pulsations are caused by expansions and contractions in the outer layers as a star seeks to maintain equilibrium.

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Stellar wind

A stellar wind is a flow of gas ejected from the upper atmosphere of a star.

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Stochastic

The word stochastic is an adjective in English that describes something that was randomly determined.

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Stralsund

Stralsund, (Swedish: Strålsund) is a Hanseatic town in the Pomeranian part of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

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Stratoscope

The Stratoscopes were two balloon-borne astronomical telescopes which flew from the 1950s to the 1970s and observed in the optical and infrared regions of the spectrum.

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Sun

The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Sunspot

Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the Sun's photosphere that appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas.

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Supernova

A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.

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Supernova remnant

A supernova remnant (SNR) is the structure resulting from the explosion of a star in a supernova.

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Taira clan

was a major Japanese clan of samurai.

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Telescope

A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).

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The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy

The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (sometimes referred to as HG2G, HHGTTG or H2G2) is a comedy science fiction series created by Douglas Adams.

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The Lord of the Rings

The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by English author and scholar J. R. R. Tolkien.

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The North Ship

The North Ship is the debut collection of poems by Philip Larkin (1922-1985), published in 1945 by Reginald A. Caton's Fortune Press.

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Three Stars (Chinese constellation)

The Three Stars mansion is one of the twenty-eight mansions of the Chinese constellations.

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Transliteration

Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).

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Twinkling

Twinkling, or scintillation, is a generic term for variations in apparent brightness or position of a distant luminous object viewed through a medium.

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Type II supernova

A Type II supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas) results from the rapid collapse and violent explosion of a massive star.

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Ultraviolet astronomy

Ultraviolet astronomy is the observation of electromagnetic radiation at ultraviolet wavelengths between approximately 10 and 320 nanometres; shorter wavelengths—higher energy photons—are studied by X-ray astronomy and gamma ray astronomy.

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Ulugh Beg

Mīrzā Muhammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrukh (میرزا محمد طارق بن شاہ رخ, میرزا محمد تراغای بن شاہ رخ), better known as Ulugh Beg (March 22, 1394 in Sultaniyeh, Persia – October 27, 1449, Samarkand), was a Timurid ruler as well as an astronomer, mathematician and sultan.

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Uranometria

Uranometria is the short title of a star atlas produced by Johann Bayer.

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Venus

Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

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Very Large Array

The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) is a centimeter-wavelength radio astronomy observatory located in central New Mexico on the Plains of San Agustin, between the towns of Magdalena and Datil, ~50 miles (80 km) west of Socorro.

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Very Large Telescope

The Very Large Telescope (VLT) is a telescope facility operated by the European Southern Observatory on Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.

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Very Long Baseline Array

The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) is a system of ten radio telescopes which are operated remotely from their Array Operations Center located in Socorro, New Mexico, as a part of the (LBO).

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Visible spectrum

The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

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VizieR

The VizieR Catalogue Service is an astronomical catalog service provided by Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg.

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VV Cephei

VV Cephei, also known as HD 208816, is an eclipsing binary star system located in the constellation Cepheus, approximately 5,000 light years from Earth.

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Wardaman people

The Wardaman people are a small group of Indigenous Australians living about 145 km South-West of Katherine on Menngen Aboriginal Land Trust in the Northern Territory of Australia.

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Wave interference

In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.

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Wave turbulence

In continuum mechanics, wave turbulence is a set of nonlinear waves deviated far from thermal equilibrium.

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Wavelength

In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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Wembley Stadium

Wembley Stadium is a football stadium in Wembley, London, England, which opened in 2007, on the site of the original Wembley Stadium, which was demolished from 2002–2003.

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Whiddy Island

Whiddy Island (Oileán Faoide) is an island near the head of Bantry Bay, Ireland.

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Whiddy Island disaster

The Whiddy Island disaster, also known as the Betelgeuse incident, occurred on 8 January 1979, around 1:00 am, when the oil tanker Betelgeuse exploded in Bantry Bay, at the offshore jetty for the oil terminal at Whiddy Island, Ireland.

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Wiesbaden

Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse.

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William Herschel Telescope

The William Herschel Telescope (WHT) is a optical/near-infrared reflecting telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands, Spain.

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Winter Hexagon

The Winter Hexagon or Winter Circle/Oval is an asterism appearing to be in the form of a hexagon with vertices at Rigel, Aldebaran, Capella, Pollux, Procyon, and Sirius.

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Winter Triangle

The Winter Triangle is an astronomical asterism formed from three of the brightest stars in the winter sky.

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Wolf–Rayet star

Wolf–Rayet stars, often abbreviated as WR stars, are a rare heterogeneous set of stars with unusual spectra showing prominent broad emission lines of highly ionised helium and nitrogen or carbon.

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X-ray

X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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Yellow supergiant star

A yellow supergiant star is a star, generally of spectral type F or G, having a supergiant luminosity class (e.g. Ia or Ib).

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Zij-i Sultani

Zīj-i Sultānī (زیجِ سلطانی) is a Zij astronomical table and star catalogue that was published by Ulugh Beg in 1438-1439.

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2012 phenomenon

The 2012 phenomenon was a range of eschatological beliefs that cataclysmic or otherwise transformative events would occur on or around 21 December 2012.

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25 Orionis

25 Orionis, less commonly known by its Bayer designation Psi1 Orionis (ψ1 Orionis, ψ1 Ori) is a fifth-magnitude star in the constellation Orion.

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53 Arietis

53 Arietis (abbreviated 53 Ari) is a variable star in the northern constellation of Aries.

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Redirects here:

58 Orionis, Al-Jauzā', Alpha Ori, Alpha Orionis, Aridra Nakshatra, Beetlegeuse, Beteigeuse, Beteigeuze, Betelgeuese, Betelgeuse (star), Betelgeuse supernova, Betelgeux, Betelgeuze, Betelgiuse, Betelguese, Betelguise, Betelguse, Betlegeuse, Betleguese, Bételgeuse, H. D. 39801, H. D. E. 39801, H. D. E. C. 39801, H. R. 2061, H.D. 39801, H.D.39801, H.D.E. 39801, H.D.E.39801, H.D.E.C. 39801, H.D.E.C.39801, H.R. 2061, H.R.2061, HD 39801, HD-39801, HDE 39801, HDE-39801, HDEC 39801, HDEC-39801, HIP 27989, HIP-27989, HIP27989, HR 2061, HR-2061, HR2061, SAO 113271, Yad al-Jauza, Yad al-Jauzā', Α Ori, Α Orionis, بَيْت ﭐَلْجَوْزَاء.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Betelgeuse

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