27 relations: Alpha particle, Atomic number, Avogadro constant, Bremsstrahlung, Charged particle, Electron, Elementary charge, Enrico Fermi, Felix Bloch, Hans Bethe, Hans Henrik Andersen, Identical particles, Invariant mass, Ion, Landau distribution, Molar mass constant, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Number density, Perturbation theory, Proton, Quantum mechanics, Relative atomic mass, Speed of light, Stopping power (particle radiation), Theory of relativity, Vacuum permittivity, Walter H. Barkas.

## Alpha particle

Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.

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## Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

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## Avogadro constant

In chemistry and physics, the Avogadro constant (named after scientist Amedeo Avogadro) is the number of constituent particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole.

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## Bremsstrahlung

Bremsstrahlung, from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation"; i.e., "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation", is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle when deflected by another charged particle, typically an electron by an atomic nucleus.

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## Charged particle

In physics, a charged particle is a particle with an electric charge.

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## Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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## Elementary charge

The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.

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## Enrico Fermi

Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian-American physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.

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## Felix Bloch

Felix Bloch (23 October 1905 – 10 September 1983) was a Swiss physicist, working mainly in the U.S. He and Edward Mills Purcell were awarded the 1952 Nobel Prize for Physics for "their development of new ways and methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements."Sohlman, M (Ed.) Nobel Foundation directory 2003. Vastervik, Sweden: AB CO Ekblad; 2003.

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## Hans Bethe

Hans Albrecht Bethe (July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005) was a German-American nuclear physicist who made important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics, and won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.

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## Hans Henrik Andersen

Hans Henrik Andersen (May 1, 1937 in Frederiksberg, Denmark – November 3, 2012) was a Professor at the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen (emeritus since 2004).

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## Identical particles

Identical particles, also called indistinguishable or indiscernible particles, are particles that cannot be distinguished from one another, even in principle.

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## Invariant mass

The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.

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## Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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## Landau distribution

In probability theory, the Landau distribution is a probability distribution named after Lev Landau.

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## Molar mass constant

The molar mass constant, symbol Mu, is a physical constant which relates relative atomic mass and molar mass.

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## National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.

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## Number density

In physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology and geography, number density (symbol: n or ρN) is an intensive quantity used to describe the degree of concentration of countable objects (particles, molecules, phonons, cells, galaxies, etc.) in physical space: three-dimensional volumetric number density, two-dimensional areal number density, or one-dimensional line number density.

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## Perturbation theory

Perturbation theory comprises mathematical methods for finding an approximate solution to a problem, by starting from the exact solution of a related, simpler problem.

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## Proton

| magnetic_moment.

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## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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## Relative atomic mass

Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.

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## Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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## Stopping power (particle radiation)

Stopping power in nuclear physics is defined as the retarding force acting on charged particles, typically alpha and beta particles, due to interaction with matter, resulting in loss of particle energy.

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## Theory of relativity

The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.

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## Vacuum permittivity

The physical constant (pronounced as "epsilon nought"), commonly called the vacuum permittivity, permittivity of free space or electric constant, is an ideal, (baseline) physical constant, which is the value of the absolute dielectric permittivity of classical vacuum.

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## Walter H. Barkas

Walter Henry Barkas (2 September 1912 – 28 March 1969) was Professor of Physics at the University of California, Riverside from 1965 on.

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## Redirects here:

Bethe equation, Bethe-Bloch formula, Bethe–Bloch formula.