91 relations: Abai Qunanbaiuly, Algeria, Alija Izetbegović, Anatolia, Anatolian beyliks, Atabeg, Azerbaijan, Bactrian language, Bai Baianai, Baig, Balkans, Balkars, Ban (title), Begum, Begzada, Beylerbey, Bhaga, Bursa, Byzantine Empire, Cairo, Caliphate, Chinese language, Chinese nobility, Colonel, Constantine, Algeria, Count, Dey, Duchy, Edirne, Edwin G. Pulleyblank, Effendi, Egypt, Emirate, Gerhard Doerfer, Ghazi (warrior), Given name, Husainid dynasty, Iranian languages, Kabyle people, Kaymakam, Kazakh language, Khagan Bek, Khan (title), Khanate, Khanate of Kazan, Konya, Lagos, Lieutenant colonel, List of Ottoman titles and appellations, Mani Peninsula, ..., Middle Persian, Mohammed Shitta Bey, Monarch, Mongolian language, Moorish Orthodox Church of America, Moorish Science Temple of America, Muhammad Ali dynasty, Murad I, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Old Turkic language, Orkhon inscriptions, Ottoman Algeria, Ottoman Empire, Parthian language, Pasha, Peter Benjamin Golden, Petrobey Mavromichalis, Principality, Sanjak-bey, Sanskrit, Sea of Marmara, Seljuq dynasty, Shamanism, Skanderbeg, Slavic languages, Sogdian language, Sudan, Sultan, Sultanate of Rum, Sultanzade, Tatars, Thrace, Tribal chief, Tunis, Turkic languages, Turkish language, Vali (governor), Vilayet, World Digital Library, Yoruba people. Expand index (41 more) » « Shrink index
Abai (Ibrahim) Qunanbaiuly (Абай (Ибраһим) Құнанбайұлы, Abaı (Ibrahım) Qunanbaıuly, اباي (ىيبراحىيم) قۇنانبايۇلى) (August 10, 1845 – July 6, 1904) was a Kazakh poet, composer and philosopher.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Alija Izetbegović (8 August 1925 – 19 October 2003) was a Bosnian politician, activist, lawyer, author, and philosopher who in 1992 became the first President of the newly-independent Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Anatolian beyliks (Anadolu beylikleri, Ottoman Turkish: Tavâif-i mülûk, Beylik), sometimes known as Turkmen beyliks, were small principalities (or petty kingdoms) in Anatolia governed by Beys, the first of which were founded at the end of the 11th century.
Atabeg, Atabek, or Atabey is a hereditary title of nobility of a Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a monarch and charged with raising the crown prince.
Bactrian (Αριαο, Aryao, arjaːu̯ɔ) is an Iranian language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria (present-day Afghanistan and Tajikistan) and used as the official language of the Kushan and the Hephthalite empires.
Bai Baianai (Байанай, Байанай or Барилах, Баянай) is the Yakut spirit of forests, animals and patron of hunters.
Baig, also commonly spelled Beg, or Begh (Persian: بیگ, Bay, Turkish: Bey) was a title of Turko-Mongol origin, which is today used as a name to identify lineage.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Balkars (Малкъарлыла, таулула Malqarlıla, tawlula) are a Turkic people of the Caucasus region, one of the titular populations of Kabardino-Balkaria.
Ban was a noble title used in several states in Central and Southeastern Europe between the 7th century and the 20th century.
Begum, begam, baigum or beygum (begüm, بیگم, بیگم, বেগম) is a female royal and aristocratic title from Central and South Asia.
Begzade (Kurdish), Beyzade (Turkic), and Begzadići (Slavic), Beizadea (Romanian), Begzadi (female) are titles given within the Ottoman Empire to provisional governors and military generals who are decedents of noble households and occupy important positions within the empire.
Beylerbey or Beylerbeyi (بكلربكی; "Bey of Beys", meaning "the Commander of Commanders" or "the Lord of Lords"; originally Beglerbeg in older Turkic) was a high rank in the western Islamic world in the late Middle Ages and early modern period, from the Seljuks of Rum and the Ilkhanids to Safavid Persia and the Ottoman Empire.
Sanskrit bhaga (IAST) is a term for "lord, patron", but also for "wealth, prosperity".
Bursa is a large city in Turkey, located in northwestern Anatolia, within the Marmara Region.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chinese sovereignty and peerage, the nobility of China, was an important feature of the traditional social and political organization of Imperial China.
Colonel ("kernel", abbreviated Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks.
Not to be confused with Constantinople, the historical city from 330 to 1453 in Thrace, now Istanbul, Turkey. Constantine (قسنطينة, ⵇⵙⴻⵏⵟⵉⵏⴰ), also spelled Qacentina or Kasantina, is the capital of Constantine Province in northeastern Algeria.
Count (Male) or Countess (Female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.
Dey (Arabic: داي, from Turkish dayı) was the title given to the rulers of the Regency of Algiers (Algeria), Tripoli,Bertarelli (1929), p. 203.
A duchy is a country, territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess.
Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis in Latin or Adrianoupolis in Greek, founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.
Edwin George "Ted" Pulleyblank FRSC (August 7, 1922 – April 13, 2013) was a Canadian sinologist and professor at the University of British Columbia.
Effendi, Effendy or Efendi (originally from αφέντης; in Persian and Ottoman Turkish language: افندي Efendi, in أفندي, Afandī; in افندی (Afghani), "Afandi") is a title of nobility meaning a Lord or Master.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Arabic or Islamic monarch styled emir.
Gerhard Doerfer (8 March 1920 – 27 December 2003) was a German Turkologist, Altaist, and philologist best known for his studies of the Turkic languages.
Ghazi (غازي) is an Arabic term originally referring to an individual who participates in ghazw (غزو), meaning military expeditions or raiding; after the emergence of Islam, it took on new connotations of religious warfare.
A given name (also known as a first name, forename or Christian name) is a part of a person's personal name.
The Husainid dynasty is a former ruling dynasty of Tunisia, which was of Cretan Turkish origin.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
The Kabyle people (Kabyle: Iqbayliyen) are a Berber ethnic group indigenous to Kabylia in the north of Algeria, spread across the Atlas Mountains, one hundred miles east of Algiers.
Qaim Maqam, Qaimaqam or Kaymakam (also spelled kaimakam and caimacam; قائم مقام, "sub-governor") is the title used for the governor of a provincial district in the Republic of Turkey, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and in Lebanon; additionally, it was a title used for roughly the same official position in the Ottoman Empire.
Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.
Khagan Bek is the title used by the bek (generalissimo) of the Khazars.
Khan خان/khan; is a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, used by Mongolians living to the north of China. Khan has equivalent meanings such as "commander", "leader", or "ruler", "king" and "chief". khans exist in South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, East Africa and Turkey. The female alternatives are Khatun and Khanum. These titles or names are sometimes written as Khan/خان in Persian, Han, Kan, Hakan, Hanum, or Hatun (in Turkey) and as "xan", "xanım" (in Azerbaijan), and medieval Turkic tribes.
A Khanate or Khaganate is a political entity ruled by a Khan or Khagan.
The Khanate of Kazan (Казан ханлыгы; Russian: Казанское ханство, Romanization: Kazanskoye khanstvo) was a medieval Tatar Turkic state that occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgaria between 1438 and 1552.
Konya (Ikónion, Iconium) is a major city in south-western edge of the Central Anatolian Plateau and is the seventh-most-populous city in Turkey with a metropolitan population of over 2.1 million.
Lagos is a city in the Nigerian state of Lagos.
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel.
This is a list of titles and appellations used in the Ottoman Empire.
Mani | conventional_long_name.
Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.
Mohammed Shitta-Bey (c.1830 - July 4, 1895), alias "Olowo Pupa", was a prominent Nigerian Muslim businessman and philanthropist who was involved in commerce across Lagos and the Niger-Delta region.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
The Moorish Orthodox Church of America is a syncretic, non-exclusive, and religious anarchist movement espousing a vast array of liturgical and devotional traditions laid over a theology that includes teachings gleaned from Moorish Science, Five Percenters, Theosophical mysticism, Hermeticism, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Episcopi vagantes movement, the League for Spiritual Discovery, Western esotericism, Discordianism, the teachings of Noel Ignatiev, Neotantra, Nizari Islam, Zoroastrianism, Sufism (particularly from the Sufi Order Ināyati, Chishti, Bektashi and Uwaisi traditions), Taoism, and Vedanta teachings.
The Moorish Science Temple of America is an American national and religious organization founded by Noble Drew Ali.
The Muhammad Ali dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Egypt and Sudan from the 19th to the mid-20th century.
Murad I (مراد اول; I. (nicknamed Hüdavendigâr, from Persian: خداوندگار, Khodāvandgār, "the devotee of God" – but meaning "sovereign" in this context); 29 June 1326 – 15 June 1389) was the Ottoman Sultan from 1362 to 1389.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
The North Caucasus (p) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia.
Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic, found in Göktürk and Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century AD to the 13th century.
The Orkhon inscriptions (Orhun Yazıtları, Orxon-Yenisey abidəsi, Orhon ýazgylary), also known as Orhon Inscriptions, Orhun Inscriptions and the Khöshöö Tsaidam monuments (Хөшөө цайдам, also spelled Khoshoo Tsaidam, Koshu-Tsaidam), are two memorial installations erected by the Göktürks written in Old Turkic alphabet in the early 8th century in the Orkhon Valley in Mongolia.
The regency of Algiers' (in Arabic: Al Jazâ'ir), was a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in North Africa lasting from 1515 to 1830, when it was conquered by the French.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Parthian language, also known as Arsacid Pahlavi and Pahlawānīg, is a now-extinct ancient Northwestern Iranian language spoken in Parthia, a region of northeastern ancient Iran.
Pasha or Paşa (پاشا, paşa), in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman political and military system, typically granted to governors, generals, dignitaries and others.
Peter Benjamin Golden (born 1941) is Professor Emeritus of History, Turkish and Middle Eastern Studies at Rutgers University.
Petros Mavromichalis (1765–1848), also known as Petrobey, was the leader of the Maniot people during the first half of the 19th century.
A principality (or princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince.
Sanjak-bey, sanjaq-bey or -beg (meaning "Lord of the Standard") was the title given in the Ottoman Empire to a Bey (a high-ranking officer, but usually not a Pasha) appointed to the military and administrative command of a district (sanjak, in Arabic liwa'), answerable to a superior wāli or other provincial governor.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.
The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
George Castriot (Gjergj Kastrioti, 6 May 1405 – 17 January 1468), known as Skanderbeg (Skënderbej or Skënderbeu from اسکندر بگ İskender Bey), was an Albanian nobleman and military commander, who served the Ottoman Empire in 1423–43, the Republic of Venice in 1443–47, and lastly the Kingdom of Naples until his death.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
The Sogdian language was an Eastern Iranian language spoken in the Central Asian region of Sogdia, located in modern-day Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan (capital: Samarkand; other chief cities: Panjakent, Fergana, Khujand, and Bukhara), as well as some Sogdian immigrant communities in ancient China.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate (سلجوقیان روم, Saljuqiyān-e Rum), Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State (Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti) or Turkey Seljuk State (Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti)) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks.
Sultanzade is an Ottoman title for sons of sultana or imperial princesses, female descendants of sovereign in male line.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom.
Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Wāli or vali (from Arabic والي Wāli) is an administrative title that was used during the Caliphate and Ottoman Empire to designate governors of administrative divisions.
The Vilayets of the Ottoman Empire were the first-order administrative division, or provinces, of the later empire, introduced with the promulgation of the Vilayet Law (Teşkil-i Vilayet Nizamnamesi) of 21 January 1867.
The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.
The Yoruba people (name spelled also: Ioruba or Joruba;, lit. 'Yoruba lineage'; also known as Àwon omo Yorùbá, lit. 'Children of Yoruba', or simply as the Yoruba) are an ethnic group of southwestern and north-central Nigeria, as well as southern and central Benin.