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Bhaktivinoda Thakur

Index Bhaktivinoda Thakur

Bhaktivinoda Thakur, also written) (2 September 1838 – 23 June 1914), born Kedarnath Datta, was a prominent thinker of Bengali Renaissance and a leading philosopher, savant and spiritual reformer of Gaudiya Vaishnavism who effected its resurgence in India in late 19th and early 20th century and was hailed by contemporary scholars as the most influential Gaudiya Vaishnava leader of his time. He is also credited, along with his son Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati, with pioneering the propagation of Gaudiya Vaishnavism in the West and its eventual global spread. Kedarnath Datta was born on 2 September 1838 in the town of Birnagar, Bengal Presidency, in a traditional Hindu family of wealthy Bengali landlords. After a village schooling, he continued his education at Hindu College in Calcutta, where he acquainted himself with contemporary Western philosophy and theology. There he became a close associate of prominent literary and intellectual figures of the Bengal Renaissance, such as Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, and Sisir Kumar Ghosh. At 18, he began a teaching career in rural areas of Bengal and Orissa until he became an employee with the British Raj in the Judicial Service, from which he retired in 1894 as District Magistrate. Kedarnath Datta belonged to the kayastha community of Bengali intellectual gentry that lived during the Bengal Renaissance and attempted to rationalise their traditional Hindu beliefs and customs. In his youth he spent much time researching and comparing various religious and philosophical systems, both Indian and Western, with a view of finding among them a comprehensive, authentic and intellectually satisfying path. He tackled the task of reconciling Western reason and traditional belief by dividing religion into the phenomenal and the transcendent, thus accommodating both modern critical analysis and Hindu mysticism in his writings. Kedarnath's spiritual quest finally led him at the age of 29 to become a follower of Caitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1533). He dedicated himself to a deep study and committed practice of Caitanya's teachings, soon emerging as a reputed leader within the Caitanya Vaishnava movement in Bengal. He edited and published over 100 books on Vaishnavism, including major theological treatises such as Krishna-samhita (1880), Caitanya-sikshamrita (1886) Jaiva-dharma (1893), Tattva-sutra (1893), Tattva-viveka (1893), and Hari-nama-cintamani (1900). Between 1881 and 1909, Kedarnath also published a monthly journal in Bengali entitled Sajjana-toshani ("The source of pleasure for devotees"), which he used as the prime means for propagating Caitanya's teachings among the bhadralok. In 1886, in recognition of his prolific theological, philosophical and literary contributions, the local Gaudiya Vaishnava community conferred upon Kedarnath Datta the honorific title of Bhaktivinoda. In his later years Bhaktivinoda founded and conducted nama-hatta – a travelling preaching program that spread theology and practice of Caitanya throughout rural and urban Bengal, by means of discourses, printed materials and Bengali songs of his own composition. He also opposed what he saw as apasampradayas, or numerous distortions of the original Caitanya teachings. He is credited with the rediscovery of the lost site of Caitanya's birth, in Mayapur near Nabadwip, which he commemorated with a prominent temple. Bhaktivinoda Thakur pioneered the spread of Caitanya's teachings in the West, sending in 1880 copies of his works to Ralph Waldo Emerson in the United States and to Reinhold Rost in Europe. In 1896 another publication of Bhaktivinoda, a book in English entitled Srimad-Gaurangalila-Smaranamangala, or Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, His life and Precepts was sent to several academics and libraries in Canada, Britain and Australia. The revival of Gaudiya Vaishnavism effected by Bhaktivinoda spawned one of India's most dynamic preaching missions of the early 20th century, the Gaudiya Matha, headed by his son and spiritual heir, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati. Bhaktisiddhanta's disciple A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami (1896–1977) continued his guru Western mission when in 1966 in the United States he founded ISKCON, or the Hare Krishna movement, which then spread Gaudiya Vaishnavism globally. Bhaktivinoda wrote an autobiographical account titled Svalikhita-jivani that spanned the period from his birth in 1838 until retirement in 1894. He died in Calcutta on 23 June 1914 at age 75. His remains were interred near Mayapur, West Bengal. [1]

154 relations: A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Achintya Bheda Abheda, Advaita Vedanta, American Unitarian Association, Araria, Arthur Schopenhauer, Asceticism, Avatar, Baladeva Vidyabhushana, Balasore district, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Barasat, Bardhaman, Bengali language, Bengali renaissance, Bengalis, Bhadrak, Bhadralok, Bhagavad Gita, Bhagavata Purana, Bhajan, Bhakti movement, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati, Bhaktivinoda Thakur bibliography, Bidhan Sarani, Bihar, Birnagar, Boston, Brahma Sutras, Brahmana, Brahmo Samaj, British Empire, British Raj, Chaitanya Charitamrita, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Champaran, Chhapra, Cholera, Circuit court, Cuttack, David Hume, Diksha, Dinajpur, District Collector (India), Eidetic memory, Emanuel Swedenborg, Ganendranath Tagore, Gaudiya Math, Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Gaurakisora Dasa Babaji, ..., General Register Office, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Thompson (abolitionist), Govinda Bhashya, Guru, Hare Krishna (mantra), Hermeneutics, Heterodoxy, Hindu, Hinduism, Hooghly district, Howrah, Immanuel Kant, Indian Civil Service (British India), Indian people, Intelligentsia, International Society for Krishna Consciousness, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Jagannath Temple, Puri, Jagannatha Dasa Babaji, Japa, Jessore District, Jiva Goswami, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Milton, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Karma, Kashiprasad Ghosh, Kayastha, Keshub Chandra Sen, Kirtan, Kishanganj, Kolkata, Krishna, Krishnadasa Kaviraja, Krishnanagar, Nadia, Kristo Das Pal, Lord Byron, Love, Mathura, Mayapur, McGill University, Midnapore district, Monier Monier-Williams, Mymensingh District, Nabadwip, Nabagopal Mitra, Nadia district, Narail District, Narottama Dasa, Netrokona District, Nitai, North 24 Parganas district, Odisha, Orthodoxy, Orthopraxy, Pandit, Permanent Settlement, Persian language, Prasāda, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Presidency University, Kolkata, Puri, Purnia division, Quran, Rabindranath Tagore, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ram Mohan Roy, Rama, Ranaghat, Reinhold Rost, Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Rupa Goswami, Sampradaya, Sanskrit, Saran district, Sasaram, Sat Sandarbhas, Satyendranath Tagore, Sādhanā, Serampore, Shikshashtakam, Shloka, Sisir Kumar Ghosh, Six Goswamis of Vrindavana, Smarta tradition, Svalikhita-jivani, Swami Vivekananda, Tangail, Theodore Parker, Tilaka, Umbilical cord, Unitarian Universalism, University of Oxford, University of Sydney, Upanayana, Urdu, Vaishnavism, Visvanatha Chakravarti, Voltaire, Vrindavan, William Ellery Channing, Zamindar. Expand index (104 more) »

A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada

Abhay Charanaravinda Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (Bengali: অভয় চরোনারবীন্দ্র ভক্তিবেদান্তো স্বামী প্রভুপাদ; 1 September 1896 – 14 November 1977) was a Vedic spiritual teacher (guru) and the founder preceptor (Acharya) of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), commonly known as the "Hare Krishna Movement".

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Achintya Bheda Abheda

Achintya-Bheda-Abheda (अचिन्त्यभेदाभेद, in IAST) is a school of Vedanta representing the philosophy of inconceivable one-ness and difference.

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Advaita Vedanta

Advaita Vedanta (अद्वैत वेदान्त, IAST:, literally, "not-two"), originally known as Puruṣavāda, is a school of Hindu philosophy and religious practice, and one of the classic Indian paths to spiritual realization.

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American Unitarian Association

The American Unitarian Association (AUA) was a religious denomination in the United States and Canada, formed by associated Unitarian congregations in 1825.

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Araria is a city and a municipality that is the headquarters of Araria district in the state of Bihar, India.

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Arthur Schopenhauer

Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher.

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Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.

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An avatar (Sanskrit: अवतार, IAST), a concept in Hinduism that means "descent", refers to the material appearance or incarnation of a deity on earth.

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Baladeva Vidyabhushana

Baladeva Vidyabhushana (ca 1700-1793 AD) was an Indian Gaudiya Vaishnava acharya (religious teacher).Despite being renowned all over the world as the Gaudiya Vedanta Acarya, the scarcity of available authentic biodata has led misinformed authors to spread incorrect information about his life incidents.

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Balasore district

Balasore District also known as Baleswar District or Baleshwar District, is an administrative district of Odisha state in eastern India.

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Bankim Chandra Chatterjee

Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay or Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (27 June 1838–8 April 1894) was an Indian writer, poet and journalist.

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Barasat is a suburb on the outskirts of Kolkata, West Bengal, India, and is the headquarters of both North 24 Parganas district and Barasat Sadar subdivision.

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Bardhaman (Pron: ˈbɑ:dəˌmən) is a city in West Bengal state in eastern India.

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Bengali language

Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.

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Bengali renaissance

The Bengali renaissance or simply Bengal renaissance, (বাংলার নবজাগরণ; Bānglār nabajāgaraṇ) was a cultural, social, intellectual and artistic movement in Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent during the period of the British Indian Empire, from the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century.

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Bengalis (বাঙালি), also rendered as the Bengali people, Bangalis and Bangalees, are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group and nation native to the region of Bengal in the Indian subcontinent, which is presently divided between most of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam, Jharkhand.

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Bhadrak is an administrative district of Odisha state in eastern India.

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Bhadralok (ভদ্রলোক bhôdrôlok, literally 'gentleman', 'well-mannered person') is Bengali for the new class of 'gentlefolk' who arose during British colonial times (approximately 1757 to 1947) in Bengal.

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Bhagavad Gita

The Bhagavad Gita (भगवद्गीता, in IAST,, lit. "The Song of God"), often referred to as the Gita, is a 700 verse Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata (chapters 23–40 of the 6th book of Mahabharata).

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Bhagavata Purana

Bhagavata Purana (Devanagari: भागवतपुराण) also known as Śrīmad Bhāgavata Mahā Purāṇa, Śrīmad Bhāgavatam or Bhāgavata, is one of Hinduism's eighteen great Puranas (Mahapuranas, great histories).

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A bhajan literally means "sharing".

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Bhakti movement

The Bhakti movement refers to the theistic devotional trend that emerged in medieval Hinduism and later revolutionised in Sikhism.

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Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati

Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati (ভক্তিসিদ্ধান্ত সরস্বতী;; 6 February 1874 – 1 January 1937), born Bimala Prasad Datta, also referred to as Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura, was a prominent guru and spiritual reformer of Gaudiya Vaishnavism in the early 20th century in India.

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Bhaktivinoda Thakur bibliography

This is a list of works by Bhaktivinoda Thakur (1838-1914), a Gaudiya Vaishnava theologian and reformer.

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Bidhan Sarani

Bidhan Sarani (formerly known as Cornwallis Street) is a principal North-South thoroughfare in north Kolkata, the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.

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Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.

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Birnagar (formerly ULA) is a Municipality Town under Ranaghat subdivision in the district of Nadia, West Bengal.

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Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.

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Brahma Sutras

The Brahma sūtras (ब्रह्म सूत्र) is a Sanskrit text, attributed to Badarayana, estimated to have been completed in its surviving form some time between 450 BCE and 200 CE.

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The Brahmanas (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मणम्, Brāhmaṇa) are a collection of ancient Indian texts with commentaries on the hymns of the four Vedas.

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Brahmo Samaj

Brahmo Samaj (Bengali: ব্রাহ্ম সমাজ Bramho Shômaj) is the societal component of Brahmoism, which began as a monotheistic reformist movement of the Hindu religion that appeared during the Bengal Renaissance.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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British Raj

The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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Chaitanya Charitamrita

The Chaitanya Charitamrita is one of the primary biographies detailing the life and teachings of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1534), a Vaisnava saint and founder of the Gaudiya Vaishnava Sampradaya.

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Chaitanya Mahaprabhu

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu ((also transliterated Caitanya Mahāprabhu); 18 February 1486 – 14 June 1534) was a Vedic spiritual leader who founded Gaudiya Vaishnavism.

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Champaran is a historic region which now forms the East Champaran district, and the West Champaran district in Bihar, India.

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Chhapra (Chapra) is a city and headquarters of the Saran district in the Indian state of Bihar.

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Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

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Circuit court

Circuit courts are court systems in several common law jurisdictions.

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Cuttack is the former capital and the second largest city in the eastern Indian state of Odisha.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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Deekshya (Sanskrit: दीक्षा in Devanagari,, Tamil: தீட்சை) also spelled deeksha or deeksa in common usage, translated as a "preparation or consecration for a religious ceremony", is giving of a mantra or an initiation by the guru (in Guru–shishya tradition) of Indian religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.

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Dinajpur (দিনাজপুর) is a city situated in northern part of Bangladesh.

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District Collector (India)

A District Collector, often abbreviated to Collector, is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer in charge of revenue collection and administration of a district in India.

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Eidetic memory

Eidetic memory (sometimes called photographic memory) is an ability to vividly recall images from memory after only a few instances of exposure, with high precision for a brief time after exposure,The terms eidetic memory and photographic memory are often used interchangeably.

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Emanuel Swedenborg

Emanuel Swedenborg ((born Emanuel Swedberg; 29 January 1688 – 29 March 1772) was a Swedish Lutheran theologian, scientist, philosopher, revelator and mystic who inspired Swedenborgianism. He is best known for his book on the afterlife, Heaven and Hell (1758). Swedenborg had a prolific career as an inventor and scientist. In 1741, at 53, he entered into a spiritual phase in which he began to experience dreams and visions, beginning on Easter Weekend, on 6 April 1744. It culminated in a 'spiritual awakening' in which he received a revelation that he was appointed by the Lord Jesus Christ to write The Heavenly Doctrine to reform Christianity. According to The Heavenly Doctrine, the Lord had opened Swedenborg's spiritual eyes so that from then on, he could freely visit heaven and hell and talk with angels, demons and other spirits and the Last Judgment had already occurred the year before, in 1757. For the last 28 years of his life, Swedenborg wrote 18 published theological works—and several more that were unpublished. He termed himself a "Servant of the Lord Jesus Christ" in True Christian Religion, which he published himself. Some followers of The Heavenly Doctrine believe that of his theological works, only those that were published by Swedenborg himself are fully divinely inspired.

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Ganendranath Tagore

Ganendranath Tagore was a musician and theatre personality, and contributed substantially to nationalist discourse.

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Gaudiya Math

The Gaudiya Math (pronounced matt, IAST: Gauḍīya Maṭha) is a Gaudiya Vaishnava matha (monastic organisation) formed on 6 September 1920,Devamayī dāsi, "A Divine Life: Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Saraswatī Ṭhākura Prabhupāda" in Prabhupada Saraswati Thakur: The Life & Precepts of Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Saraswatī, Mandala Publishing, Eugene, Oregon: 1997, pp.

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Gaudiya Vaishnavism

Gaudiya Vaishnavism (also known as (Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava tradition, Bengali Vaishnavism, or Chaitanya Vaishnavism) is a Vaishnava religious movement inspired by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1534) in North India. "Gauḍīya" refers to the Gauḍa region (present day Bengal/Bangladesh) with Vaishnavism meaning "the worship of Vishnu or Krishna". Its theological basis is primarily that of the Bhagavad Gītā and Bhāgavata Purāṇa as interpreted by early disciples of Chaitanya such as Sanātana Gosvāmin, Rūpa Gosvāmin, Jīva Gosvāmin, Gopala Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmin, and others. The focus of Gaudiya Vaishnavism is the devotional worship (bhakti) of Radha and Krishna, and their many divine incarnations as the supreme forms of God, Svayam Bhagavan. Most popularly, this worship takes the form of singing Radha and Krishna's holy names, such as "Hare", "Krishna" and "Rama", most commonly in the form of the Hare Krishna (mantra), also known as kirtan. The movement is sometimes referred to as the Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya sampradaya, referring to its traditional origins in the succession of spiritual masters (gurus) believed to originate from Brahma. It classifies itself as a monotheistic tradition, seeing the many forms of Vishnu or Krishna as expansions or incarnations of the one Supreme God, adipurusha.

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Gaurakisora Dasa Babaji

Gaurakisora Dasa Babaji (1838–1915) is a well-known acharya from the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition of Hinduism, and is regarded as a Mahatma or saint by followers of his lineage.

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General Register Office

General Register Office (GRO) is the name given to the civil registry in England and Wales, Scotland, many other Commonwealth nations and Ireland.

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.

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George Thompson (abolitionist)

George Donisthorpe Thompson (18 June 1804 – 7 October 1878) was a British antislavery orator and activist who worked towards the abolition of slavery through lecture tours and legislation while serving as a Member of Parliament.

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Govinda Bhashya

Govinda Bhashya is a Gaudiya Vaishnava commentary on Vedanta Sutra.

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Guru (गुरु, IAST: guru) is a Sanskrit term that connotes someone who is a "teacher, guide, expert, or master" of certain knowledge or field.

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Hare Krishna (mantra)

The Hare Krishna mantra, also referred to reverentially as the Maha Mantra ("Great Mantra"), is a 16-word Vaishnava mantra which is mentioned in the Kali-Santarana Upanishad, and which from the 15th century rose to importance in the Bhakti movement following the teachings of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.

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Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.

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Heterodoxy in a religious sense means "any opinions or doctrines at variance with an official or orthodox position".

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Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Hooghly district

Hooghly district is one of the districts of the state of West Bengal in India.

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Howrah or Haora, is the second largest city in West Bengal, India, after Kolkata.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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Indian Civil Service (British India)

The Indian Civil Service (ICS) for part of the 19th century officially known as the Imperial Civil Service, was the elite higher civil service of the British Empire in British India during British rule in the period between 1858 and 1947.

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Indian people

No description.

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The intelligentsia (/ɪnˌtelɪˈdʒentsiə/) (intelligentia, inteligencja, p) is a status class of educated people engaged in the complex mental labours that critique, guide, and lead in shaping the culture and politics of their society.

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International Society for Krishna Consciousness

The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), known colloquially as the Hare Krishna movement or Hare Krishnas, is a Gaudiya Vaishnava Hindu religious organisation.

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Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar CIE (26 September 1820 – 29 July 1891), born Ishwar Chandra Bandyopadhyay (Ishshor Chôndro Bôndopaddhae; Bengali: ঈশ্বরচন্দ্র বন্দ্যোপাধ্যায়), was a British Indian Bengali polymath and a key figure of the Bengal Renaissance.

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Jagannath Temple, Puri

The Shree Jagannath Temple (Odia: ଶ୍ରୀ ଜଗନ୍ନାଥ ମନ୍ଦିର) of Puri is an important Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Jagannath, a form of lord Vishnu, located on the eastern coast of India, at Puri in the state of Odisha.

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Jagannatha Dasa Babaji

Jagannātha Dāsa Bābājī (1776–1894) was an influential leader (guru) in the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition of Hinduism, and is respected as a Mahatma or saint by followers of his lineage.

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Japa (जप) is the meditative repetition of a mantra or a divine name.

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Jessore District

Jessore District, officially known as Jashore District, is a district in the southwestern region of Bangladesh.

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Jiva Goswami

Jiva Goswami (जीव गोस्वामी, Jīva Gosvāmī; c. 1513 – 1598) is one of the most prolific and important philosopher and saint from the Gaudiya Vaishnava school of Vedanta tradition, producing a great number of philosophical works on the theology and practice of Bhakti yoga, Vaishnava Vedanta and associated disciplines.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.

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John Milton

John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.

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Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society

The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society is an academic journal which publishes articles on the history, archaeology, literature, language, religion and art of South Asia, the Middle East (together with North Africa and Ethiopia), Central Asia, East Asia and South-East Asia.

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Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).

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Kashiprasad Ghosh

Kashiprasad Ghosh was a Bengali poet and the editor of the Hindu Intelligencer, an English language journal that was published in Calcutta and voiced the opinion of the bhadralok community.

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Kayastha (also referred to as Kayasth or Kayeth) is a group consisting of a cluster of several different castes(or sub-groups) of different origin from India.

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Keshub Chandra Sen

Keshab Chandra Sen (কেশবচন্দ্র সেন, Keshob Chôndro Shen; also spelled, Keshub Chunder Sen) (19 November 1838 – 8 January 1884) was an Indian Bengali philosopher and social reformer.

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Kirtan or Kirtana (कीर्तन) is a Sanskrit word that means "narrating, reciting, telling, describing" of an idea or story.

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Kishanganj is a city and district headquarters of Kishanganj district in Purnea division of Bihar state.

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Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.

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Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.

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Krishnadasa Kaviraja

Krishna Dasa Kaviraja Goswami (born 1496; date of death unknown) was the author of the Chaitanya Charitamrita, a hagiography on the life of the mystic and saint Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1533), who is considered by the Gaudiya Vaishnava school of Hinduism to be an incarnation of Radha and Krishna combined.

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Krishnanagar, Nadia

Krishnanagar (sometimes Krishnagar) is a city and administrative/district headquarters of Nadia district.

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Kristo Das Pal

Kristo Das Pal (কৃষ্ণদাস পাল) (1838 — 24 July 1884), was an Indian journalist, orator and the editor of the Hindoo Patriot.

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Lord Byron

George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), known as Lord Byron, was an English nobleman, poet, peer, politician, and leading figure in the Romantic movement.

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Love encompasses a variety of different emotional and mental states, typically strongly and positively experienced, ranging from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection and to the simplest pleasure.

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Mathura is a city in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

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Mayapur is a holy city located on the banks of the Ganges river, at the point of its confluence with the Jalangi, near Nabadwip, West Bengal, India, 130 km north of Kolkata (Calcutta).

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McGill University

McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

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Midnapore district

Midnapore district was a district of the state of West Bengal, India.

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Monier Monier-Williams

Sir Monier Monier-Williams, KCIE (né Williams; 12 November 1819 – 11 April 1899) was the second Boden Professor of Sanskrit at Oxford University, England.

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Mymensingh District

Mymensingh (ময়মনসিংহ) is one of the districts of Mymensingh division, Bangladesh, and is bordered on the north by the Meghalaya state of India and the Garo Hills, on the south by Gazipur District, on the east by the districts of Netrokona and Kishoreganj, and on the west by the districts of Sherpur, Jamalpur and Tangail.

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Nabadwip is a city under Municipal administration in the Nadia District in West Bengal, (India).

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Nabagopal Mitra

Nabagopal Mitra (নবগোপাল মিত্র) (1840–1894) was an Indian playwright, poet, essayist, patriot and one of the founding fathers of Hindu nationalism.

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Nadia district

Nadia district (Pron: nɔd̪iːaː) (নদিয়া জেলা) is a district of the state of West Bengal, in eastern India.

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Narail District

Narail (নড়াইল pron:nɔɽail) is a district in south-western Bangladesh.

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Narottama Dasa

Narottama Dasa Thakura (c. 1466; date of death unknown), also known as Thakura Mahasaya, is a Gaudiya Vaishnava saint who was responsible for spreading Vaishnava bhakti throughout Odisha in and outside of Bengal in India.

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Netrokona District

Netrakona (নেত্রকোনা) is a district in northern Bangladesh.

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Nitai or Nityananda (শ্রী নিত্যানন্দ, b 1474 CE), was a Vaishnava saint, famous as a primary religious figure within the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition of Bengal, is an expansion of Balarama.

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North 24 Parganas district

North 24 Parganas (Pron: pɔrɡɔnɔs) or abv.

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Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.

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Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.

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In the study of religion, orthopraxy is correct conduct, both ethical and liturgical, as opposed to faith or grace etc.

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A pandit (paṇḍita; also spelled pundit, pronounced; abbreviated as Pt. or Pdt.; Panditain or Punditain can refer to a female pundit or the wife of a pundit) is a Brahmin scholar or a teacher of any field of knowledge in Hinduism, particularly the Vedic scriptures, dharma, Hindu philosophy, or secular subjects such as music.

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Permanent Settlement

The Permanent Settlement, also known as the Permanent Settlement of Bengal, was an agreement between the East India Company and Bengali landlords to fix revenues to be raised from land, with far-reaching consequences for both agricultural methods and productivity in the entire British Empire and the political realities of the Indian countryside.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Prasāda (Sanskrit: प्रसाद), variantly spelled as Prasadam, Prasad and Prasada, is a material substance of food that is a religious offering in both Hinduism and Sikhism.

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Presidencies and provinces of British India

The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.

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Presidency University, Kolkata

Presidency University, Kolkata, formerly Hindu College and Presidency College, is a public state university located in College Street, Kolkata.

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Puri is a city and a Municipality in the state of Odisha in eastern India.

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Purnia division

Purnia division is an administrative geographical unit of Bihar state of India.

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The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).

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Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore FRAS, also written Ravīndranātha Ṭhākura (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Ralph Waldo Emerson

Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher, and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century.

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Ram Mohan Roy

Raja Ram Mohan Roy (c. 1774 -- 27 September 1833) was a founder of the Brahma Sabha the precursor of the Brahmo Samaj, a socio-religious reform movement in India.

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Rama or Ram (Sanskrit: राम, IAST: Rāma), also known as Ramachandra, is a major deity of Hinduism.

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Ranaghat is a city in the district of Nadia, West Bengal, India.

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Reinhold Rost

Reinhold Rost (1822–1896) was a German orientalist, who worked for most of his life at St Augustine's Missionary College, Canterbury in England and as headlibrarian at the India Office Library, London.

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Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley

Richard Colley Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley (20 June 1760 – 26 September 1842) was an Irish and British politician and colonial administrator.

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Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland

The Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, commonly known as the Royal Asiatic Society (RAS), was established, according to its Royal Charter of 11 August 1824, to further "the investigation of subjects connected with and for the encouragement of science, literature and the arts in relation to Asia." From its incorporation the Society has been a forum, through lectures, its journal, and other publications, for scholarship relating to Asian culture and society of the highest level.

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Rupa Goswami

Rupa-Goswami (1489–1564) was a devotional teacher (guru), poet, and philosopher of the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition.

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In Hinduism, a sampradaya (Sanskrit: सम्प्रदाय IAST) can be translated as ‘tradition’, 'spiritual lineage' or a ‘religious system’.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Saran district

Saran District is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India.

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Sasaram sometimes also spelled as Sahasram, is an ancient city of India has witnessed the legacy of Sahastrabahu, Shershah Suri, and Jagjivan Ram Babu.

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Sat Sandarbhas

Sat Sandarbhas (Six Sandarbhas) is a 16th-century Vaishnava Sanskrit text, authored by Gaudiya Vaishnava theologian Jiva Goswami.

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Satyendranath Tagore

Satyendranath Tagore (সত্যেন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর) (1st June, 1842 – 9th January, 1923) was the first Indian to join the Indian Civil Service.

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Sādhana (Sanskrit साधन), literally "a means of accomplishing something", is a generic term coming from the yogic tradition and it refers to any spiritual exercise that is aimed at progressing the sādhaka towards the very ultimate expression of his or her life in this reality.

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Serampore (also called Serampur, Srirampur, Srirampore, Shreerampur, Shreerampore, Shrirampur, Shrirampore) is a famous and historical city in the Indian state of West Bengal.

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The Shikshashtakam (IAST) is a 16th-century Gaudiya Vaishnava Hindu prayer of eight verses composed in the Sanskrit language.

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Shloka (Sanskrit: श्लोक śloka; meaning "song", from the root śru, "hear"Macdonell, Arthur A., A Sanskrit Grammar for Students, Appendix II, p. 232 (Oxford University Press, 3rd edition, 1927).) is a category of verse line developed from the Vedic Anustubh poetic meter.

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Sisir Kumar Ghosh

Sisir Kumar Ghosh (1840–1911) was a noted Indian journalist, founder of the Amrita Bazar Patrika, a noted Bengali language newspaper in 1868 and a freedom fighter from Bengal.

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Six Goswamis of Vrindavana

The Six Goswamis of Vrindavan were a group of devotional teachers (gurus) from the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition of Vedic Religion who lived in India during the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Smarta tradition

Smarta tradition is a movement in Hinduism that developed during its classical period around the beginning of the Common Era.

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Svalikhita-jivani is an autobiography written in 1896 by Kedarnatha Datta (also known as Bhaktivinoda Thakur), a prominent thinker of Bengali Renaissance and a leading philosopher, savant and spiritual reformer of Gaudiya Vaishnavism who effected its resurgence in India in late 19th and early 20th century and was hailed by contemporary scholars as the most influential Gaudiya Vaisnava leader of his time.

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Swami Vivekananda

Swami Vivekananda (12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born Narendranath Datta, was an Indian Hindu monk, a chief disciple of the 19th-century Indian mystic Ramakrishna.

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Tangail (টাঙ্গাইল) is a city of Dhaka Division in the central region of Bangladesh 98 km north-west of Dhaka, the capital.

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Theodore Parker

Theodore Parker (August 24, 1810 – May 10, 1860) was an American Transcendentalist and reforming minister of the Unitarian church.

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In Hinduism, the tilaka (तिलक) is a mark worn usually on the forehead, sometimes other parts of the body such as neck, hand or chest.

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Umbilical cord

In placental mammals, the umbilical cord (also called the navel string, birth cord or funiculus umbilicalis) is a conduit between the developing embryo or fetus and the placenta.

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Unitarian Universalism

Unitarian Universalism (UU) is a liberal religion characterized by a "free and responsible search for truth and meaning".

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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University of Sydney

The University of Sydney (informally, USyd or USYD) is an Australian public research university in Sydney, Australia.

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Upanayana (उपनयन) is one of the traditional saṃskāras (rites of passage) that marked the acceptance of a student by a guru (teacher) and an individual's entrance to a school in Hinduism.

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Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishnava dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.

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Visvanatha Chakravarti

Visvanatha Chakravarti Thakura (c. 1626 – c. 1708) was a Gaudiya Vaishnava acharya born in the village of Devagram within Nadia district, West Bengal, India.

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François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.

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Vrindavan is a town in the Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh, India.

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William Ellery Channing

William Ellery Channing (April 7, 1780 – October 2, 1842) was the foremost Unitarian preacher in the United States in the early nineteenth century and, along with Andrews Norton (1786–1853), one of Unitarianism's leading theologians.

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A zamindar in the Indian subcontinent was an aristocrat.

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Redirects here:

Bhaktivinoda Thakura, Bhaktivinode, Bhaktivinode Thakur, Kedarnath Datta, Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakur.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhaktivinoda_Thakur

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