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The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of texts sacred in Judaism and Christianity. [1]

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Sanders, Jerome, Jesuism, Jesus, Jewish history, Jewish religious movements, Jews, Joel Manuel Hoffman, John Chrysostom, Joseph (patriarch), Josephus, Judaism, Judea (Roman province), Ketuvim, King James Only movement, King James Version, Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy), Kings of Judah, Koine Greek, Late Antiquity, Late Latin, Latin Church, Leningrad Codex, Letter of Aristeas, Letter of Jeremiah, Life of Adam and Eve, Lingua franca, List of major biblical figures, List of texts called Greek New Testament, Manuscript, Marc Zvi Brettler, Marginalia, Masoretic Text, Medieval Greek, Medieval Latin, Meqabyan, Michael Coogan, Michael Fishbane, Michal, Milton Steinberg, Miniature (illuminated manuscript), Moisés Silva, Monk, Mordecai Kaplan, Moses, Muhammad, N. T. Wright, Nevi'im, New American Standard Bible, New International Version, New King James Version, New Testament, New Testament apocrypha, New Tribes Mission, Niqqud, Noah, Norman Geisler, Nur-eldeen Masalha, Old Church Slavonic, Old Latin, Old Testament, Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox Tewahedo biblical canon, Oxford University Press, Papyrus, Passover, Pastoral epistles, Paternoster Press, Patriarchs (Bible), Pauline epistles, Peshitta, Phoenicia, Pope Damasus I, Prayer of Manasseh, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, Promised Land, Prophecy, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Protestant Bible, Protestant Reformation, Protestantism, Psalm 151, Psalms, Psalms 152–155, Psalms of Solomon, Purim, Quran, Rabbi, Rabbinic Judaism, Recension, Religious text, Revelation, Revised Standard Version, Revised Version, Robert Alter, Robert Estienne, Roman Empire, Rubrication, Russian Orthodox Church, Sacred, Scriptorium, Second Book of Enoch, Second Epistle of John, Second Epistle of Peter, Second Epistle to the Corinthians, Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, Second Epistle to Timothy, Second Temple Judaism, Septuagint, Seymour Rossel, Shavuot, Sibylline Oracles, Siku (comics), Simon & Schuster, Sirach, Song of Songs, Stephen L. Harris, Stephen Langton, Sukkot, Susanna (Book of Daniel), Synod, Synod of Hippo, Synoptic Gospels, Syriac Orthodox Church, Syriac versions of the Bible, Syro-hexaplar version, Tahrif, Talmud, Tanakh, Targum, Targum Onkelos, Tel Dan Stele, Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, The Exodus, The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children, Theodicy and the Bible, Theodotion, Third Epistle of John, Thomas Hobbes, Tisha B'Av, Torah, Translation, Truth, Twelve Minor Prophets, University of Edinburgh, Ur, Vatican Library, Vetus Latina, Vienna Coronation Gospels, Vulgate, Wars of Alexander the Great, Western text-type, Western world, Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come from?, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Willis Barnstone, Writing, Wycliffe Global Alliance, Wycliffe's Bible, Yehezkel Kaufmann, 1 Esdras, 1 Maccabees, 2 Baruch, 2 Esdras, 2 Maccabees, 3 Baruch, 3 Enoch, 3 Maccabees, 4 Maccabees, 613 commandments. Expand index (317 more) »


In the Book of Samuel, Abner (Hebrew אבנר "Avner" meaning "father of light"), is cousin to Saul and commander-in-chief of his army (1 Samuel 14:50, 20:25).

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Abraham ((אַבְרָהָם)), originally Abram, is the first of the three biblical patriarchs.

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Abraham Joshua Heschel

Abraham Joshua Heschel (January 11, 1907 – December 23, 1972) was a Polish-born American rabbi and one of the leading Jewish theologians and Jewish philosophers of the 20th century.

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Acts of the Apostles

The Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Āctūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman empire.

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Acts of the Apostles (genre)

The Acts of the Apostles is a genre of Early Christian literature, recounting the lives and works of the apostles of Jesus.

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Additions to Daniel

The Additions to Daniel comprise three chapters not found in the Biblical Hebrew/Biblical Aramaic text of Daniel.

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Adele Berlin

Adele Berlin is a biblical scholar.

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Against Apion

Against Apion (Φλαΐου Ἰωσήπου περὶ ἀρχαιότητος Ἰουδαίων λόγος α and Φλαΐου Ἰωσήπου περὶ ἀρχαιότητος ἀντιρρητικὸς λόγος β; Latin Contra Apionem or In Apionem) was a polemical work written by Flavius Josephus as a defense of Judaism as a classical religion and philosophy against criticism by Apion, stressing its antiquity against what he perceived as more recent traditions of the Greeks.

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Alan F. Segal

Alan F. Segal (August 2, 1945 – February 13, 2011) was a scholar of ancient religions, specializing in Judaism's relationship to Christianity.

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Aleppo Codex

The Aleppo Codex (כֶּתֶר אֲרָם צוֹבָא Keter Aram Tzova or Crown of Aleppo) is a medieval bound manuscript of the Hebrew Bible.

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Alexandria (or; اسكندرية, in Egyptian Arabic) is the second largest city and a major economic centre in Egypt, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.

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Alexandrian text-type

The Alexandrian text-type (also called Neutral or Egyptian), associated with Alexandria, is one of several text-types used in New Testament textual criticism to describe and group the textual character of biblical manuscripts.

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American Standard Version

The Revised Version, Standard American Edition of the Bible, more commonly known as the American Standard Version (ASV), is a version of the Bible that was first released in 1900. It was originally best known by its full name, but soon came to have other names, such as the American Revised Version, the American Standard Revision, the American Standard Revised Bible, and the American Standard Edition. By the time its copyright was renewed in 1929, it had come to be known by its present name, the American Standard Version. Because of its prominence in seminaries, it was in America sometimes simply called the "Standard Bible".

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Anathema is a term with several meanings.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt.

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Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.

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Anglican Communion

The Anglican Communion is an international association of churches consisting of the Church of England and of national and regional Anglican churches in full communion with it.

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Apocalyptic literature

Apocalyptic literature is a genre of prophetical writing that developed in post-Exilic Jewish culture and was popular among millennialist early Christians.

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Apostle (Christian)

According to the Bible's New Testament, the Apostles were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.

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Aramaic language

Aramaic (Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ) is a family of languages or dialects belonging to the Semitic family.

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Archaeology or archeology, is the study of human activity in the past, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that has been left behind by past human populations, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts (also known as eco-facts) and cultural landscapes (the archaeological record).

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Armenian language

The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenians.

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Ascension of Isaiah

The book Ascension of Isaiah is a pseudegraphical Christian text.

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Asimov's Guide to the Bible

Asimov's Guide to the Bible is a work by Isaac Asimov that was first published in two volumes in 1967 and 1969, covering the Old Testament and the New Testament (including the Catholic Old Testament, or deuterocanonical, books and the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament books, or anagignoskomena, along with the Fourth Book of Ezra), respectively.

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Assumption of Moses

The Assumption of Moses (otherwise called the Testament of Moses) is a Jewish apocryphal pseudepigraphical work.

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An autograph (from the αὐτός, autós, "self" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a document transcribed entirely in the handwriting of its author, as opposed to a typeset document or one written by an amanuensis or a copyist; the meaning overlaps with that of the word holograph.

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Babylonian captivity

The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of Judahites of the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.

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The Baroque is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, theater, and music.

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Bart D. Ehrman

Bart D. Ehrman (born October 5, 1955) is an American New Testament scholar, currently the James A. Gray Distinguished Professor of Religious Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi Portuguese origin.

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Bava Batra

Bava Batra (also Baba Batra; Talmudic Aramaic: בבא בתרא "The Last Gate") is the third of the three tractates in the Talmud in the order Nezikin; it deals with a person's responsibilities and rights as the owner of property.

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Bel and the Dragon

The narrative of Bel and the Dragon is incorporated as chapter 14 of the extended Book of Daniel.

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Bernhard Anderson

Bernhard Word Anderson (1916 – December 26, 2007) was an American United Methodist pastor and Old Testament scholar.

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Beta Israel

Beta Israel (בֵּיתֶא יִשְׂרָאֵל, Beyte (beyt) Yisrael; ቤተ እስራኤል, Bēta 'Isrā'ēl, modern Bēte 'Isrā'ēl, EAE: "Betä Ǝsraʾel", "House of Israel" or "Community of Israel"), also known as Ethiopian Jews (יְהוּדֵי אֶתְיוֹפְּיָה: Yehudey Etyopyah; Ge'ez: የኢትዮጵያ አይሁድዊ, ye-Ityoppya Ayhudi), are Jewish communities who located for centuries in the area of Aksumite and Ethiopian Empires (Habesha or Abyssinia), currently divided between Amhara and Tigray regions, although most have now moved to Israel.

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Bible society

A Bible society is a non-profit organization, usually ecumenical in makeup, devoted to translating, publishing, distributing the Bible at affordable costs and advocating its credibility and trustworthiness in contemporary cultural life.

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Bible translations

The Bible has been translated into many languages from the biblical languages of Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek.

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Bible translations into Slavic languages

The history of all Bible translations into Slavic languages begins with Bible translations into Church Slavonic.

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Biblical apocrypha

The Biblical apocrypha (from the Greek ἀπόκρυφος, apókruphos, meaning "hidden") denotes the collection of ancient books found, in some editions of the Bible, in a separate section between the Old and New Testaments or as an appendix after the New Testament.

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Biblical Aramaic

Biblical Aramaic is the form of the Aramaic language that is used in the books of Daniel, Ezra and a few other places in the Hebrew Bible.

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Biblical canon

A biblical canon, or canon of scripture, is a list of books considered to be authoritative scripture by a particular religious community.

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Biblical criticism

Biblical criticism is the scholarly "study and investigation of biblical writings that seeks to make discerning judgments about these writings".

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Biblical Hebrew

Biblical Hebrew, also called Classical Hebrew, is the archaic form of the Hebrew language, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.

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Biblical inerrancy

Biblical inerrancy, as formulated in the "Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy", is the doctrine that the Bible "is without error or fault in all its teaching"; or, at least, that "Scripture in the original manuscripts does not affirm anything that is contrary to fact".

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Biblical infallibility

Biblical infallibility is the belief that what the Bible says regarding matters of faith and Christian practice is wholly useful and true.

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Biblical inspiration

Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology that the authors and editors of the Bible were led or influenced by God with the result that their writings may be designated in some sense the word of God.

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Biblical judges

A biblical judge (Hebrew: shofet שופט, pl. shoftim שופטים) was "a ruler or a military leader, as well as someone who presided over legal hearings." Following the conquest of Canaan by Joshua until the formation of the first Kingdom of Israel (ca. 1150–1025 BC), the Israelite tribes formed a loose confederation.

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Biblical manuscript

A biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible.

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Biblical Minimalism

Biblical minimalism, also known as the Copenhagen School because two of its most prominent figures taught at Copenhagen University, was a movement or trend in biblical scholarship that began in the 1990s with two main claims.

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Biblical Mount Sinai

According to the Book of Exodus, Mount Sinai (Hebrew: הר סיני, Har Sinai) is the mountain at which the Ten Commandments were given to Moses by God.

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Biblical poetry

The ancient Hebrews perceived that there were poetical portions in their sacred texts, as shown by their entitling as songs or chants passages such as Exodus 15:1-19 and Numbers 21:17-20; a song or chant (shir) is, according to the primary meaning of the term, poetry.

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Biblical software

Biblical software or Bible software is a group of computer applications designed to view and study biblical texts and concepts.

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A book is a set of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of ink, paper, parchment, or other materials, fastened together to hinge at one side.

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Book of Amos

The Book of Amos is a prophetic book of the Hebrew Bible, one of the Twelve Minor Prophets.

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Book of Baruch

The Book of Baruch, occasionally referred to as 1 Baruch, is called a deuterocanonical book of the Bible.

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Book of Daniel

The Book of Daniel is an "account of the activities and visions of Daniel, a noble Jew exiled at Babylon." In the Hebrew Bible it is found in the Ketuvim (writings), while in Christian Bibles it is grouped with the Major Prophets.

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Book of Deuteronomy

The Book of Deuteronomy (from Greek Δευτερονόμιον, Deuteronomion, "second law"; דְּבָרִים, Devarim, " words") is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible, and of the Jewish Torah.

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Book of Enoch

The Book of Enoch (also 1 Enoch; Ge'ez: መጽሐፈ ሄኖክ mäts'hafä henok) is an ancient Jewish religious work, ascribed by tradition to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah, although modern scholars estimate the older sections (mainly in the Book of the Watchers) to date from about 300 BC, and the latest part (Book of Parables) probably to the first century BC.

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Book of Esther

The Book of Esther, also known in Hebrew as "the Scroll" (Megillah), is a book in the third section (Ketuvim, "Writings") of the Jewish Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) and in the Christian Old Testament.

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Book of Exodus

The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from Greek ἔξοδος, exodos, meaning "going out"; שמות, Sh'mot, "Names"), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament).

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Book of Ezekiel

The Book of Ezekiel is the third of the Major Prophets in the Tanakh and one of the major prophetic books in the Old Testament, following Isaiah and Jeremiah.

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Book of Ezra

The Book of Ezra is a book of the Hebrew Bible.

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Book of Genesis

The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek γένεσις, meaning "origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, Bərēšīṯ, "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Christian Old Testament.

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Book of Habakkuk

The Book of Habakkuk is the eighth book of the 12 minor prophets of the Hebrew Bible.

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Book of Haggai

The Book of Haggai is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and has its place as the antepenultimate of the Minor Prophets.

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Book of Hosea

The Book of Hosea is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible.

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Book of Isaiah

The Book of Isaiah (ספר ישעיה., "Sefer Yeshayahu") is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in English Bibles.

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Book of Jeremiah

The Book of Jeremiah (ספר יִרְמְיָהוּ; abbreviated Jer. or Jerem. in citations) is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and the second of the Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.

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Book of Job

The Book of Job (Hebrew: אִיוֹב Iyov) is one of the Writings (Ketuvim) of the Hebrew Bible, and the first poetic book in the Christian Old Testament.

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Book of Joel

The Book of Joel is part of the Hebrew Bible.

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Book of Jonah

The Book of Jonah is one of the Minor Prophets in the Bible.

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Book of Joshua

The Book of Joshua or Book of Jehoshua (ספר יהושע) is the sixth book in the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament.

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Book of Jubilees

The Book of Jubilees, sometimes called Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work of 50 chapters, considered canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church as well as Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jews), where it is known as the Book of Division (Ge'ez: መጽሃፈ ኩፋሌ Mets'hafe Kufale).

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Book of Judges

The Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is the seventh book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Bible.

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Book of Judith

The Book of Judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the Septuagint and the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christian Old Testament of the Bible, but excluded from Jewish texts and assigned by Protestants to the Apocrypha.

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Book of Lamentations

The Book of Lamentations (אֵיכָה, Eikhah) is a collection of poetic laments for the destruction of Jerusalem.

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Book of Leviticus

The Book of Leviticus (from Greek Λευιτικόν, Leuitikon, meaning "relating to the Levites") is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, and the third of five books of the Torah (or Pentateuch).

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Book of Malachi

Malachi (or Malachias; מַלְאָכִי, Malʾaḫi, Mál'akhî) is the last book of the Neviim contained in the Tanakh, the last of the twelve minor prophets (canonically) and the final book of the Neviim.

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Book of Micah

The Book of Micah is a prophetic book in the TanakhOld Testament, and the sixth of the twelve minor prophets.

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Book of Nahum

The Book of Nahum is the seventh book of the 12 minor prophets of the Hebrew Bible.

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Book of Nehemiah

The Book of Nehemiah is, along with the Book of Ezra, a book of the Hebrew Bible.

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Book of Numbers

The Book of Numbers (from Greek Ἀριθμοί, Arithmoi; במדבר, Bəmidbar, "In the desert ") is the fourth book of the Hebrew Bible, and the fourth of five books of the Jewish Torah.

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Book of Obadiah

The Book of Obadiah is an oracle concerning the divine judgment of Edom and the restoration of Israel.

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Book of Odes (Bible)

The Book of Odes (Ὠδαί), commonly referred to simply as Odes, is a book of the Bible found only in Eastern Orthodox Bibles and included or appended after Psalms in Alfred Rahlfs' critical edition of the Septuagint, coming from the fifth-century Codex Alexandrinus.

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Book of Proverbs

The Book of Proverbs (Hebrew: מִשְלֵי, Míshlê (Shlomoh), "Proverbs (of Solomon)") is the second book of the third section (called Writings) of the Hebrew Bible.

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Book of Revelation

The Book of Revelation, often known simply as Revelation or The Apocalypse of John, is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.

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Book of Ruth

The Book of Ruth (מגילת רות, Ashkenazi pronunciation:, Megilath Ruth, "the Scroll of Ruth", one of the Five Megillot) is a book of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament.

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Book of Tobit

The Book of Tobit (Book of Tobias in the Vulgate; from the Τωβίθ Tōbith or Τωβίτ Tōbit, itself from טובי Tobi "my good"; also called the Book of Tobias from the Greek Τωβίας Tōbias, itself from the Hebrew טוביה Tovya "God is good") is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox biblical canon, pronounced canonical by the Council of Carthage of 397 and confirmed for Roman Catholics by the Council of Trent (1546).

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Book of Wisdom

The Book of Wisdom or Wisdom of Solomon, sometimes referred to simply as Wisdom or the Book of the Wisdom of Solomon, is one of the books of the Bible.

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Book of Zechariah

The Book of Zechariah, attributed to the prophet Zechariah, is included in the Twelve Minor Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and is the penultimate book of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible.

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Book of Zephaniah

The superscription of the Book of Zephaniah attributes its authorship to "Zephaniah son of Cushi son of Gedaliah son of Amariah son of Hezekiah, in the days of King Josiah son of Amon of Judah" (1:1, NRSV).

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Books of Chronicles

The two Books of Chronicles (דברי הימים Diḇrê Hayyāmîm, "The Matters of the Days"; Παραλειπομένων, Paraleipoménōn) are the final books of the Hebrew Bible in the order followed by modern Judaism; in that generally followed in Christianity, they follow the two Books of Kings and precede Ezra-Nehemiah, thus concluding the history-oriented books of the Old Testament.

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Books of Kings

The two Books of Kings (ספר מלכים Sepher M'lakhim – the two books were originally one) present the biblical view of history of ancient Israel and Judah from the death of David to the release of his successor Jehoiachin from imprisonment in Babylon, a period of some 400 years.

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Books of Samuel

The two Books of Samuel (Sefer Shmuel ספר שמואל) are part of the Deuteronomistic history, a series of books (Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings) in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament that constitute a theological history of the Israelites which explains God's law for Israel under the guidance of the prophets.

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Books of the Maccabees

The Books of the Maccabees are books concerned with the Maccabees, the leaders of the Jewish rebellion against the Seleucid dynasty, or related subjects.

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Byblos, in Arabic Jubayl (جبيل Lebanese Arabic pronunciation), is a Mediterranean city in the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.

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Byzantine text-type

The Byzantine text-type (also called Majority Text, Traditional Text, Ecclesiastical Text, Constantinopolitan Text, Antiocheian Text, or Syrian Text) is one of several text-types used in textual criticism to describe the textual character of Greek New Testament manuscripts.

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Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍; Biblical Hebrew: כנען /; Masoretic: כְּנָעַן /) was, during the late 2nd millennium BC, a region in the Ancient Near East.

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Cantillation is the ritual chanting of readings from the Hebrew Bible in synagogue services.

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Catholic Bible

The Catholic Bible is the Bible comprising the whole 73-book canon recognized by the Catholic Church, including the deuterocanonical books.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.

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Chapters and verses of the Bible

The Bible is a compilation of many shorter books written at different times by a variety of authors, and later assembled into the biblical canon.

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Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy

The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy was formulated in October 1978 by more than 200 evangelical leaders at a conference sponsored by the International Council on Biblical Inerrancy (ICBI), held in Chicago.

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Christian denomination

A denomination in Christianity is a distinct religious body identified by traits such as a common name, structure, leadership and doctrine.

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Christian fundamentalism

Christian fundamentalism began in the late 19th- and early 20th-century among British and American Protestants at merriam-webster.com.

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ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christianity in the 1st century

Christianity in the 1st century deals with the formative years of the Early Christian community.

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Broadly, a citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source).

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A cloister (from Latin claustrum, "enclosure") is a covered walk, open gallery, or open arcade running along the walls of buildings and forming a quadrangle or garth.

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Code of Hammurabi

The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia, dating back to about 1754 BC.

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Codex Amiatinus

The Codex Amiatinus, designated by siglum A, is the earliest surviving manuscript of the nearly complete Bible in the Latin Vulgate version,Bruce M. Metzger, The Text of the New Testament (Oxford University Press 2005), p. 106.

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Codex Vaticanus

The Codex Vaticanus (The Vatican, Bibl. Vat., Vat. gr. 1209; no. B or 03 Gregory-Aland, δ 1 von Soden), is one of the oldest extant manuscripts of the Greek Bible (Old and New Testament), one of the four great uncial codices.

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Commission (art)

In art, a commission is the hiring and payment for the creation of a piece, often on behalf of another.

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Common Era

Common Era (also Current Era or Christian Era), abbreviated as CE, is an alternative naming of the calendar era Anno Domini ("in the year of the/our Lord", abbreviated AD).

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Contempt, not classified among Paul Ekman's six basic emotions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise, is a mixture of disgust and anger.

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Coptic language

Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: met.rem.ən.khēmi, Sahidic: mənt.rəm.ən.kēme, Greek: Μετ Ρεμνχημι Met Rem(e)nkhēmi) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afroasiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.

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Council of Jamnia

The Council of Jamnia, presumably held in Yavneh, was a hypothetical late 1st-century council at which the canon of the Hebrew Bible was alleged to have been finalized.

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Council of Rome

The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, the current bishop of Rome.

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Council of Trent

The Council of Trent (Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trento (Trent) and Bologna, northern Italy, was one of the Roman Catholic Church's most important ecumenical councils.

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Councils of Carthage

The Councils of Carthage, or Synods of Carthage, were church synods held during the 3rd, 4th, and 5th centuries in the city of Carthage in Africa.

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Covenant (biblical)

A biblical covenant is a religious covenant that is described in the Bible.

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Criticism of the Bible

The view that the Bible should be accepted as historically accurate and as a reliable guide to morality has been questioned by many scholars in the field of biblical criticism.

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David (ISO 259-3 Dawid; داوُود; ܕܘܝܕ Dawid; Δαυίδ; Strong's: Daveed) was, according to the Books of Samuel, the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel, and according to the New Testament, an ancestor of Jesus.

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Dead Sea Scrolls

The Dead Sea Scrolls, in the narrow sense of Qumran Caves Scrolls, are a collection of some 981 different texts discovered between 1946 and 1956 in eleven caves from the immediate vicinity of the ancient settlement at Khirbet Qumran in the West Bank.

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Deuterocanonical books

Deuterocanonical books is a term used since the 16th century in the Catholic Church and Eastern Christianity to describe certain books and passages of the Christian Old Testament that are not part of the current Hebrew Bible.

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Development of the New Testament canon

The canon of the New Testament is the set of books Christians regard as divinely inspired and constituting the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

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Development of the Old Testament canon

The Old Testament is the first section of the two-part Christian Biblical canon, which includes the books of the Hebrew Bible or protocanon and in some Christian denominations also includes several Deuterocanonical books.

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Douay–Rheims Bible

The Douay–Rheims Bible (pronounced or) (also known as the Rheims–Douai Bible or Douai Bible, and abbreviated as D–R and DV) is a translation of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate into English made by members of the English College, Douai, in the service of the Catholic Church.

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Early Christianity

Early Christianity is the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325.

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Eastern Christianity

Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Assyrian Church of the East and the Eastern Catholic Churches.

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Eastern Mediterranean

The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, also referred to as the Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Orthodoxy, is the second largest Christian Church in the world, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents.

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Ecclesiastes (Greek: Ἐκκλησιαστής, Ekklesiastes, קֹהֶלֶת, Qoheleth, Koheleth) is one of 24 books of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, where it is classified as one of the Ketuvim (or "Writings").

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Elliot N. Dorff

Elliot N. Dorff (born 24 June 1943) is a Conservative rabbi.

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English Standard Version

The English Standard Version (ESV) is an English translation of the Christian Bible.

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Enoch (ancestor of Noah)

Enoch (إدريس ʼIdrīs) is a figure in biblical literature.

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An epistle (Greek ἐπιστολή, epistolē, "letter") is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter.

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Epistle of James

The Epistle of James (Iakōbos), the Book of James, or simply James, is one of the twenty-two epistles (didactic letters) in the New Testament.

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Epistle of Jude

The Epistle of Jude, often shortened to Jude, is the penultimate book of the New Testament and is attributed to Jude, the brother of Jesus and James the Just.

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Epistle to Philemon

The Epistle of Paul to Philemon, known simply as Philemon, is one of the books of the Christian New Testament.

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Epistle to the Colossians

The Epistle of Paul to the Colossians, usually referred to simply as Colossians, is the twelfth book of the New Testament.

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Epistle to the Ephesians

The Epistle to the Ephesians, also called the Letter to the Ephesians and often shortened to Ephesians, is the tenth book of the New Testament.

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Epistle to the Galatians

The Epistle to the Galatians, often shortened to Galatians, is the ninth book of the New Testament.

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Epistle to the Hebrews

Epistle to the Hebrews, or Letter to the Hebrews, or in the Greek manuscripts, simply To the Hebrews (Πρὸς Έβραίους) is a text of the New Testament.

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Epistle to the Philippians

The Epistle of Paul and Timothy to the Philippians, often referred to simply as Philippians, is the eleventh book in the New Testament.

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Epistle to the Romans

The Epistle to the Romans, often shortened to Romans, is the sixth book in the New Testament.

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Epistle to Titus

The Epistle of Paul to Titus, usually referred to simply as Titus, is one of the three Pastoral Epistles (along with 1 Timothy and 2 Timothy) traditionally attributed to Paul the Apostle and is part of the New Testament.

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Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church

The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church with its headquarters in Asmara, Eritrea.

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Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church

The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (የኢትዮጵያ ኦርቶዶክስ ተዋሕዶ ቤተ ክርስቲያን; transliterated Amharic: Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is the predominant Oriental Orthodox Christian Church in Ethiopia.

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Ezra–Nehemiah is the original combined version of the biblical books of Ezra and Nehemiah—the two were originally one, but were divided by Christians in the 3rd century CE and in Jewish circles in the 15th century.

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F. F. Bruce

Frederick Fyvie Bruce (12 October 1910 – 11 September 1990), usually cited as F. F. Bruce, was a Biblical scholar who supported the historical reliability of the New Testament.

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First Epistle of John

The First Epistle of John, often referred to as First John and written 1 John, is a book of the New Testament.

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First Epistle of Peter

The First Epistle of Peter, usually referred to simply as First Peter and often written 1 Peter, is a book of the New Testament.

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First Epistle to the Corinthians

The First Epistle to the Corinthians (Α΄ Επιστολή προς Κορινθίους), often referred to as First Corinthians (and written as 1 Corinthians), is one of the Pauline epistles of the New Testament canon of Christian Bibles.

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First Epistle to the Thessalonians

The First Epistle to the Thessalonians, usually referred to simply as First Thessalonians and often written 1 Thessalonians, is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

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First Epistle to Timothy

The First Epistle of Paul to Timothy, usually referred to simply as First Timothy and often written 1 Timothy, is one of three letters in the New Testament of the Bible often grouped together as the Pastoral Epistles, along with Second Timothy and Titus.

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Five Megillot

The Five Scrolls or The Five Megillot (חמש מגילות, Hamesh Megillot or Chomeish Megillos) are parts of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third major section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible).

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Frank Kermode

Sir John Frank Kermode FBA (29 November 1919 – 17 August 2010) was a British literary critic best known for his work The Sense of an Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction, published in 1967 (revised 2000), and for his extensive book-reviewing and editing.

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Frank Stagg (theologian)

Frank Stagg, Ph.D., (1911-2001) was a Southern Baptist theologian, seminary professor, author, and pastor over a 50-year ministry career.

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Ge'ez language

Geʻez (ግዕዝ,; also transliterated Giʻiz, also referred to by some as "Ethiopic") is an ancient South Semitic language that originated in the northern region of Ethiopia and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa.

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General epistles

General epistles (also called Catholic Epistles) are books in the New Testament in the form of letters.

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Genesis creation narrative

The Genesis creation narrative is the creation myth of both Judaism and Christianity.

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Genre (or; from French genre, "kind" or "sort", from Latin genus (stem gener-), Greek γένος, génos) is any category of literature or other forms of art or entertainment, e.g. music, whether written or spoken, audial or visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria.

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Georgian language

Georgian (ქართული ენა tr. kartuli ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.

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Georgian Orthodox Church

The Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church (საქართველოს სამოციქულო ავტოკეფალური მართლმადიდებელი ეკლესია, sak’art’velos samots’ik’ulo avt’okep’aluri mart’lmadidebeli eklesia) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church.

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God in Islam

In Islamic theology, God (الله Allāh) is the all-powerful and all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer and judge of everything in existence.

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God in Judaism

The conception of God in Judaism is strictly monotheistic.

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Godfrey Rolles Driver

Sir Godfrey Rolles Driver, CBE, FBA (20 August 1892 – 22 April 1975), known as G. R. Driver, was an English Orientalist noted for his studies of Semitic languages and Assyriology.

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A gospel is an account describing the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth.

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Gospel of John

The Gospel According to John (also referred to as the Gospel of John, the Fourth Gospel, or simply John; Τὸ κατὰ Ἰωάννην εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Ioannen euangelion) is one of the four canonical gospels in the Christian Bible.

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Gospel of Luke

The Gospel According to Luke (Τὸ κατὰ Λουκᾶν εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Loukan euangelion), commonly shortened to the Gospel of Luke or simply Luke, is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels.

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Gospel of Mark

The Gospel According to Mark (τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Markon euangelion), the second book of the New Testament, is one of the four canonical gospels and the three synoptic gospels.

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Gospel of Matthew

The Gospel According to Matthew (κατὰ Ματθαῖον εὐαγγέλιον, kata Matthaion euangelion, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ματθαῖον, to euangelion kata Matthaion) (Gospel of Matthew or simply Matthew) is one of the four canonical gospels, one of the three synoptic gospels, and the first book of the New Testament.

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Greek Orthodox Church

The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía) is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the Byzantine Empire.

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Gutenberg Bible

The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, the Mazarin Bible or the B42) was the first major book printed in the West using mass-produced movable type.

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Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News the Land ") is Israel's oldest daily newspaper.

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Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.

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Harold Lindsell

Harold Lindsell (December 22, 1913 – January 15, 1998) was an evangelical Christian author and scholar.

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The headline is the text indicating the nature of the article below it.

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Hebrew Bible

Hebrew Bible or Hebrew Scriptures (Biblia Hebraica) is the term used by biblical scholars to refer to the Tanakh (תנ"ך), the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is the common textual source of the several canonical editions of the Christian Old Testament.

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Hebrew language

Hebrew is a West Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Hellenistic Judaism

Hellenistic Judaism was a form of Judaism in the ancient world that combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture.

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Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period covers the period of ancient Greek (Hellenic) history and Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

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Historicity of Jesus

The historicity of Jesus concerns whether Jesus of Nazareth, born c 7–2 Before Christ (BC), existed as a historical figure, whether the episodes portrayed in the gospels can be confirmed as historical events as opposed to myth, legend, or fiction, and the weighing of the evidence relating to his life.

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Historicity of the Bible

The historicity of the Bible is the question of its "acceptability as a history," in the phrase of Thomas L. Thompson, a scholar who has written widely on this topic as it relates to the Old Testament.

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History of ancient Israel and Judah

Israel and Judah were related Iron Age kingdoms of the ancient Levant.

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Holy Spirit

Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is a term found in English translations of the Bible, but understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.

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Holy Spirit (Judaism)

The Holy Spirit in Judaism generally refers to the divine aspect of prophecy and wisdom.

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Illuminated manuscript

An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.

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The incipit of a text is the first few words of the text, employed as an identifying label.

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In a written or published work, an initial or dropcap is a letter at the beginning of a word, a chapter, or a paragraph that is larger than the rest of the text.

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Isaac (ISO 259-3 Yiçḥaq, " will laugh"; Ἰσαάκ Isaak إسحاق or إسحٰق() is the traditional Koranic spelling after vocalizing with a super script ʾalif. In Modern Standard Arabic, it is normally written إسحاق.) as described in the Hebrew Bible and the Qur'an, was the second son of Abraham, the only son Abraham had with his wife Sarah, and the father of Jacob and Esau.

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Isaac Asimov

Isaac Asimov (born Isaak Yudovich Ozimov; circa January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American author and professor of biochemistry at Boston University, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books.

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Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.

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Israel (name)

Israel is a Biblical given name.

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The Israelites were a Semitic people of the Ancient Near East, who inhabited part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods (15th to 6th centuries BCE), and lived in the region in smaller numbers after the fall of the monarchy.

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Jacob (later given the name Israel) is considered a patriarch of the Israelites.

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Jacob Neusner

Jacob Neusner (born July 28, 1932) is an American academic scholar of Judaism.

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James A. Sanders

James A. Sanders (born 28 Nov 1927, Memphis, Tennessee) is an American scholar of the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible and one of the Dead Sea Scrolls editors.

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Saint Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c.  347 – 30 September 420) was a Catholic priest, confessor, theologian and historian, who also became a Doctor of the Church.

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Jesuism, also called Jesusism or Jesuanism, is the philosophy or teachings of Jesus of Nazareth and the adherence to them.

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Jesus (Ἰησοῦς; 7–2 BC to AD 30–33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity, whom the teachings of most Christian denominations hold to be the Son of God.

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Jewish history

Jewish history (or the history of the Jewish people) is the history of the Jews, and their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures.

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Jewish religious movements

Jewish religious movements sometimes called "denominations" or "branches", include different groups which have developed among Jews from ancient times.

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The Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious and ethno-cultural group descended from the Israelites of the Ancient Near East and originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.

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Joel Manuel Hoffman


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John Chrysostom

John Chrysostom (Ἰωάννης ὁ Χρυσόστομος), c. 349 – 407, Archbishop of Constantinople, was an important Early Church Father.

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Joseph (patriarch)

Joseph (יוֹסֵף, Standard Yosef Tiberian; "may He add"; يوسف Yūsuf or Yūsif; Ἰωσήφ Iōsēph) is an important person in the Hebrew Bible: his life connects the narrative of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in Canaan to the subsequent narrative of the liberation of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt.

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Titus Flavius Josephus (37 – 100), born Joseph ben Matityahu (Hebrew: יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.

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Judaism (from Iudaismus, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew:, Yahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people.

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Judea (Roman province)

The Roman province of Judea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian; يهودا; Ἰουδαία; Iudaea), sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Judæa, Judaea or Iudaea to distinguish it from the geographical region of Judea, which incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Israel.

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Ketuvim (כְּתוּבִים Kəṯûḇîm, "writings") is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), after Torah (instruction) and Nevi'im (prophets).

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King James Only movement

The King James Only movement advocates the superiority of the Authorized King James Version (KJV) of the Protestant Bible.

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King James Version

The King James Version (KJV), also known as the Authorized Version (AV) or King James Bible (KJB), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.

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Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)

The United Monarchy is the name given to the Israelite kingdom of Israel and Judah, during the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon, as depicted in the Hebrew Bible.

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Kings of Judah

The Kings of Judah were the monarchs who ruled over the ancient Kingdom of Judah after the death of Saul, when the Tribe of Judah elevated David to rule over it.

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Koine Greek

Koine Greek (UK English, US English, or; in Merriam-Webster from Koine Greek ἡ κοινὴ διάλεκτος, "the common dialect"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic or Hellenistic Greek (Modern Greek Ελληνιστική Κοινή, "Hellenistic Koiné", in the sense of "Hellenistic supraregional language"), was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during Hellenistic and Roman antiquity.

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Late Antiquity

Late Antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages, in both mainland Europe and the Mediterranean world.

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Late Latin

Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.

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Latin Church

The Latin Church is part of the Catholic Church.

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Leningrad Codex

The Leningrad Codex (or Codex Leningradensis) is the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible in Hebrew, using the masoretic text and Tiberian vocalization.

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Letter of Aristeas

The Letter of Aristeas or Letter to Philocrates is a Hellenistic work of the 2nd century BCE, assigned by Biblical scholars to the Pseudepigrapha.

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Letter of Jeremiah

The Letter of Jeremiah, also known as the Epistle of Jeremiah, is a deuterocanonical book of the Old Testament; this letter purports to have been written by Jeremiah to the Jews who were about to be carried away as captives to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar.

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Life of Adam and Eve

The Life of Adam and Eve, also known, in its Greek version, as the Apocalypse of Moses, is a Jewish pseudepigraphical group of writings.

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Lingua franca

A lingua franca (plural lingua francas), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language or vehicular language, is a language or dialect systematically (as opposed to occasionally, or casually) used to make communication possible between persons not sharing a native language or dialect, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both native languages.

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List of major biblical figures

The Bible is a canonical collection of texts considered sacred in Judaism or Christianity.

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List of texts called Greek New Testament

"Greek New Testament" refers to the Koine Greek written versions of the New Testament.

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A manuscript is any document written by hand or typewritten, as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some automated way.

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Marc Zvi Brettler

Marc Brettler (Marc Zvi Brettler) is an American biblical scholar, and the Dora Golding Professor of Biblical Studies at Brandeis University.

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Marginalia (or apostil) are scribbles, comments and illuminations in the margins of a book.

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Masoretic Text

The Masoretic Text (MT, 𝕸, or \mathfrak) is the authoritative Hebrew and Aramaic text of the Tanakh for Rabbinic Judaism.

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Medieval Greek

Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th-6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453. From the 7th century onwards, Greek was the only language of administration and government in the Byzantine Empire. This stage of language is thus described as Byzantine Greek. The study of the Medieval Greek language and literature is a branch of Byzantine Studies, or Byzantinology, the study of the history and culture of the Byzantine Empire. The beginning of Medieval Greek is occasionally dated back to as early as the 4th century, either to 330 AD, when the political centre of the Roman Empire was moved to Constantinople, or to 395 AD, the division of the Empire. However, this approach is rather arbitrary as it is more an assumption of political as opposed to cultural and linguistic developments. Indeed, by this time the spoken language, particularly pronunciation, had already shifted towards modern forms. The conquests of Alexander, and the ensuing Hellenistic period, had caused Greek to spread to peoples throughout Anatolia and the Eastern Mediterranean, altering the spoken language's pronunciation and structure. Medieval Greek is the link between this vernacular, known as Koine Greek, and the Modern Greek language. Though Byzantine Greek literature was still strongly influenced by Ancient Greek, it was also influenced by vernacular Koine Greek, which is the language of the New Testament and the liturgical language of the church.

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Medieval Latin

Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.

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I, II, and III Meqabyan (Ge'ez: መቃብያን, sometimes spelled Makabian) are three books in the Ethiopian Orthodox Old Testament Biblical canon.

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Michael Coogan

Michael D. Coogan is Lecturer on Hebrew Bible/Old Testament at Harvard Divinity School, Director of Publications for the Harvard Semitic Museum, Editor-in-Chief of Oxford Biblical Studies Online, and Professor Emeritus of Religious Studies at Stonehill College.

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Michael Fishbane

Michael A. Fishbane (born 1943) is an American scholar of Judaism and rabbinic literature.

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Michal (מיכל) was a daughter of Saul, king of Israel, who loved and became the first wife of David, who later became king of Judah, and later still of the united Kingdom of Israel.

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Milton Steinberg

Milton Steinberg (November 25, 1903 - March 20, 1950) was an American rabbi, philosopher, theologian and author.

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Miniature (illuminated manuscript)

The word miniature, derived from the Latin minium, red lead, is a picture in an ancient or medieval illuminated manuscript; the simple decoration of the early codices having been miniated or delineated with that pigment.

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Moisés Silva

Moisés Silva (born September 4, 1945) is a Cuban-born American biblical scholar and translator.

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A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" and Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism, living either alone or with any number of other monks.

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Mordecai Kaplan

Mordecai Menahem Kaplan (June 11, 1881 – November 8, 1983), was a rabbi, essayist and Jewish educator and the co-founder of Reconstructionist Judaism along with his son-in-law Ira Eisenstein.

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Moses (מֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Moushe; موسى; Mωϋσῆς in both the Septuagint and the New Testament) is a prophet in Abrahamic religions.

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Muhammadfull name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (محمد; – 8 June 632 CEElizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition. Many earlier (mainly non-Islamic) traditions refer to him as still alive at the time of the invasion of Palestine. See Stephen J. Shoemaker,The Death of a Prophet: The End of Muhammad's Life and the Beginnings of Islam, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.) is generally regarded by non-Muslims to have been the founder of Islam, and almost universallyThe Ahmadiyya Muslim Community considers Muhammad to be the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khātam an-Nabiyyīn) and the last law-bearing Prophet but not the last Prophet.

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N. T. Wright

Nicholas Thomas "Tom" Wright (born 1 December 1948) is a leading New Testament scholar and retired Anglican bishop.

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Nevi'im (נְבִיאִים Nəḇî'îm, "Prophets") is the second main division of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh), between the Torah (instruction) and Ketuvim (writings).

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New American Standard Bible

The New American Standard Bible (NASB), also informally called the New American Standard Version, is an English translation of the Bible.

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New International Version

The New International Version (NIV) is an English translation of the Christian Bible.

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New King James Version

The New King James Version (NKJV) is a modern translation of the Bible published by Thomas Nelson, Inc.

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New Testament

The New Testament (Koine Greek: Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē) is the second major part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, which is based on the Hebrew Bible.

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New Testament apocrypha

The New Testament apocrypha are a number of writings by early Christians that give accounts of Jesus and his teachings, the nature of God, or the teachings of his apostles and of their lives.

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New Tribes Mission

New Tribes Mission (NTM) is an international, theologically evangelical Christian mission organization based in Sanford, Florida, United States.

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In Hebrew orthography, niqqud or nikkud is a system of diacritical signs used to represent vowels or distinguish between alternative pronunciations of letters of the Hebrew alphabet.

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In the Abrahamic religions, Noah, or Noé or Noach (ܢܘܚ Nukh; نُوح; Νῶε), was the tenth and last of the pre-flood Patriarchs.

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Norman Geisler

Norman L. Geisler (born 1932) is a Christian systematic theologian, philosopher, and apologist.

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Nur-eldeen Masalha

Nur-eldeen (Nur) Masalha (نور مصالحة; born 4 January 1957, Galilee, Israel) is a Palestinian writer and academic.

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Old Church Slavonic

Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (often abbreviated to OCS; self-name, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), was the first Slavic literary language.

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Old Latin

Old Latin, also known as Early Latin and Archaic Latin, refers to the Latin language in the period before 75 BC, i.e. before the age of Classical Latin.

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Old Testament

The Old Testament is the first section of the Christian Bible, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible, a collection of religious writings by ancient Israelites.

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Orthodox Judaism

Orthodox Judaism is the approach to religious Judaism which subscribes to a tradition of mass revelation and adheres to the interpretation and application of the laws and ethics of the Torah as legislated in the Talmudic texts by the Tanaim and Amoraim.

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Orthodox Tewahedo biblical canon

The Orthodox Tewahedo churches currently have the largest and most diverse biblical canon within traditional Christendom.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.

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The word papyrus refers to a thick paper-like material made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus.

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Passover or Pesach (from Hebrew Pesah, Pesakh), is an important, biblically derived Jewish festival.

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Pastoral epistles

The four pastoral epistles are four books of the canonical New Testament: the First Epistle to Timothy (1 Timothy), the Second Epistle to Timothy (2 Timothy), the Epistle to Titus, and the Epistle to Philemon.

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Paternoster Press

Paternoster Press is a British Christian publishing house which was founded by Howard Mudditt in 1936.

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Patriarchs (Bible)

The Patriarchs (אבות. Avot or Abot, singular אב. Ab or Aramaic: אבא Abba) of the Bible, when narrowly defined, are Abraham, his son Isaac, and Isaac's son Jacob, also named Israel, the ancestor of the Israelites.

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Pauline epistles

The Pauline epistles, Epistles of Paul, or Letters of Paul, are the fourteen New Testament books which have the name Paul (Παῦλος) as the first word, hence claiming authorship by Paul the Apostle.

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The Peshitta (ܦܫܝܛܬܐ) is the standard version of the Bible for churches in the Syriac tradition.

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Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη,; فينيقية) was an ancient Semitic thalassocratic civilization situated on the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent and centered on the coastline of modern Lebanon.

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Pope Damasus I

Pope Damasus I (c. 305 – 11 December 384) was Pope from October 366 to his death in 384.

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Prayer of Manasseh

The Prayer of Manasseh is a short work of 15 verses of the penitential prayer of king Manasseh of Judah.

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Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism

The Professorship of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow was founded in 1861.

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Promised Land

The Promised Land (הארץ המובטחת, translit.: Ha'Aretz HaMuvtahat; أرض الميعاد, translit.: Ard Al-Mi'ad) is the land promised or given by God, according to the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible), to the descendants of Abraham.

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Prophecy involves a process in which one or more messages allegedly communicated to a prophet are then communicated to other people.

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Prophets and messengers in Islam

Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel;Shaatri, A. I. (2007).

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Protestant Bible

A Protestant Bible is any Christian Bible translation or revision that comprises 39 books of the Old Testament (according to the Jewish Hebrew Bible canon, sometimes known as the protocanonical books) and the 27 books of the New Testament for a total of 66 books.

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Protestant Reformation

The Protestant Reformation, often referred to simply as the Reformation, was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli and other early Protestant Reformers.

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Protestantism is a form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.

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Psalm 151

Psalm 151 is the name given to a short psalm that is found in most copies of the Septuagint but not in the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible.

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The Book of Psalms, Tehillim in Hebrew (or meaning "Praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible.

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Psalms 152–155

Psalms 152 to 155 are additional Psalms found in the Syriac Peshitta and, for two of them, in the Dead Sea scrolls.

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Psalms of Solomon

One of the Pseudepigrapha,Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible.

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Purim (Hebrew: Pûrîm "lots", from the word פור pur, related to Akkadian: pūru) is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the saving of the Jewish people from Haman, who was planning to kill all the Jews.

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The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qurʾan or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (الله, Allah).

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In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.

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Rabbinic Judaism

Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism (Hebrew: יהדות רבנית Yahadut Rabanit) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Babylonian Talmud.

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Recension is the practice of editing or revising a text based on critical analysis.

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Religious text

Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sacred, or central to their religious tradition.

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In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.

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Revised Standard Version

The Revised Standard Version (RSV) is an English-language translation of the Bible published in several parts during the mid-20th century.

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Revised Version

The Revised Version or English Revised Version of the Bible is a late 19th-century British revision of the Authorised Version, also known as King James Version, of 1611.

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Robert Alter

Robert Bernard Alter (born 1935) is an American professor of Hebrew and comparative literature at the University of California, Berkeley, where he has taught since 1967.

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Robert Estienne

Robert I Estienne (1503 – 7 September 1559), known as Robertus Stephanus in Latin and also referred to as Robert Stephens by 18th and 19th-century English writers, was a 16th-century printer and classical scholar in Paris.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Rubrication was one of several steps in the medieval process of manuscript making.

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Russian Orthodox Church

The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya Pravoslávnaya Tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy Patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.

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Sacred means revered due to sanctity, is in general the state of being holy (perceived by religious individuals as associated with divinity) or sacred (considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspiring awe or reverence among believers).

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Scriptorium, literally "a place for writing", is commonly used to refer to a room in medieval European monasteries devoted to the writing, copying and illuminating of manuscripts by monastic scribes.

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Second Book of Enoch

The Second Book of Enoch (usually abbreviated 2 Enoch, and otherwise variously known as Slavonic Enoch or The Secrets of Enoch) is a pseudepigraphic (a text whose claimed authorship is unfounded) of the Old Testament.

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Second Epistle of John

The Second Epistle of John, often referred to as Second John and often written 2 John, is a book of the New Testament attributed to John the Evangelist, traditionally thought to be the author of the Gospel of John and the other two epistles of John.

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Second Epistle of Peter

The Second Epistle of Peter, often referred to as Second Peter and written 2 Peter or in Roman numerals II Peter (especially in older references), is a book of the New Testament of the Bible, written in the name of Saint Peter, although the vast majority of modern scholars regard it as pseudepigraphical.

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Second Epistle to the Corinthians

The Second Epistle to the Corinthians, often referred to as Second Corinthians (and written as 2 Corinthians), is the eighth book of the New Testament of the Bible.

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Second Epistle to the Thessalonians

The Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, often referred to as Second Thessalonians and written 2 Thessalonians, is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible.

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Second Epistle to Timothy

The Second Epistle of Paul to Timothy, usually referred to simply as Second Timothy and often written 2 Timothy, is one of the three Pastoral Epistles traditionally attributed to Saint Paul, and is part of the New Testament.

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Second Temple Judaism

Second Temple Judaism (Judaism between the construction of the second Jewish temple in Jerusalem c. 515 BCE, and its destruction by the Romans in 70 CE) witnessed major historical upheavals and significant religious changes that would affect not only Judaism but also Christianity (which calls it the Deuterocanonical period or Intertestamental period).

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The Septuagint (from the Latin septuaginta, "seventy") is a translation of the Hebrew Bible and some related texts into Koine Greek.

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Seymour Rossel

Rabbi Seymour Rossel (born August 9, 1945) is an American Jewish author, publisher, editor, educator, and founder of Rossel Books.

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Shavuot (or Shovuos, in Ashkenazi usage; Shavuʿoth in Sephardi and Mizrahi Hebrew (שבועות, lit. "Weeks"), known as the Feast of Weeks in English and as Pentecost (Πεντηκοστή) in Ancient Greek, is a Jewish holiday that occurs on the sixth day of the Hebrew month of Sivan (late May or early June). Shavuot has a double significance. It marks the all-important wheat harvest in the Land of Israel; and it commemorates the anniversary of the day God gave the Torah to the entire nation of Israel assembled at Mount Sinai, although the association between the giving of the Torah (Matan Torah) and Shavuot is not explicit in the Biblical text. The holiday is one of the Shalosh Regalim, the three Biblical pilgrimage festivals. It marks the conclusion of the Counting of the Omer, and its date is directly linked to that of Passover. The Torah mandates the seven-week Counting of the Omer, beginning on the second day of Passover, to be immediately followed by Shavuot. This counting of days and weeks is understood to express anticipation and desire for the giving of the Torah. On Passover, the people of Israel were freed from their enslavement to Pharaoh; on Shavuot they were given the Torah and became a nation committed to serving God. The word Shavuot means weeks, and the festival of Shavuot marks the completion of the seven-week counting period between Passover and Shavuot. Shavuot is one of the lesser-known Jewish holidays among secular Jews in the Jewish diaspora, while those in Israel are more aware of it. According to Jewish law, Shavuot is celebrated in Israel for one day and in the Diaspora (outside of Israel) for two days. Reform Judaism celebrates only one day, even in the Diaspora.

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Sibylline Oracles

The Sibylline Oracles (Oracula Sibyllina; sometimes called the "pseudo-Sibylline Oracles") are a collection of oracular utterances written in Greek hexameters ascribed to the Sibyls, prophetesses who uttered divine revelations in a frenzied state.

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Siku (comics)

Siku is the pseudonym of British/Nigerian artist and writer Ajibayo Akinsiku, best known for his work in 2000 AD.

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Simon & Schuster

Simon & Schuster, Inc., a division of CBS Corporation, is a publisher founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard L. Simon and M. Lincoln ("Max") Schuster.

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The Book of the All-Virtuous Wisdom of Joshua ben Sira, commonly called the Wisdom of Sirach or simply Sirach, and also known as the Book of Ecclesiasticus (abbreviated Ecclus.) or Ben Sira, is a work of ethical teachings from approximately 200 to 175 BCE written by the Jewish scribe Shimon ben Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira of Jerusalem, on the inspiration of his father Joshua son of Sirach, sometimes called Jesus son of Sirach or Yeshua Ben Eliezer Ben Sira.

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Song of Songs

The Song of Songs, also known as the Song of Solomon, the Canticle of Canticles, or simply Canticles (Hebrew: Šîr HašŠîrîm ; Greek: ᾎσμα ᾈσμάτων asma asmaton, both meaning "song of songs"), is one of the megillot (scrolls) of the Ketuvim (the "Writings", the last section of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible), and the fifth of the "wisdom" books of the Christian Old Testament.

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Stephen L. Harris

Stephen L. Harris (born 1937) is Professor Emeritus of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento.

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Stephen Langton

Stephen Langton (– 9 July 1228) was an English Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and Archbishop of Canterbury between 1207 and his death in 1228.

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Sukkot or Succot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת), in traditional Ashkenazi pronunciation Sukkos or Succos, literally Feast of Booths, is commonly translated to English as Feast of Tabernacles, sometimes also as Feast of the Ingathering.

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Susanna (Book of Daniel)

Susanna or Shoshana ("lily") is included in the Book of Daniel (as chapter 13) by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.

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A synod historically is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.

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Synod of Hippo

The Synod of Hippo refers to the synod of 393 which was hosted in Hippo Regius in northern Africa during the early Christian Church.

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Synoptic Gospels

The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are referred to as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in a similar sequence and in similar wording.

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Syriac Orthodox Church

The Syriac Orthodox Church (ܥܕܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ ܬܪܝܨܬ ܫܘܒܚܐ), also known as the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch, is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Eastern Mediterranean, with members spread throughout the world.

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Syriac versions of the Bible

Syria played an important or even predominant role in the beginning of Christianity.

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Syro-hexaplar version

The Syro-hexaplar version (also Syro-Hexapla) is the Syriac translation of the Septuagint based on the fifth column of Origen's Hexapla.

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(تحريف, "distortion, alteration") is an Arabic term used by Muslims for the alterations which Islamic tradition claims Jews and Christians have made to biblical manuscripts, specifically those that make up the Tawrat (or Torah), Zabur (possibly Psalms) and Injil (or Gospel).

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The Talmud (Hebrew: talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root lmd "teach, study") is a central text of Rabbinic Judaism.

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The Tanakh (תַּנַ"ךְ, or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach) or Mikra is the canon of the Hebrew Bible.

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The targumim (singular: "targum", תרגום) were spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures that a Rabbi would give in the common language of the listeners, which during the time of this practice was commonly, but not exclusively, Aramaic.

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Targum Onkelos

Aramaic Targum Onkelos from the British Library. Targum Onkelos (or Unkelus) is the official eastern (Babylonian) targum (Aramaic translation) to the Torah.

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Tel Dan Stele

The Tel Dan Stele is a broken stele (inscribed stone) discovered in 1993–94 during excavations at Tel Dan in northern Israel.

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Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs

The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is a constituent of the apocryphal scriptures connected with the Bible.

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The Exodus

The Exodus (from Greek ἔξοδος exodos, "going out") is the founding myth of Israel; its message is that the Israelites were delivered from slavery by Yahweh and therefore belong to him through the Mosaic covenant.

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The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children

The Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Holy Children is a lengthy passage that appears after Daniel 3:23 in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Bibles, as well as in the ancient Greek Septuagint translation.

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Theodicy and the Bible

Theodicy, in its most common form, is the attempt to answer the question of why a good God permits the manifestation of evil.

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Theodotion (Θεοδοτίων, gen.: Θεοδοτίωνος; d. ca. AD 200) was a Hellenistic Jewish scholar, perhaps working in Ephesus, who in ca.

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Third Epistle of John

The Third Epistle of John, often referred to as Third John and written 3 John, is a book of the New Testament attributed to John the Evangelist, traditionally thought to be the author of the Gospel of John and the other two epistles of John.

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Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbs of Malmsbury, was an English philosopher, best known today for his work on political philosophy.

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Tisha B'Av

(lit. "the ninth of Av") (תשעה באב or ט׳ באב) is an annual fast day in Judaism which commemorates the anniversary of a number of disasters in Jewish history, primarily the destruction of both the First and Second Temples in Jerusalem.

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Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction, Teaching"), or the Pentateuch, is the central reference of the religious Judaic tradition.

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Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.

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Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality,Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary,, 2005 or fidelity to an original or to a standard or ideal.

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Twelve Minor Prophets

The Minor Prophets or Twelve Prophets (תרי עשר, Trei Asar, "The Twelve"), occasionally Book of the Twelve, is the last book of the Nevi'im, the second main division of the Jewish Tanakh.

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University of Edinburgh

The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.

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Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: KI or URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru; أور) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (تل المقير) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.

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Vatican Library

The Vatican Apostolic Library (Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly called the Vatican Library or simply the Vat, is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City.

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Vetus Latina

Vetus Latina ("Old Latin" in Latin), also known as Vetus Itala ("Old Italian"), Itala ("Italian") See, for example, Quedlinburg ''Itala'' fragment.

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Vienna Coronation Gospels

The Vienna Coronation Gospels, also known as the Coronation Evangeliar, is a late 8th century illuminated Gospel Book produced at the court of Charlemagne in Aachen.

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The Vulgate is a late fourth-century Latin translation of the Bible that became, during the 16th century, the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible.

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Wars of Alexander the Great

The wars of Alexander the Great were fought by King Alexander III of Macedon ("The Great"), first against the Achaemenid Persian Empire under Darius III, and then against local chieftains and warlords as far east as Punjab, India.

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Western text-type

The Western text-type is one of several text-types used in textual criticism to describe and group the textual character of Greek New Testament manuscripts.

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Western world

The Western world, also known as the West and the Occident (from Latin: occidens "sunset, West"; as contrasted with the Orient), is a term referring to different nations depending on the context.

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Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come from?

Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From? is a book by American biblical scholar and archaeologist William G. Dever.

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William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company


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Willis Barnstone

Willis Barnstone (born November 13, 1927) is an American poet, memoirist, translator, Hispanist, and comparatist.

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Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion through the inscription or recording of signs and symbols.

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Wycliffe Global Alliance

Wycliffe Global Alliance is an alliance of organisations united in their desire to see the Bible translated for every language group that needs it.

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Wycliffe's Bible

Wycliffe's Bible is the name now given to a group of Bible translations into Middle English that were made under the direction of, or at the might of, John Wycliffe.

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Yehezkel Kaufmann

Yehezkel Kaufmann (Hebrew: יחזקאל קויפמן; also: Yeḥezqêl Qâufman; Yeḥezḳel Ḳoyfman; Jehezqël Kaufmann) (1889 – 9 October 1963) was an Israeli philosopher and Biblical scholar associated with Hebrew University.

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1 Esdras

1 Esdras (Ἔσδρας Αʹ), also Greek Esdras or Greek Ezra, is an ancient Greek version of the biblical Book of Ezra in use among ancient Jewry, the early church, and many modern Christians with varying degrees of canonicity.

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1 Maccabees

1 Maccabees is a book written in Hebrew by a Jewish author after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom, about the latter part of the 2nd century BC.

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2 Baruch

2 Baruch is a Jewish pseudepigraphical text thought to have been written in the late 1st century AD or early 2nd century AD, after the destruction of the Temple in AD 70.

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2 Esdras

2 Esdras (also called 4 Esdras, Latin Esdras, or Latin Ezra) is the name of an apocalyptic book in many English versions of the BibleIncluding the KJB, RSV, NRSV, NEB, REB, and GNB (see Naming conventions below).

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2 Maccabees

2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book which focuses on the Jews' revolt against Antiochus IV Epiphanes and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work.

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3 Baruch

3 Baruch or the Greek Apocalypse of Baruch is a visionary, Jewish pseudepigraphic text thought to have been written after AD 130, perhaps as late as the early 3rd century AD,Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible.

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3 Enoch

3 Enoch is an Old Testament Apocryphal book.

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3 Maccabees

The book of 3 Maccabees is found in most Orthodox Bibles as a part of the Anagignoskomena, while Protestants and Catholics consider it non-canonical,Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible.

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4 Maccabees

The book of 4 Maccabees is a homily or philosophic discourse praising the supremacy of pious reason over passion.

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613 commandments

The tradition that 613 commandments (תרי"ג מצוות: taryag mitzvot, "613 mitzvot") is the number of mitzvot in the Torah, began in the 3rd century CE, when Rabbi Simlai mentioned it in a sermon that is recorded in Talmud Makkot 23b.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bible

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