426 relations: 'Ole language, Absolute monarchy, Animal husbandry, Antelope, Apple, Ara (drink), Archery, Architecture of Bhutan, Arranged marriage, Arunachal Pradesh, Asia Times, Asian Development Bank, Assam, Balance of trade, Bantawa language, Basketball, Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation, BBC News, BBIN, Bengal, Bengal tiger, Beryl, Bharal, Bhutan House, Bhutan national cricket team, Bhutan national football team, Bhutan Observer, Bhutan Peace and Prosperity Party, Bhutan Time, Bhutan War, Bhutan–India relations, Bhutanese cuisine, Bhutanese democracy, Bhutanese National Assembly election, 2008, Bhutanese National Assembly election, 2013, Bhutanese National Council election, 2007–2008, Bhutanese ngultrum, Bhutanese passport, Bhutanese red rice, Bhutanese refugees, Biodiversity, Biodiversity action plan, Black Mountains (Bhutan), Boedra, Bon, Brahmaputra River, Brokkat language, Brokpa language, Buckwheat, Buddhism, ..., Bumdeling 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Ole, also called Olekha or Black Mountain Monpa, is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by about 1,000 people in the Black Mountains of Wangdue Phodrang and Trongsa Districts in western Bhutan.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.
An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
Ara, or Arag, (Tibetan and Dzongkha: ཨ་རག་; Wylie: a-rag; "alcohol, liquor"; ultimately from Arabic عرق) is a traditional alcoholic beverage consumed in Bhutan.
Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.
Bhutanese architecture consists of Dzong and everyday varieties.
Arranged marriage is a type of marital union where the bride and groom are selected by individuals other than the couple themselves, particularly family members, such as the parents.
Arunachal Pradesh ("the land of dawn-lit mountains") is one of the 29 states of India and is the northeastern-most state of the country.
Asia Times is a Hong Kong-based Philippine English-language news website covering politics, economics, business and culture "from an Asian perspective specially Philippine".
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966, which is headquartered in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines.
Assam is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.
The balance of trade, commercial balance, or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of a nation's exports and imports over a certain period.
The Bantawa language (also referred to as An Yüng, Bantaba, Bantawa Dum, Bantawa Rai, Bantawa Yong, Bantawa Yüng, Bontawa, Kirawa Yüng), is an endangered Kiranti language spoken in the eastern Himalayan hills of eastern Nepal by Bantawa ethnic groups.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) is an international organisation of seven nations of South Asia and South East Asia, housing 1.5 billion people and having a combined gross domestic product of $2.5 trillion (2014).
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal (BBIN) Initiative is a sub regional architecture of countries in Eastern South Asia, a subregion of South Asia.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
The Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is the most numerous tiger subspecies in Asia, and was estimated at fewer than 2,500 individuals by 2011.
Beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6.
The bharal (Pseudois nayaur), also called the Himalayan blue sheep or naur, is a caprid found in the high Himalayas of India, Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet, and Pakistan.
Bhutan House is an estate located in Kalimpong, West Bengal, India, owned by the Dorji family of Bhutan.
The Bhutan national cricket team represents the country of Bhutan in international cricket matches. The team is organised by the Bhutan Cricket Council Board, which became an affiliate member of the International Cricket Council (ICC) in 2001. Bhutan made its international debut in 2003, at the Emerging Nations Tournament organised by the Asian Cricket Council (ACC). The team has since regularly participated in ACC tournaments, and also in two World Cricket League events, WCL Division Eight in 2010 and 2012. In April 2018, the ICC granted full Twenty20 International (T20I) status to all its members. Therefore, all Twenty20 matches played between Bhutan and another international side after 1 January 2019 will be a full T20I.
The Bhutan national football team represents Bhutan in international men's football.
The Bhutan Observer was Bhutan's first private bilingual newspaper.
The Bhutan Peace and Prosperity Party, or Druk Phuensum Tshogpa (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་ཕུན་སུམ་ཚོགས་པ; Wylie: 'brug phun-sum tshog-pa), is one of the major political parties in Bhutan.
Bhutan Time (BTT) is the time zone of Bhutan.
The Bhutan War (or Duar War) was a war fought between British India and Bhutan in 1864–1865.
The bilateral relations between the Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan and the Republic of India have been traditionally close and both countries share a 'special relationship', making Bhutan a protected state, but not a protectorate, of India.
Bhutanese cuisine (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་ཟས་; Wylie: brug-zas) employs a lot of red rice (like brown rice in texture, but with a nutty taste, the only variety of rice that grows at high altitudes), buckwheat, and increasingly maize.
The development of Bhutanese democracy has been marked by the active encouragement and participation of reigning Bhutanese monarchs since the 1950s, beginning with legal reforms such as the abolition of slavery, and culminating in the enactment of Bhutan's Constitution.
National Assembly elections were held in Bhutan for the first time on 24 March 2008.
National Assembly elections were held in Bhutan on 31 May and 13 July 2013.
National Council elections were held in Bhutan for the first time on 31 December 2007, though they were originally scheduled for 26 December.
The ngultrum (དངུལ་ཀྲམ, symbol: Nu., code: BTN) is the currency of the Kingdom of Bhutan.
A Bhutanese passport is a document which authorises and facilitates travel and other activities in Bhutan or by Bhutanese citizens.
Bhutanese red rice is a medium-grain rice grown in the Kingdom of Bhutan in the eastern Himalayas.
Bhutanese refugees are Lhotshampas ("southerners"), a group of Nepali language-speaking Bhutanese people, including the Kirat, Tamang, Magar, Brahman, Chhetri and Gurung peoples.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
A biodiversity action plan (BAP) is an internationally recognized program addressing threatened species and habitats and is designed to protect and restore biological systems.
The Black Mountains is a mountain range in central Bhutan, and is a sub−range of the Himalayan Range System.
Boedra (Dzongkha: བོད་སྒྲ་; Wylie: bod-sgra; "Tibetan music"; also spelled bödra) is a traditional genre of Bhutanese music.
Bon, also spelled Bön, is a Tibetan religion, which self-identifies as distinct from Tibetan Buddhism, although it shares the same overall teachings and terminology.
The Brahmaputra (is one of the major rivers of Asia, a trans-boundary river which flows through China, India and Bangladesh. As such, it is known by various names in the region: Assamese: ব্ৰহ্মপুত্ৰ নদ ('নদ' nôd, masculine form of 'নদী' nôdi "river") Brôhmôputrô; ब्रह्मपुत्र, IAST:; Yarlung Tsangpo;. It is also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra (when referring to the whole river including the stretch within Tibet). The Manas River, which runs through Bhutan, joins it at Jogighopa, in India. It is the ninth largest river in the world by discharge, and the 15th longest. With its origin in the Manasarovar Lake, located on the northern side of the Himalayas in Burang County of Tibet as the Yarlung Tsangpo River, it flows across southern Tibet to break through the Himalayas in great gorges (including the Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon) and into Arunachal Pradesh (India). It flows southwest through the Assam Valley as Brahmaputra and south through Bangladesh as the Jamuna (not to be mistaken with Yamuna of India). In the vast Ganges Delta, it merges with the Padma, the popular name of the river Ganges in Bangladesh, and finally the Meghna and from here it is known as Meghna before emptying into the Bay of Bengal. About long, the Brahmaputra is an important river for irrigation and transportation. The average depth of the river is and maximum depth is. The river is prone to catastrophic flooding in the spring when Himalayas snow melts. The average discharge of the river is about, and floods can reach over. It is a classic example of a braided river and is highly susceptible to channel migration and avulsion. It is also one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore. It is navigable for most of its length. The river drains the Himalaya east of the Indo-Nepal border, south-central portion of the Tibetan plateau above the Ganga basin, south-eastern portion of Tibet, the Patkai-Bum hills, the northern slopes of the Meghalaya hills, the Assam plains, and the northern portion of Bangladesh. The basin, especially south of Tibet, is characterized by high levels of rainfall. Kangchenjunga (8,586 m) is the only peak above 8,000 m, hence is the highest point within the Brahmaputra basin. The Brahmaputra's upper course was long unknown, and its identity with the Yarlung Tsangpo was only established by exploration in 1884–86. This river is often called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra river. The lower reaches are sacred to Hindus. While most rivers on the Indian subcontinent have female names, this river has a rare male name, as it means "son of Brahma" in Sanskrit (putra means "son").
The Brokkat language (Dzongkha: བྲོཀ་ཁ་; Wylie: Brok-kha; also called "Brokskad" and "Jokay") is an endangered Southern Tibetic language spoken by about 300 people in the village of Dhur in Bumthang Valley of Bumthang District in central Bhutan.
The Brokpa language (དྲོག་པ་ཁ།, དྲོགཔ་ཁ།, Dr˚okpakha, Dr˚opkha), also called the Mera-Sakteng language after its speakers' home regions, is a Southern Tibetic language spoken by about 5000 people mainly in Mera and Sakteng Gewogs in the Sakteng Valley of Trashigang District in Eastern Bhutan.
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), also known as common buckwheat, Japanese buckwheat and silverhull buckwheat, is a plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds and as a cover crop.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Bumdeling Wildlife Sanctuary (also spelled Bumdelling or Bomdeling), which contains the former Kulong Chu Wildlife Sanctuary, covers in northeastern Bhutan at elevations between and.
Bumthang District (Dzongkha: བུམ་ཐང་རྫོང་ཁག་; Wylie: Bum-thang rzong-khag) is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan.
The Bumthang language (བུམ་ཐང་ཁ་); also called "Bhumtam", "Bumtang(kha)", "Bumtanp", "Bumthapkha", and "Kebumtamp") is an East Bodish language spoken by about 20,000 people in Bumthang and surrounding districts of Bhutan. Van Driem (1993) describes Bumthang as the dominant language of central Bhutan.
Butter tea, also known as po cha ("Tibetan tea"), cha süma ("churned tea"), Mandarin Chinese: sūyóu chá (酥油茶) or gur gur in the Ladakhi language, is a drink of the people in the Himalayan regions of Nepal, Bhutan, India (particularly in Ladakh, Sikkim) and, most famously, Tibet.
Calcium carbide is a chemical compound with the chemical formula of CaC2.
Cardamom, sometimes cardamon or cardamum, is a spice made from the seeds of several plants in the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the family Zingiberaceae.
Carp are various species of oily freshwater fish from the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Chagri Dorjeden Monastery, also called Cheri Monastery, is a Buddhist monastery in Bhutan established in 1620 by Ngawang Namgyal, 1st Zhabdrung Rinpoche, the founder of the Bhutanese state.
The Chali language (Dzongkha: ཚ་ལི་ཁ་; Wylie: Tsha-li-kha; also called "Chalikha," "Chalipkha," "Tshali," and "Tshalingpa") is an East Bodish language spoken by about 8,200 people in Wangmakhar, Gorsum and Tormazhong villages in Mongar District in eastern Bhutan, mainly around Chhali Gewog on east bank of Kuri Chhu River.
Changlimithang Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Thimphu, Bhutan, which serves as the National Stadium.
The Chief Justice is the presiding member of a supreme court in any of many countries with a justice system based on English common law, such as the Supreme Court of Bangladesh, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of Singapore, the Court of Final Appeal of Hong Kong, the Supreme Court of Japan, the Supreme Court of India, the Supreme Court of Pakistan, the Supreme Court of Nigeria, the Supreme Court of Nepal, the Constitutional Court of South Africa, the Supreme Court of Ireland, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the High Court of Australia, the Supreme Court of the United States, and provincial or state supreme courts.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chiwogs of Bhutan or chios (སྤྱི་འོག་ chio) refer to the 1044 basic electoral precincts of Bhutan.
The Chocangaca language or Chocangacakha (ཁྱོད་ཅ་ང་ཅ་ཁ་ "'You' and 'I' language"; also called "Kursmad-kha", "Maphekha", "rTsamangpa'i kha", and "Tsagkaglingpa'i kha") or Tsamang is a Southern Tibetic language spoken by about 20,000 people in the Kurichu Valley of Lhuntse and Mongar Districts in eastern Bhutan.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Chukha District (Dzongkhag: ཆུ་ཁ་རྫོང་ཁག་; Wylie: Chu-kha rdzong-khag; also spelled "Chhukha") is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan.
Chumbi Valley is a valley in Yadong County, Tibet Autonomous Region, China.
The clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is a wild cat occurring from the Himalayan foothills through mainland Southeast Asia into China.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
The conservation movement, also known as nature conservation, is a political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including animal and plant species as well as their habitat for the future.
The Constitution of Bhutan (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་གི་རྩ་ཁྲིམས་ཆེན་མོ་; Wylie: 'Druk-gi cha-thrims-chen-mo) was enacted 18 July 2008 by the Royal Government of Bhutan.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treaty.
Cooch Behar district is a district of the state of West Bengal, India, as well as the district's namesake town.
Cooch Behar, also known as Koch Bihar, was a princely state ruled by Rajbanshi clans during the British Raj.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Copper has been used in electrical wiring since the invention of the electromagnet and the telegraph in the 1820s.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
The Council of Ministers (Dzongkha: ལྷན་རྒྱས་གཞུང་ཚོགས་; Wylie: lhan-rgyas gzhung-tshogs) is the highest executive body in Bhutan.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
Cradled in the folds of the Himalayas, Bhutan has relied on its geographical isolation to protect itself from outside cultural influences.
Cypress is a common name for various coniferous trees or shrubs of northern temperate regions that belong to the family Cupressaceae.
Daemon is the Latin word for the Ancient Greek daimon (δαίμων: "god", "godlike", "power", "fate"), which originally referred to a lesser deity or guiding spirit; the daemons of ancient Greek religion and mythology and of later Hellenistic religion and philosophy.
Dagana is populated mostly by Dzongkha speakers, however in the southwest near Sarpang District, Nepali is also spoken as a native language.
Damphu is the administrative headquarters and capital of Tsirang District, Bhutan.
Darts is a sport in which small missiles/torpedoes/arrows/darts are thrown at a circular dartboard fixed to a wall.
In the 2011 census, Nepal's population was approximately 26 million people with a population growth rate of 1.35% and a median age of 21.6 years.
Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
Digor is a traditional sport in Bhutan, resembling the sport of shot put.
Bhutan comprises twenty districts (dzongkhag, both singular and plural).
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.
The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired domesticated bovid found throughout the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent, the Tibetan Plateau and as far north as Mongolia and Russia.
Between gaining independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947 and the proclamation of a republic on 26 January 1950, India was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations with king George VI as its head of state.
The traditional East Asian calendars divide a year into 24 solar terms.
The Dooars or Duars are the alluvial floodplains in northeastern India that lie south of the outer foothills of the Himalayas and north of the Brahmaputra River basin.
A drink or beverage is a liquid intended for human consumption.
The Druk (འབྲུག, འབྲུག་) is the "Thunder Dragon" of Tibetan and Bhutanese mythology and a Bhutanese national symbol.
The Druk Desi (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་སྡེ་སྲིད་; Wylie: 'brug sde-srid; also called "Deb Raja")The original title is Dzongkha: སྡེ་སྲིད་ཕྱག་མཛོད་; Wylie: sde-srid phyag-mdzod.
The Druk Gyalpo (lit. "Dragon King" or the King of Bhutan) is the head of state of the Kingdom of Bhutan.
Druk tsendhen (འབྲུག་ཙན་དན, "The Thunder Dragon Kingdom") is the national anthem of Bhutan.
Drukgyal Dzong was a fortress and Buddhist monastery, now in ruins, located in the upper part of the Paro District, Bhutan.
The Drukpa Lineage, or simply Drukpa, sometimes called either Dugpa or "Red Hat sect" in older sources, by Alexandra David-Néel.
The Dzala language, also called Dzalakha, Dzalamat, or Yangtsebikha, is an East Bodish language spoken in eastern Bhutan, in the Lhuntse and Trashiyangtse Districts.
Dzong architecture is a distinctive type of fortress architecture found mainly in Bhutan and the former Tibet.
Dzongkha, or Bhutanese (རྫོང་ཁ་), is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by over half a million people in Bhutan; it is the sole official and national language of the Kingdom of Bhutan.
A dzongkhag (རྫོང་ཁག dzongkhak) is an administrative and judicial district of Bhutan.
The ease of doing business index is an index created by Simeon Djankov at the World Bank Group.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Eastern Himalayas, or Tropical Himalayas extend from the westernmost part of Kaligandaki Valley in central Nepal to northwest Yunnan in China, also encompassing Bhutan, North-East India (its northeastern states of Sikkim and the North Bengal hills, Arunachal pradesh, Nagaland and Manipur) southeastern Tibet, and parts of northern Myanmar.
The Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows is a montane grasslands and shrublands ecoregion of Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, and Nepal, which lies between the tree line and snow line in the eastern portion of the Himalaya Range.
The Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests is a temperate broadleaf forest ecoregion found in the middle elevations of the eastern Himalayas, including parts of Nepal, India, and Bhutan.
The Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests is a temperate coniferous forests ecoregion which is found in the middle and upper elevations of the eastern Middle Himalayas, in western Nepal, Bhutan and northern Indian states including Arunachal Pradesh.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
Elections in Bhutan are conducted at national (Parliamentary) and local levels.
Ema Datshi (Dzongkha: ཨེ་མ་དར་ཚིལ་; Wylie: e-ma dar-tshil) is among the most famous dishes in Bhutanese cuisine, recognized as a national dish of Bhutan.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
Estêvão Cacella (1585 – 1630) was a Portuguese Jesuit missionary.
Ethnic cleansing in Bhutan refers to a series of initiatives to remove Lhotshampa, or ethnic Nepalis, from Bhutan.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
Ferroalloy refers to various alloys of iron with a high proportion of one or more other elements such as manganese (Mn), aluminium (Al), or silicon (Si).
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
A significant food source in Bhutan is fishing, both from cold-water streams and lakes (primarily trout) and warm-water fisheries (primarily carp).
The Five Year Plans of Bhutan are a series of national economic development plans created by the government of Bhutan since 1961.
A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime where a currency's value is fixed against either the value of another single currency, to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold.
Bhutan has diplomatic relations with 52 states and the European Union.
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
Gangkhar Puensum (གངས་དཀར་སྤུན་གསུམ་, alternatively, Gangkar Punsum or Gankar Punzum) is the highest mountain in Bhutan and a strong candidate for the highest unclimbed mountain in the world with an elevation of and a prominence of.
Gasa District or Gasa Dzongkhag (Dzongkha: མགར་ས་རྫོང་ཁག་; Wylie: Mgar-sa rdzong-khag) is one of the 20 dzongkhags (districts) comprising Bhutan.
Gee's golden langur (Trachypithecus geei), or simply the golden langur, is an Old World monkey found in a small region of western Assam, India and in the neighboring foothills of the Black Mountains of Bhutan.
Gelephu (དགེ་ལེགས་ཕུ་; Wylie: dge-legs-phu), also spelled as Gelyephug, Gelegphu, Gaylegphug or Gaylephug, is a town or Thromde in Sarpang District in Bhutan.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
George Bogle (26 November 1746 – 3 April 1781) was a Scottish adventurer and diplomat, the first to establish diplomatic relations with Tibet and to attempt recognition by the Chinese Qing dynasty.
A gewog (རྒེད་འོག geok, block), in the past also spelled as geog, refers to a group of villages in Bhutan.
The gho or g'ô (བགོ) is the traditional and national dress for men in Bhutan.
Global Peace Index (GPI) measures the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.
Gongduk or Gongdu (it is also known as Gongdubikha) is an endangered Sino-Tibetan language spoken by about 1,000 people in a few inaccessible villages located near the Kuri Chhu river in the Gongdue Gewog of Mongar District in eastern Bhutan.
The gorals are four species in the genus Nemorhaedus or Naemorhedus.
The Government of Nepal (नेपाल सरकार), or Nepal Government, is the executive body and the central government of Nepal.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Gray langurs or Hanuman langurs, the most widespread langurs of the Indian Subcontinent, are a group of Old World monkeys constituting the entirety of the genus Semnopithecus (from Ancient Greek σεμνός semnós, “revered, august, holy”, and πίθηκος píthēkos, “ape, monkey”).
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gross National Happiness (also known by the acronym: GNH) is a philosophy that guides the government of Bhutan.
The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Haa District (Dzongkha: ཧཱ་; Wylie: Haa; alternative spellings include "Ha") is one of the 20 dzongkhag or districts comprising Bhutan.
Hasimara is a small town in the Alipurduar district of West Bengal state, India near the border with Bhutan.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
An unclimbed mountain is a mountain peak that has yet to be climbed to the top.
The Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus laniger) is a subspecies of the Asian black bear found in the Himalayas of India, Tibet, Nepal, China and Pakistan.
The Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests is an ecoregion that extends from the middle hills of central Nepal through Darjeeling into Bhutan and also into the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The hispid hare (Caprolagus hispidus), also called Assam rabbit and Bristly rabbit, is a leporid native to South Asia, whose historic range extended along the southern foothills of the Himalayas.
Bhutan's early history is steeped in mythology and remains obscure.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Horseshoes is a lawn game played between two people (or two teams of two people) using four horseshoes and two throwing targets (stakes) set in a lawn or sandbox area.
The House of Wangchuck has ruled Bhutan since it was reunified in 1907.
A human rights group, or human rights organization, is a non-governmental organization which advocates for human rights through identification of their violation, collecting incident data, its analysis and publication, promotion of public awareness while conducting institutional advocacy, and lobbying to halt these violations.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.
Bhutan is one of just a couple of nations which have been free all through their history.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Bhutan include.
The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Air Force (IAF; IAST: Bhāratīya Vāyu Senā) is the air arm of the Indian armed forces.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
Indian Railways (IR) is India's national railway system operated by the Ministry of Railways.
The Indian rupee (sign: ₹; code: INR) is the official currency of the Republic of India.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.
Jakar (Dzongkha: བྱ་ཀར་; Wylie: Bya-kar), also officially referred to as Bumthang, is a town in the central-eastern region of Bhutan.
Major James Rennell, FRS FRSE FRGS (3 December 1742 – 29 March 1830) was an English geographer, historian and a pioneer of oceanography.
Jean-Baptiste Tavernier (1605 – 1689) was a 17th-century French gem merchant and traveler.
Jetsun Pema (རྗེ་བཙུན་པདྨ་; Wylie: rje btsun padma; born 4 June 1990) is the queen consort (Druk Gyaltsuen, literally meaning "Dragon Queen") of Bhutan, as the wife of King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck.
The Jigme Dorji National Park (JDNP), named after the late Jigme Dorji Wangchuck, is the second-largest National Park of Bhutan.
Jigme Dorji Wangchuck (Wylie: 'jigs med rdo rje dbang phyug; 2 May 1929 – 21 July 1972) was the Druk Gyalpo of Bhutan.
Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck (Wylie: jigs med ge sar rnam rgyal dbang phyug born 21 February 1980) is the current reigning Druk Gyalpo or "Dragon King" of the Kingdom of Bhutan.
The Jigme Khesar Strict Nature Reserve (formerly Toorsa Strict Nature Reserve) in Bhutan covers in Haa District, occupying most of its area.
Jigme Singye Wangchuck (-->born 11 November 1955) is the former King of Bhutan (Druk Gyalpo) from 1972 until his abdication in favour of his eldest son, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, in 2006.
Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park (formerly Black Mountains National Park) covers an area of in central Bhutan.
Dasho (Lord) Jigme Yoser Thinley (Dzongkha: འཇིགས་མེད་འོད་ཟེར་འཕྲིན་ལས་; Wylie: 'Jigs-med 'Od-zer 'Phrin-las) (born 9 September 1952) was the Prime Minister of Bhutan from April 2008 to April 2013.
João Cabral was a Portuguese Jesuit missionary, who, along with Estêvão Cacella, were the first Europeans to enter Bhutan in 1627.
John Claude White (1October 18531918) was an engineer, photographer, author and civil servant in British India.
Jomotsangkha Wildlife Sanctuary (formerly Khaling Wildlife Sanctuary) is the smallest protected area of Bhutan covering in Samdrup Jongkhar District along the southern border with Assam.
Kalimpong is a hill station in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Khams Tibetan is the Tibetic language used by the majority of the people in Kham, which is now divided between the eastern part of Tibet Autonomous Region, the southern part of Qinghai, the western part of Sichuan, and the northwestern part of Yunnan, China.
Lyonpo Khandu Wangchuk (born 24 November 1950 in Paro) is a political figure in Bhutan.
The Khengkha language (Dzongkha ྨཕགལཔམཕ), or Kheng, is an East Bodish language spoken by ~40,000 native speakers worldwide, in the Zhemgang, Trongsa, and Mongar districts of south–central Bhutan.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
The kira (Dzongkha: དཀྱི་ར་, དཀྱིས་རས་; Wylie: dkyi-ra, dkyis-ras) is the national dress for women in Bhutan.
Kuensel (ཀུན་གསལ།, Clarity) is the national newspaper of the Kingdom of Bhutan.
The Kurtöp language (Dzongkha: ཀུར་ཏོ་པ་ཁ་; Wylie: Kur-to-pa kha; Kurtöpkha, also called Kurtö and Zhâke) is an East Bodish language spoken in Kurtoe Gewog, Lhuntse District, Bhutan.
Lakha ("language of the mountain pass", also called "Tshangkha") is a Southern Tibetic language spoken by about 8,000 people in Wangdue Phodrang and Trongsa Districts in central Bhutan.
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
There are two dozen languages of Bhutan, all members of the Tibeto-Burman language family except for Nepali, which is an Indo-Aryan language, and Bhutanese Sign Language.
Bhutan's Lateral Road is its primary east-west corridor, connecting Phuentsholing in the southwest to Trashigang in the east.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
The Least Developed Countries (LDCs) is a list of developing countries that, according to the United Nations, exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world.
The terms right-hand traffic (RHT) and left-hand traffic (LHT) refer to the practice, in bidirectional traffic situations, to keep to the right side or to the left side of the road, respectively.
Legal tender is a medium of payment recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation.
Lepcha language, or Róng language (Lepcha: ᰛᰩᰵ་ᰛᰵᰧᰶ; Róng ríng), is a Himalayish language spoken by the Lepcha people in Sikkim and parts of West Bengal, Nepal and Bhutan.
Lhokpu, also Lhobikha or Taba-Damey-Bikha, is one of the autochthonous languages of Bhutan spoken by the Lhop people.
The Lhotshampa or Lhotsampa (ल्होत्साम्पा) people are a heterogeneous Bhutanese people of Nepalese descent.
Lhuntse District (Dzongkha: ལྷུན་རྩེ་རྫོང་ཁག་; Wylie: Lhun-rtse rdzong-khag; previously "Lhuntshi") is one of the 20 dzongkhag (districts) comprising Bhutan.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Limbu (Limbu: ᤕᤠᤰᤌᤢᤱ ᤐᤠᤴ, yakthung pān) is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by the Limbu people of eastern Nepal and India (particularly Darjeeling, Kalimpong, Sikkim, Assam and Nagaland) as well as expatriate communities in Bhutan, Burma, Thailand, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Canada and the US.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
This is a list of national animals.
Bhutan, which first made moves to become democratic in 2007, has the following registered political parties.
The Prime Minister of Bhutan is the head of government of Bhutan.
The protected areas of Bhutan are its national parks, nature preserves, and wildlife sanctuaries.
Bhutan was founded and unified as a country by Ngawang Namgyal, 1st Zhabdrung Rinpoche in the mid–17th century.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
Love marriage is a term used primarily in South Asia, especially in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, to describe a marriage where the individuals love each other and get married with or without consent of their parents.
A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases (synodic months), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly upon the solar year.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.
The Manas River (Pron: ˈmʌnəs; in Bhutan Drangme Chhu; in China Niamjang) is a transboundary river in the Himalayan foothills between southern Bhutan and India.
Marmots are large squirrels in the genus Marmota, with 15 species.
Matrilineality is the tracing of descent through the female line.
Medicinal plants, also called medicinal herbs, have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times.
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
Mo Chhu is a major river in Bhutan.
Mongar (Dzongkha: མོང་སྒར) is a town and the seat of Mongar District in eastern Bhutan.
Mongar District (Dzongkha: མོང་སྒར་རྫོང་ཁག་; Wylie: Mong-sgar rdzong-khag) is one of the 20 dzongkhags (districts) comprising Bhutan.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
The Monpa or Mönpa (मोनपा) are a major ethnic group of Arunachal Pradesh in northeastern India.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
The Montserrat national football team represents the small Caribbean island of Montserrat in the CONCACAF football region.
Motithang Takin Preserve, located in the Motithang district of Thimphu, Bhutan is a wildlife reserve area for takin, the national animal of Bhutan.
The mountains of Bhutan are some of the most prominent natural geographic features of the kingdom.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Muntjacs, also known as barking deer and Mastreani deer, are small deer of the genus Muntiacus.
The music of Bhutan is an integral part of its culture and plays a leading role in transmitting social values.
A mycorrhiza (from Greek μύκης mýkēs, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. mycorrhizae, mycorrhiza or mycorrhizas) is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant.
National Assembly politically is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries.
The National Assembly is the elected lower house of Bhutan's new bicameral Parliament which also comprises the Druk Gyalpo (Dragon King) and the National Council.
The National Council is the upper house of Bhutan's new bicameral Parliament, which also comprises the Druk Gyalpo (Dragon King) and the National Assembly.
The National Library of Bhutan (NLB) (Dzongkha: Druk Gyelyong Pedzö འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཡོངས་དཔེ་མཛོད།), Thimphu, Bhutan was established in 1967 for the purpose of "preservation and promotion of the rich cultural and religious heritage" of Bhutan.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
The Ngalop (སྔལོངཔ་; "earliest risen people" or "first converted people" according to folk etymology) are people of Tibetan origin who migrated to Bhutan as early as the ninth century.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
Nyenkha (Dzongkha: འནྱེན་ཁ་; Wylie: 'Nyen-kha; also called "'Nyenkha", "Henkha", "Lap", "Nga Ked", and "Mangsdekha") is an East Bodish language spoken by about 10,000 people in the eastern, northern, and western areas of the Black Mountains.
The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the other three being the Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug).
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.
Old Tibetan refers to the period of Tibetan language reflected in documents from the adoption of writing by the Tibetan Empire in the mid-7th century to works of the early 11th century.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
Ophiocordyceps sinensis (formerly known as Cordyceps sinensis) is an entomopathogenic fungus (a fungus that grows on insects) found in mountainous regions of Nepal and Tibet.
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.
Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices.
The location of Bhutan An enlargeable map of the Kingdom of Bhutan The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Bhutan: Bhutan – landlocked sovereign country located in South Asia.
The Panchen Lama is a tulku of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism.
The Parliament of Bhutan (རྒྱལ་ཡོངས་ཚོགས་ཁང་ gyelyong tshokhang) consists of the King of Bhutan together with a bicameral parliament.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
Paro Airport (སྤ་རོ་གནམ་ཐང༌) is the sole international airport of the four airports in the Kingdom of Bhutan.
Paro District (Dzongkha: སྤ་རོ་རྫོང་ཁག་; Wylie: Spa-ro rdzong-khag) is a district (dzongkhag), valley, river and town (population 20,000) in Bhutan.
Paro (སྤ་རོ་) is a town and seat of Paro District, in the Paro Valley of Bhutan.
Pemagatshel District (Dzongkha: པད་མ་དགའ་ཚལ་རྫོང་ཁག་; Wylie: Pad-ma Dgaa-tshal rdzong-khag; previously "Pemagatsel") is one of the 20 dzongkhags (districts) constituting Bhutan.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
The People's Democratic Party (PDP) (Dzongkha: མི་སེར་དམངས་གཙོའི་ཚོགས་པ་; Wylie: mi-ser dmangs-gtsoi tshogs-pa) is one of the major political parties in Bhutan, formed on March 24, 2007.
Category:Units of frequency.
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area (city, region, country, etc.) in a specified year.
Phajo Drugom Shigpo was a Tibetan Buddhist particularly important in the early spread of the Drukpa school to Bhutan where he is revered as an emanation of Avalokiteśvara.
The Phibsoo Wildlife Sanctuary is the second-smallest national park in Bhutan, covering in western Sarpang District and southeastern Dagana District along the border with West Bengal.
Phrumsengla National Park (ཕྲུམ་སེང་རྒྱལ་ཡོང་གླིང་ག) in central Bhutan covers just over across four districts, but primarily in Mongar.
Phuntsholing, also spelled as Phuentsholing (ཕུན་ཚོགས་གླིང་) is a border town in southern Bhutan and is the administrative seat of Chukha District.
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae.
The polar climate regions are characterized by a lack of warm summers.
The Government of Bhutan has been a constitutional monarchy since 18 July 2008.
Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.
Promulgation is the formal proclamation or declaration that a new statutory or administrative law is enacted after its final approval.
Proselytism is the act of attempting to convert people to another religion or opinion.
The Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh was established following the declaration of independence of East Pakistan on 10 April 1971.
Public holidays in Bhutan consist of both national holidays and local festivals or tshechus.
Punakha (སྤུ་ན་ཁ་) is the administrative centre of Punakha dzongkhag, one of the 20 districts of Bhutan.
Punakha District (Dzongkha: སྤུ་ན་ཁ་རྫོང་ཁག་; Wylie: Spu-na-kha rdzong-khag) is one of the 20 dzongkhags (districts) comprising Bhutan.
The Punakha Dzong, also known as Pungtang Dewa chhenbi Phodrang (meaning "the palace of great happiness or bliss"), is the administrative centre of Punakha District in Punakha, Bhutan.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
The putting-out system is a means of subcontracting work.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
The Raidāk River (also called Wang Chhu or Wong Chhu in Bhutan) is a tributary of the Brahmaputra River, and a trans-boundary river.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
Rammed earth, also known as taipa in Portuguese, tapial or tapia in Spanish, pisé (de terre) in French, and hangtu, is a technique for constructing foundations, floors, and walls using natural raw materials such as earth, chalk, lime, or gravel.
The red panda (Ailurus fulgens), also called the lesser panda, the red bear-cat, and the red cat-bear, is a mammal native to the eastern Himalayas and southwestern China.
A refugee camp is a temporary settlement built to receive refugees and people in refugee-like situations.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Rice wine is an alcoholic beverage fermented and distilled from rice, traditionally consumed in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
Rigsar (Dzongkha རིག་གསར་; Wylie: rig-gsar; "new idea") is a music genre, the dominant type of popular music of Bhutan.
Rinpung Dzong is a large dzong - Buddhist monastery and fortress - of the Drukpa Lineage of the Kagyu school in Paro District, Bhutan.
The Royal Bhutan Army (བསྟན་སྲུང་དམག་སྡེ་), or RBA, is a branch of the armed forces of the Kingdom of Bhutan responsible for maintaining the country's territorial integrity and sovereignty against security threats.
The Royal Bhutan Police (རྒྱལ་གཞུང་འབྲུག་གི་འགག་སྡེ་) is responsible for maintaining law and order and prevention of crime in Bhutan.
The Royal Bodyguard of Bhutan is a part of the Royal Bhutan Army but independent as it is under the personal command of the King of Bhutan and is in charge of the security of the King of Bhutan (currently Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuck) and other members of the Royal Family.
Royal Manas National Park is Bhutan's oldest national park, and the Royal government considers it the "conservation showpiece of the Kingdom" and a "genetic depository" for valuable plants.
The Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan (བྲུག་རྒྱལ་གཞུང་དངུལ་ལས་དབང་འཛིན་) is the central bank of Bhutan and is a member of the Asian Clearing Union.
The Royal Securities Exchange of Bhutan is the only stock exchange in Bhutan.
The Royal University of Bhutan (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་འཛིན་གཙུག་ལག་སློབ་སྡེ་; Wylie: 'brug rgyal-'dzin gtsug-lag-slob-sde), founded on June 2, 2003 by a royal decree, is the national university system of Bhutan.
Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary located mostly in Trashigang District and just crossing the border into Samdrup Jongkhar District, Bhutan.
The sambar (Rusa unicolor) is a large deer native to the Indian subcontinent, southern China, and Southeast Asia that is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 2008.
Samdrup Jongkhar (Dzongkha:བསམ་གྲུབ་ལྗོངས་མཁར་) is a town and seat of Samdrup Jongkhar District in Bhutan.
Samdrup Jongkhar District (Dzongkha: བསམ་གྲུབ་ལྗོངས་མཁར་རྫོང་ཁག་; Wylie: Bsam-grub Ljongs-mkhar rdzong-khag) is one of the 20 dzongkhags (districts) comprising Bhutan.
Samtse District (Dzongkha: བསམ་རྩེ་རྫོང་ཁག་; Wylie: Bsam-rtse rdzong-khag; older spelling "Samchi") is one of the 20 dzongkhags (districts) comprising Bhutan.
Sandalwood is a class of woods from trees in the genus Santalum.
Lyonpo Sangay Ngedup (born 1 July 1953) was Prime Minister of Bhutan from 1999 to 2000 and again from 2005 to 2006.
Sankosh (also Gadadhar. Mo Chu, and Svarnakosha) is a river that rises in northern Bhutan and empties into the Brahmaputra in the state of Assam in India.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sarpang District (Dzongkha: གསར་སྤང་རྫོང་ཁག་; Wylie: Gsar-spang rdzong-khag; also known as "Geylegphug") is one of the 20 dzongkhags (districts) comprising Bhutan.
A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.
The serows are six species of medium-sized goat-like or antelope-like mammals of the genus Capricornis.
Shangri-La is a fictional place described in the 1933 novel Lost Horizon by British author James Hilton.
The Sharchops (ཤར་ཕྱོགས་པ.,; "Easterner") are the populations of mixed Tibetan, Southeast Asian and South Asian descent that mostly live in the eastern districts of Bhutan.
The shot put (pronounced) is a track and field event involving "throwing"/"putting" (throwing in a pushing motion) a heavy spherical object—the shot—as far as possible.
Sikkim is a state in Northeast India.
The Sikkimese language, also called "Sikkimese Tibetan", "Bhutia", "Drenjongké" ("Rice Valley language"), Dranjoke, Denjongka, Denzongpeke, and Denzongke, belongs to the Southern Tibetic languages.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
The Sivalik Hills is a mountain range of the outer Himalayas.
The sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), also known as the labiated bear, is an insectivorous bear species native to the Indian subcontinent.
The snow leopard or ounce (Panthera uncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Songtsen Gampo (569–649?/605–649?) was the 33rd Tibetan king and founder of the Tibetan Empire, and is traditionally credited with the introduction of Buddhism to Tibet, influenced by his Nepali and Chinese queens, as well as being the unifier of what were previously several Tibetan kingdoms.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of nations in South Asia.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of China directly under Central People's Government, which enjoys the highest degree of autonomy, and no or less interference by either Central Government or the Communist Party of China.
Squirrels are members of the family Sciuridae, a family that includes small or medium-size rodents.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
A state visit is a formal visit by a head of state to a foreign country, at the invitation of that country's head of state, with the latter also acting as the official host for the duration of the state visit.
In International law a stateless person is someone who is "not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law".
A stock exchange, securities exchange or bourse, is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial instruments.
Subedar (صوبیدار) is a historical rank in the Indian Army and Pakistan Army, ranking below British commissioned officers and above non-commissioned officers.
A subsidiary alliance, in South Asian history, describes a tributary alliance between a Native state and either French India, or later the British East India Company.
Subsistence agriculture is a self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their entire families.
The takin (Budorcas taxicolor), also called cattle chamois or gnu goat, is a goat-antelope found in the eastern Himalayas.
The Takpa or Dakpa language, Dakpakha, known in India as Tawang Monpa, is an East Bodish language spoken in the Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh, claimed by Tibet as a part of Lho-kha Sa-khul, and in northern Trashigang District in eastern Bhutan, mainly in Chaleng, Phongmed Gewog, Yobinang, Dangpholeng and Lengkhar near Radi Gewog.
Tala Hydroelectric Power Station is a run-of-the-river type hydroelectric power station on the Wangchu River in Chukha District, Bhutan.
Tamzhing Lhündrup Monastery in Bumthang District in central Bhutan is the most important Nyingma gompa in Bhutan.
Typical format for telephone numbers in Bhutan are: +975 XX XXXXXX (mobile) and +975 X XXXXXX (fixed line).
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
The Other Final is a 2003 documentary film, directed by Johan Kramer of Dutch communications agency Kessels Kramer, about a football match between Bhutan and Montserrat, the then-lowest ranked teams in the FIFA World Rankings.
Thimphu (ཐིམ་ཕུ; formerly spelled as Thimbu or Thimpu) is the capital and largest city of the Kingdom of Bhutan.
Thimphu District (Dzongkha: ཐིམ་ཕུ་རྫོང་ཁག་; Wylie: Thim-phu rdzong-khag) is a dzongkhag (district) of Bhutan.
A thromde (Dzongkha: ཁྲོམ་སྡེ་; Wylie: khrom-sde) is a second-level administrative division in Bhutan.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The historical era of Tibet from 1912 to 1951 followed the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1912, and lasted until the invasion of Tibet by the People's Republic of China.
The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
The Tibetan wolf (Canis lupus filchneri) is a subspecies of the gray wolf that is native to China in the regions of Gansu, Qinghai, and the Tibetan Plateau.
The Tibetic languages are a cluster of Sino-Tibetan languages descended from Old Tibetan, spoken across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering the Indian subcontinent, including the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas in Baltistan, Ladakh, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan.
The Tibeto-Burman languages are the non-Sinitic members of the Sino-Tibetan language family, over 400 of which are spoken throughout the highlands of Southeast Asia as well as certain parts of East Asia and South Asia.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
The Tobacco Control Act of Bhutan (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་གི་ཏམ་ཁུ་དམ་འཛིན་བཅའ་ཁྲིམས་ཅན་མ་; Wylie: 'Drug-gi tam-khu dam-'dzin bca'-khrims can-ma) was enacted by parliament on 16 June 2010.
Madhumalla-3,Toribari is a village located in madhumalla morang of Koshi Zone.
Torsa River (also spelt Torsha and also known as Kambu Maqu, Machu and Amo Chhu) rises from the Chumbi Valley in Tibet, China, where it is known as Machu.
Trashigang (བཀྲ་ཤིས་སྒང་།), or Tashigang, is a town in eastern Bhutan and the district capital of the Trashigang Dzongkhag (district).
Trashigang District (Dzongkha: བཀྲ་ཤིས་སྒང་རྫོང་ཁག་; Wylie: Bkra-shis-sgang rdzong-khag; also spelled "Tashigang") is Bhutan's easternmost dzongkhag (district).
Trashiyangtse District (Dzongkha: བཀྲ་ཤིས་གྱང་ཙེ་རྫོང་ཁག་; Wylie: Bkra-shis Gyang-tse rdzong-khag) is one of the twenty dzongkhags (districts) comprising Bhutan.
The Treaty of Punakha was an agreement signed on 8 January 1910, at Punakha Dzong between the recently consolidated Kingdom of Bhutan and British India.
Trongsa, previously Tongsa, is a Thromde or town, and the capital of Trongsa District in central Bhutan.
Trongsa District (Dzongkha: ཀྲོང་གསར་རྫོང་ཁག་; Wylie transliteration: Krong-gsar rdzong-khag) is one of the districts of Bhutan.
Trongsa Dzong is the largest dzong fortress in Bhutan, located in Trongsa (formerly Tongsa) in Trongsa district, in the centre of the country.
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae.
The Tsa Yig is any monastic constitution or code of moral discipline based on codified Tibetan Buddhist precepts.
Tshangla (pronounced), also called Sharchop, is a Sino-Tibetan language of the Bodish branch closely related to the Tibetic languages and much of its vocabulary derives from Classical Tibetan.
Tshechu (ཚེས་བཅུ།, literally "day ten") are annual religious Bhutanese festivals held in each district or dzongkhag of Bhutan on the tenth day of a month of the lunar Tibetan calendar.
Lyonpo Tshering Tobgay (born 19 September 1965) is a Bhutanese politician, environmentalist, and cultural advocate who has been the Prime Minister of Bhutan since July 2013.
Tsirang District (Dzongkha: རྩི་རང་རྫོང་ཁག་; Wylie: Rtsi-rang rdzong-khag; previously "Chirang"), is one of the 20 dzongkhags (districts) of Bhutan.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Gongsar Ugyen Wangchuck (ཨོ་རྒྱན་དབང་ཕྱུག,, 11 June 1862 – 26 August 1926) was the first Druk Gyalpo (King of Bhutan) from 1907–1926.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) is part of the United Nations Secretariat and is responsible for the follow-up to major United Nations Summits and Conferences, as well as services to the United Nations Economic and Social Council and the Second and Third Committees of the United Nations General Assembly.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty adopted on 9 May 1992 and opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
The University of Maryland, College Park (commonly referred to as the University of Maryland, UMD, or simply Maryland) is a public research university located in the city of College Park in Prince George's County, Maryland, approximately from the northeast border of Washington, D.C. Founded in 1856, the university is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland.
The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) is a public research university in El Paso, Texas, United States.
Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna, Tantrayāna, Tantric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism are the various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and "Secret Mantra", which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet and East Asia.
Wangchuck Centennial Park in northern Bhutan is the kingdom's largest national park, spanning over five districts, occupying significant portions of northern Bumthang, Lhuntse, and Wangdue Phodrang Districts.
Wangdue Phodrang (Dzongkha 'Wangdi Phodr'a) is a town and capital (dzongkhag thromde) of Wangdue Phodrang District in central Bhutan.
Wangdue Phodrang District (Dzongkha: དབང་འདུས་ཕོ་བྲང་རྫོང་ཁག་; Wylie: Dbang-'dus Pho-brang rdzong-khag; previously spelled "Wangdi Phodrang") is a dzongkhag (district) of central Bhutan.
War reparations are payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
Wattle and daub is a composite building material used for making walls, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
The White-bellied musk deer or Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster) is a musk deer species occurring in the Himalayas of Nepal, Bhutan, India, Pakistan and China.
The white-winged duck or white-winged wood duck (Asarcornis scutulata) is a large species of duck, formerly placed in the genus Cairina and allied with the dabbling ducks.
A wildlife corridor, habitat corridor, or green corridor is an area of habitat connecting wildlife populations separated by human activities or structures (such as roads, development, or logging).
The Kingdom of Bhutan is a small, landlocked nation nestled in the southern slopes of the Eastern Himalaya.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
Yongphulla Airport (also known as Yonphula Airport) is a domestic airport in Bhutan, one of only four airports in the country.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Zhabdrung (also Shabdrung;; "before the feet of") was a title used when referring to or addressing great lamas in Tibet, particularly those who held a hereditary lineage.
Zhemgang District (Dzongkha: གཞམས་སྒང་རྫོང་ཁག་; Wylie transliteration: Gzhams-sgang rdzong-khag; previously "Shemgang"), is one of the 20 dzongkhags (districts) comprising Bhutan.
(Dzongkha: གཞུང་སྒྲ་; Wylie: gzhung-sgra) is one of two main styles of traditional Bhutanese folk music, the other being bödra.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
.bt is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Kingdom of Bhutan.
The 1959 Tibetan uprising or the 1959 Tibetan rebellion began on 10 March 1959, when a revolt erupted in Lhasa, the capital of the Tibet Area, which had been under the effective control of the People's Republic of China since the Seventeen Point Agreement was reached in 1951.
The 2002 FIFA World Cup Final was a football match that took place on 30 June 2002 at the International Stadium in Yokohama to determine the winner of the 2002 FIFA World Cup.
The 26th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 26 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 29th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 29 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
is the size of a broad track gauge commonly used in India, Pakistan, western Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Argentina, Chile, and on the BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit) in the San Francisco Bay Area.
The meridian 88° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 93° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
Administrative divisions of Bhutan, BHUTAN, Bhoutan, Bhutan, demography, Bhutan/Transnational issues, Bhutanese Kingdom, Bhután, Bootan, Buhutan, Druk Yul, Druk-Gyal-Khab, Etymology of Bhutan, ISO 3166-1:BT, Kingdom of Bhutan, Lho Men Jong, Lho Mon, Lho Tsendenjong, Lhomen Khazhi, Name of Bhutan, Subdivisions of Bhutan, འབྲུག་ཡུལ, འབྲུག་ཡུལ་.