386 relations: Abner, Abraham, Abraham Joshua Heschel, Acts of the Apostles, Acts of the Apostles (genre), Additions to Daniel, Adele Berlin, Against Apion, Alan F. Segal, Aleppo Codex, Alexandria, Alexandrian text-type, American Standard Version, Anathema, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Rome, Anglican Communion, Anglicanism, Apocalyptic literature, Apocrypha, Apostles, Apostolic Fathers, Aramaic language, Archaeology, Armenian language, Ascension of Isaiah, Asimov's Guide to the Bible, Assumption of Moses, Autograph, Babylonian captivity, Baroque, Bart D. Ehrman, Baruch Spinoza, Bava Batra, Bel and the Dragon, Benjamin Kennicott, Bernhard Anderson, Beta Israel, Bible box, Bible case, Bible paper, Bible society, Bible translations, Bible translations into Slavic languages, Biblical apocrypha, Biblical Aramaic, Biblical canon, Biblical criticism, Biblical Hebrew, Biblical inerrancy, ..., Biblical infallibility, Biblical inspiration, Biblical judges, Biblical manuscript, Biblical minimalism, Biblical Mount Sinai, Biblical poetry, Biblical software, Bizzell Memorial Library, Book of Amos, Book of Baruch, Book of Daniel, Book of Deuteronomy, Book of Enoch, Book of Esther, Book of Exodus, Book of Ezekiel, Book of Ezra, Book of Genesis, Book of Habakkuk, Book of Haggai, Book of Hosea, Book of Isaiah, Book of Jeremiah, Book of Job, Book of Joel, Book of Jonah, Book of Joshua, Book of Jubilees, Book of Judges, Book of Judith, Book of Lamentations, Book of Leviticus, Book of Malachi, Book of Micah, Book of Nahum, Book of Nehemiah, Book of Numbers, Book of Obadiah, Book of Odes (Bible), Book of Proverbs, Book of Revelation, Book of Ruth, Book of Tobit, Book of Wisdom, Book of Zechariah, Book of Zephaniah, Books of Chronicles, Books of Kings, Books of Samuel, Books of the Maccabees, Byblos, Byzantine text-type, Canaan, Cantillation, Catholic Bible, Catholic Church, Catholic epistles, Chapters and verses of the Bible, Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy, Christian, Christian denomination, Christian fundamentalism, Citation, Cloister, Code of Hammurabi, Codex Amiatinus, Codex Vaticanus, Commission (art), Common Era, Contempt, Coptic language, Council of Jamnia, Council of Rome, Council of Trent, Councils of Carthage, Covenant (biblical), Criticism of the Bible, David, Dead Sea Scrolls, Decretum Gelasianum, Deuterocanonical books, Development of the New Testament canon, Douay–Rheims Bible, Early Christianity, Eastern Christianity, Eastern Mediterranean, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecclesiastes, Elliot N. 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Murphy, Rubrication, Russian Orthodox Church, Sacred tradition, Scriptorium, Second Book of Enoch, Second Epistle of John, Second Epistle of Peter, Second Epistle to the Corinthians, Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, Second Epistle to Timothy, Second Temple period, Septuagint, Seymour Rossel, Shavuot, Sibylline Oracles, Siku (comics), Sirach, Sof passuk, Sola scriptura, Song of Songs, Stephen L. Harris, Stephen Langton, Sukkot, Susanna (Book of Daniel), Synod, Synod of Hippo, Synoptic Gospels, Syriac Orthodox Church, Syriac versions of the Bible, Syro-hexaplar version, Tahrif, Talmud, Tanakh, Targum, Targum Onkelos, Tel Dan Stele, Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, The Exodus, The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children, Theodicy and the Bible, Theodotion, Third Epistle of John, Thomas Hobbes, Tisha B'Av, Torah, Translation, Twelve Minor Prophets, Typology (theology), Unitarian Universalism, University of Edinburgh, Ur of the Chaldees, Vatican Library, Vetus Latina, Victorian era, Vienna Coronation Gospels, Vulgate, Wars of Alexander the Great, Western text-type, Western world, Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come from?, Whore of Babylon, Willis Barnstone, Writing, Wycliffe Global Alliance, Wycliffe's Bible, Yehezkel Kaufmann, 1 Esdras, 1 Maccabees, 2 Baruch, 2 Esdras, 2 Maccabees, 3 Baruch, 3 Enoch, 3 Maccabees, 4 Maccabees, 613 commandments. 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In the first and second Books of Samuel, Abner, Avner (Hebrew) (Hebrew אַבְנֵר ’Avner) was cousin to Saul and commander-in-chief of his army (1 Samuel 14:50, 20:25).
Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.
Abraham Joshua Heschel (January 11, 1907 – December 23, 1972) was a Polish-born American rabbi and one of the leading Jewish theologians and Jewish philosophers of the 20th century.
Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire.
The Acts of the Apostles is a genre of Early Christian literature, recounting the lives and works of the apostles of Jesus.
The Additions to Daniel comprise three chapters not found in the Hebrew/Aramaic text of Daniel.
Adele Berlin is a biblical scholar.
Against Apion (Φλαΐου Ἰωσήπου περὶ ἀρχαιότητος Ἰουδαίων λόγος α and Φλαΐου Ἰωσήπου περὶ ἀρχαιότητος ἀντιρρητικὸς λόγος β; Latin Contra Apionem or In Apionem) was a polemical work written by Flavius Josephus as a defense of Judaism as a classical religion and philosophy against criticism by Apion, stressing its antiquity against what he perceived as more recent traditions of the Greeks.
Alan F. Segal (August 2, 1945 – February 13, 2011) was a scholar of ancient religions, specializing in Judaism's relationship to Christianity.
The Aleppo Codex (כֶּתֶר אֲרָם צוֹבָא Keter Aram Tzova or Crown of Aleppo) is a medieval bound manuscript of the Hebrew Bible.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
The Alexandrian text-type (also called Neutral or Egyptian), associated with Alexandria, is one of several text-types used in New Testament textual criticism to describe and group the textual characters of biblical manuscripts.
The Revised Version, Standard American Edition of the Bible, more commonly known as the American Standard Version (ASV), is a Bible translation into English that was completed in 1901, with the publication of the revision of the Old Testament; the revised New Testament had been released in 1900. It was originally best known by its full name, but soon came to have other names, such as the American Revised Version, the American Standard Revision, the American Standard Revised Bible, and the American Standard Edition. By the time its copyright was renewed in 1929, it had come to be known by its present name, the American Standard Version. Because of its prominence in seminaries, it was in America sometimes simply called the "Standard Bible".
Anathema, in common usage, is something or someone that is detested or shunned.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Apocalyptic literature is a genre of prophetical writing that developed in post-Exilic Jewish culture and was popular among millennialist early Christians.
Apocrypha are works, usually written, of unknown authorship or of doubtful origin.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
The Apostolic Fathers were Christian theologians who lived in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, who are believed to have personally known some of the Twelve Apostles, or to have been significantly influenced by them.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
The Ascension of Isaiah is a pseudegraphical Christian text.
Asimov's Guide to the Bible is a work by Isaac Asimov that was first published in two volumes in 1968 and 1969, covering the Old Testament and the New Testament (including the Catholic Old Testament, or deuterocanonical, books (See Catholic Bible) and the Eastern Orthodox Old Testament books, or anagignoskomena, along with the Fourth Book of Ezra), respectively.
The Assumption of Moses (otherwise called the Testament of Moses) is a 1st century Jewish apocryphal pseudepigraphical work.
Autograph is a famous person's artistic signature.
The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
Bart Denton Ehrman (born October 5, 1955) is an American New Testament scholar focusing on textual criticism of the New Testament, the historical Jesus, and the development of early Christianity.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
Bava Batra (also Baba Batra; Talmudic Aramaic: בבא בתרא "The Last Gate") is the third of the three tractates in the Talmud in the order Nezikin; it deals with a person's responsibilities and rights as the owner of property.
The narrative of Bel and the Dragon is incorporated as chapter 14 of the extended Book of Daniel.
Benjamin Kennicott (4 April 171818 September 1783) was an English churchman and Hebrew scholar.
Bernhard Word Anderson (1916 – December 26, 2007) was an American United Methodist pastor and Old Testament scholar.
Beta Israel (בֵּיתֶא יִשְׂרָאֵל, Beyte (beyt) Yisrael; ቤተ እስራኤል, Bēta 'Isrā'ēl, modern Bēte 'Isrā'ēl, EAE: "Betä Ǝsraʾel", "House of Israel" or "Community of Israel"), also known as Ethiopian Jews (יְהוּדֵי אֶתְיוֹפְּיָה: Yehudey Etyopyah; Ge'ez: የኢትዮጵያ አይሁድዊ, ye-Ityoppya Ayhudi), are Jews whose community developed and lived for centuries in the area of the Kingdom of Aksum and the Ethiopian Empire that is currently divided between the Amhara and Tigray Regions of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
A Bible box is a small container that is used to store a bible.
A Bible case is a small, generally rectangular shaped bag, the primary purpose of which is to protect the owner's Bible from damage and also to allow the owner to easily identify their bible from others.
Bible paper, also known as scritta paper, is a thin grade of paper used for printing books which have a large number of pages, such as a dictionary.
A Bible Society is a non-profit organization, usually ecumenical in makeup, devoted to translating, publishing, and distributing the Bible at affordable costs.
The Bible has been translated into many languages from the biblical languages of Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek.
The history of all Bible translations into Slavic languages begins with Bible translations into Church Slavonic.
The Biblical apocrypha (from the Greek ἀπόκρυφος, apókruphos, meaning "hidden") denotes the collection of apocryphal ancient books found in some editions of Christian Bibles in a separate section between the Old and New Testaments or as an appendix after the New Testament.
Biblical Aramaic is the form of Aramaic that is used in the books of Daniel, Ezra and a few other places in the Hebrew Bible.
A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular religious community regards as authoritative scripture.
Biblical criticism is a philosophical and methodological approach to studying the Bible, using neutral non-sectarian judgment, that grew out of the scientific thinking of the Age of Reason (1700–1789).
Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.
Biblical inerrancy, as formulated in the "Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy", is the doctrine that the Protestant Bible "is without error or fault in all its teaching"; or, at least, that "Scripture in the original manuscripts does not affirm anything that is contrary to fact".
Biblical infallibility is the belief that what the Bible says regarding matters of faith and Christian practice is wholly useful and true.
Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology that the authors and editors of the Bible were led or influenced by God with the result that their writings may be designated in some sense the word of God.
The Biblical judges (sing. שופט šōp̄êṭ/shofet, pl. šōp̄əṭîm/shoftim) are described in the Hebrew Bible, and mostly in the Book of Judges, as people who served roles as military leaders in times of crisis, in the period before an Israelite monarchy was established.
A biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible.
Biblical minimalism, also known as the Copenhagen School because two of its most prominent figures taught at Copenhagen University, was a movement or trend in biblical scholarship that began in the 1990s with two main claims.
According to the Book of Exodus, Mount Sinai (Hebrew: הר סיני, Har Sinai) is the mountain at which the Ten Commandments were given to Moses by God.
The ancient Hebrews perceived that there were poetical portions in their sacred texts, as shown by their entitling as songs or chants passages such as Exodus 15:1-19 and Numbers 21:17-20; a song or chant is, according to the primary meaning of the term, poetry.
Biblical software or Bible software is a group of computer applications designed to read, study and in some cases discuss biblical texts and concepts.
The Bizzell Memorial Library, known also as Bizzell Library, is a three-story brick structure located at the University of Oklahoma in Norman, Oklahoma.
The Book of Amos is the third of the Twelve Minor Prophets in the Tanakh/Old Testament and the second in the Greek Septuagint tradition.
The Book of Baruch, occasionally referred to as 1 Baruch, is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible in some Christian traditions.
The Book of Daniel is a biblical apocalypse, combining a prophecy of history with an eschatology (the study of last things) which is both cosmic in scope and political in its focus.
The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law," from Greek deuteros + nomos) is the fifth book of the Torah (a section of the Hebrew Bible) and the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Enoch (also 1 Enoch; Ge'ez: መጽሐፈ ሄኖክ mets’iḥāfe hēnoki) is an ancient Jewish religious work, ascribed by tradition to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah.
The Book of Esther, also known in Hebrew as "the Scroll" (Megillah), is a book in the third section (Ketuvim, "Writings") of the Jewish Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) and in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from ἔξοδος, éxodos, meaning "going out"; וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת, we'elleh shəmōṯ, "These are the names", the beginning words of the text: "These are the names of the sons of Israel" וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמֹות בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) immediately following Genesis.
The Book of Ezekiel is the third of the Latter Prophets in the Tanakh and one of the major prophetic books in the Old Testament, following Isaiah and Jeremiah.
The Book of Ezra is a book of the Hebrew Bible; which formerly included the Book of Nehemiah in a single book, commonly distinguished in scholarship as Ezra–Nehemiah.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
The Book of Habakkuk is the eighth book of the 12 minor prophets of the Bible.
The Book of Haggai is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and has its place as the third-to-last of the Minor Prophets.
The Book of Hosea is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Isaiah (ספר ישעיהו) is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Jeremiah (ספר יִרְמְיָהוּ; abbreviated Jer. or Jerm. in citations) is the second of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible, and the second of the Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Job (Hebrew: אִיוֹב Iyov) is a book in the Ketuvim ("Writings") section of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh), and the first poetic book in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible.
The Book of Joel is part of the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Jonah is a book of the Nevi’im (“Prophets”) in the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Joshua (ספר יהושע) is the sixth book in the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) and the first book of the Deuteronomistic history, the story of Israel from the conquest of Canaan to the Babylonian exile.
The Book of Jubilees, sometimes called Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work of 50 chapters, considered canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church as well as Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jews), where it is known as the Book of Division (Ge'ez: መጽሃፈ ኩፋሌ Mets'hafe Kufale).
The Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is the seventh book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the Septuagint and the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christian Old Testament of the Bible, but excluded from Jewish texts and assigned by Protestants to the Apocrypha.
The Book of Lamentations (אֵיכָה, ‘Êykhôh, from its incipit meaning "how") is a collection of poetic laments for the destruction of Jerusalem.
The Book of Leviticus is the third book of the Torah and of the Old Testament.
Malachi (or Malachias; מַלְאָכִי, Malʾaḫi, Mál'akhî) is the last book of the Neviim contained in the Tanakh, the last of the Twelve Minor Prophets (canonically) and the final book of the Neviim.
The Book of Micah is a prophetic book in the TanakhOld Testament, and the sixth of the twelve minor prophets.
The Book of Nahum is the seventh book of the 12 minor prophets of the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Nehemiah has been, since the 16th century, a separate book of the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Numbers (from Greek Ἀριθμοί, Arithmoi; בְּמִדְבַּר, Bəmiḏbar, "In the desert ") is the fourth book of the Hebrew Bible, and the fourth of five books of the Jewish Torah.
The Book of Obadiah is an oracle concerning the divine judgment of Edom and the restoration of Israel.
The Book of Odes (Ὠδαί), commonly referred to simply as Odes, is a book of the Bible found only in Eastern Orthodox Bibles and included or appended after Psalms in Alfred Rahlfs' critical edition of the Septuagint, coming from the fifth-century Codex Alexandrinus.
The Book of Proverbs (Hebrew: מִשְלֵי, Míshlê (Shlomoh), "Proverbs (of Solomon)") is the second book of the third section (called Writings) of the Hebrew Bible and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation or Apocalypse (and often misquoted as Revelations), is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.
The Book of Ruth (מגילת רות, Ashkenazi pronunciation:, Megilath Ruth, "the Scroll of Ruth", one of the Five Megillot) is included in the third division, or the Writings (Ketuvim), of the Hebrew Bible; in most Christian canons it is treated as a history book and placed between Judges and 1 Samuel, as it is set "in the days when the judges judged", although the Syriac Christian tradition places it later, between Ecclesiastes and the Song of Songs.
The Book of Tobit is a book of scripture that is part of the Catholic and Orthodox biblical canons, pronounced canonical by the Council of Hippo (in 393), Councils of Carthage of 397 and 417, Council of Florence (in 1442) and confirmed for Roman Catholics by the Council of Trent (1546).
The Wisdom of Solomon or Book of Wisdom is a Jewish work, written in Greek, composed in Alexandria (Egypt).
The Book of Zechariah, attributed to the Hebrew prophet Zechariah, is included in the Twelve Minor Prophets in the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Zephaniah is the ninth of the Twelve Minor Prophets, preceded by the Book of Habakkuk and followed by the Book of Haggai.
In the Christian Bible, the two Books of Chronicles (commonly referred to as 1 Chronicles and 2 Chronicles, or First Chronicles and Second Chronicles) generally follow the two Books of Kings and precede Ezra–Nehemiah, thus concluding the history-oriented books of the Old Testament, often referred to as the Deuteronomistic history.
The two Books of Kings, originally a single book, are the eleventh and twelfth books of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament.
The Books of Samuel, 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel.
The Books of the Maccabees are books concerned with the Maccabees, the leaders of the Jewish rebellion against the Seleucid dynasty, or related subjects.
Byblos, in Arabic Jbail (جبيل Lebanese Arabic pronunciation:; Phoenician: 𐤂𐤁𐤋 Gebal), is a Middle Eastern city on Levant coast in the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.
The Byzantine text-type (also called Majority Text, Traditional Text, Ecclesiastical Text, Constantinopolitan Text, Antiocheian Text, or Syrian Text) is one of several text-types used in textual criticism to describe the textual character of Greek New Testament manuscripts.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
Cantillation is the ritual chanting of readings from the Hebrew Bible in synagogue services.
The Catholic Bible is the Bible comprising the whole 73-book canon recognized by the Catholic Church, including the deuterocanonical books.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The catholic epistles (also called the universal epistles or general epistles) are epistles of the New Testament.
The Bible is a compilation of many shorter books written at different times by a variety of authors, and later assembled into the biblical canon.
The Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy was formulated by more than 200 evangelical leaders at a conference sponsored by the International Council on Biblical Inerrancy (ICBI), that was held in Chicago in October 1978.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
Christian fundamentalism began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries among British and American Protestants at merriam-webster.com.
A citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source).
A cloister (from Latin claustrum, "enclosure") is a covered walk, open gallery, or open arcade running along the walls of buildings and forming a quadrangle or garth.
The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dated back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology).
The Codex Amiatinus, is the earliest surviving complete manuscript of the Latin Vulgate versionBruce M. Metzger, The Text of the New Testament (Oxford University Press 2005), p. 106.
The Codex Vaticanus (The Vatican, Bibl. Vat., Vat. gr. 1209; no. B or 03 Gregory-Aland, δ 1 von Soden) is regarded as the oldest extant manuscript of the Greek Bible (Old and New Testament), one of the four great uncial codices.
In art, a commission is the act of requesting the creation of a piece, often on behalf of another.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Contempt, not classified among Paul Ekman's six basic emotions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise, is a mixture of disgust and anger.
Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic: ti.met.rem.ən.khēmi and Sahidic: t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme) is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.
The Council of Jamnia, presumably held in Yavneh in the Holy Land, was a hypothetical late 1st-century council at which the canon of the Hebrew Bible was formerly believed to have been finalized and which may also have been the occasion when the Jewish authorities decided to exclude believers in Jesus as the Messiah from synagogue attendance, as referenced by interpretations of in the New Testament.
The Council of Rome was a meeting of Catholic Church officials and theologians which took place in 382 under the authority of Pope Damasus I, the current bishop of Rome.
The Council of Trent (Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy), was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.
The Councils of Carthage, or Synods of Carthage, were church synods held during the 3rd, 4th, and 5th centuries in the city of Carthage in Africa.
A biblical covenant is a religious covenant that is described in the Bible.
The view that the Bible should be accepted as historically accurate and as a reliable guide to morality has been questioned by many scholars in the field of biblical criticism.
David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea.
The Decretum Gelasianum or the Gelasian Decree is so named because it was traditionally thought to be a Decretal of the prolific Pope Gelasius I, bishop of Rome 492–496.
The deuterocanonical books (from the Greek meaning "belonging to the second canon") is a term adopted in the 16th century by the Roman Catholic Church to denote those books and passages of the Christian Old Testament, as defined in 1546 by the Council of Trent, that were not found in the Hebrew Bible.
The canon of the New Testament is the set of books Christians regard as divinely inspired and constituting the New Testament of the Christian Bible.
The Douay–Rheims Bible (pronounced or) (also known as the Rheims–Douai Bible or Douai Bible, and abbreviated as D–R and DRB) is a translation of the Bible from the Latin Vulgate into English made by members of the English College, Douai, in the service of the Catholic Church.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Seabasin).
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Ecclesiastes (Greek: Ἐκκλησιαστής, Ekklēsiastēs, קֹהֶלֶת, qōheleṯ) is one of 24 books of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, where it is classified as one of the Ketuvim (or "Writings").
Elliot N. Dorff (born 24 June 1943) is an American Conservative rabbi.
The English Standard Version (ESV) is an English translation of the Bible published in 2001 by Crossway.
Enoch is a character of the Antediluvian period in the Hebrew Bible.
An epistle (Greek ἐπιστολή, epistolē, "letter") is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter.
The Epistle of James (Iakōbos), the Book of James, or simply James, is one of the 21 epistles (didactic letters) in the New Testament.
The Epistle of Jude, often shortened to Jude, is the penultimate book of the New Testament and is traditionally attributed to Jude, the servant of Jesus and the brother of James the Just.
The Epistle of Paul to Philemon, known simply as Philemon, is one of the books of the Christian New Testament.
The Epistle of Paul to the Colossians, usually referred to simply as Colossians, is the twelfth book of the New Testament.
The Epistle to the Ephesians, also called the Letter to the Ephesians and often shortened to Ephesians, is the tenth book of the New Testament.
The Epistle to the Galatians, often shortened to Galatians, is the ninth book of the New Testament.
The Epistle to the Hebrews, or Letter to the Hebrews, or in the Greek manuscripts, simply To the Hebrews (Πρὸς Έβραίους) is one of the books of the New Testament.
The Epistle of Paul to the Philippians, often referred to simply as Philippians, is the eleventh book in the New Testament.
The Epistle to the Romans or Letter to the Romans, often shortened to Romans, is the sixth book in the New Testament.
The Epistle of Paul to Titus, usually referred to simply as Titus, is one of the three Pastoral Epistles (along with 1 Timothy and 2 Timothy) in the New Testament, historically attributed to Paul the Apostle but now considered by most scholars to have been written by someone else.
The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church with its headquarters in Asmara, Eritrea.
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (የኢትዮጵያ:ኦርቶዶክስ:ተዋሕዶ:ቤተ:ክርስቲያን; Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is the largest of the Oriental Orthodox Christian Churches.
Evangelical Anglicanism or evangelical Episcopalianism is a tradition or church party within Anglicanism that shares affinity with broader evangelicalism.
Ezra–Nehemiah is a book in the Hebrew Bible found in the Ketuvim section, originally with the Hebrew title of Ezra.
Frederick Fyvie Bruce (12 October 1910 – 11 September 1990), usually cited as F. F.
A family Bible is a Bible handed down through a family, with each successive generation recording information about the family's history inside it.
The First Epistle of John, often referred to as First John and written 1 John or I John, is the first of the Johannine epistles of the New Testament, and the fourth of the catholic epistles.
The First Epistle of Peter, usually referred to simply as First Peter and often written 1 Peter, is a book of the New Testament.
The First Epistle to the Corinthians (Α΄ ᾽Επιστολὴ πρὸς Κορινθίους), usually referred to simply as First Corinthians and often written 1 Corinthians, is one of the Pauline epistles of the New Testament of the Christian Bible.
The First Epistle to the Thessalonians, usually referred to simply as First Thessalonians (written 1 Thessalonians and abbreviated 1 Thess. or 1 Thes.), is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible.
The First Epistle of Paul to Timothy, usually referred to simply as First Timothy and often written 1 Timothy, is one of three letters in the New Testament of the Bible often grouped together as the Pastoral Epistles, along with Second Timothy and Titus.
The Five Scrolls or The Five Megillot (חמש מגילות, Hamesh Megillot or Chomeish Megillos) are parts of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third major section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible).
Sir John Frank Kermode, FBA (29 November 1919 – 17 August 2010) was a British literary critic best known for his work The Sense of an Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction, published in 1967 (revised 2000), and for his extensive book-reviewing and editing.
Frank Stagg, Ph.D., (1911–2001) was a Southern Baptist theologian, seminary professor, author, and pastor over a 50-year ministry career.
Ge'ez (ግዕዝ,; also transliterated Giʻiz) is an ancient South Semitic language and a member of the Ethiopian Semitic group.
The Genesis creation narrative is the creation myth of both Judaism and Christianity.
Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
The Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church (საქართველოს სამოციქულო ავტოკეფალური მართლმადიდებელი ეკლესია, sakartvelos samotsikulo avt’ok’epaluri martlmadidebeli ek’lesia) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in full communion with the other churches of Eastern Orthodoxy.
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are sometimes called Abrahamic religions because they all accept the tradition of a god, Yahweh, that revealed himself to the prophet Abraham.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
In Judaism, God has been conceived in a variety of ways.
Sir Godfrey Rolles Driver, CBE, FBA (20 August 1892 – 22 April 1975), known as G. R. Driver, was an English Orientalist noted for his studies of Semitic languages and Assyriology.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
The Gospel According to John is the fourth of the canonical gospels.
The Gospel According to Luke (Τὸ κατὰ Λουκᾶν εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Loukan evangelion), also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, is the third of the four canonical Gospels.
The Gospel According to Mark (τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Markon euangelion), is one of the four canonical gospels and one of the three synoptic gospels.
The Gospel According to Matthew (translit; also called the Gospel of Matthew or simply, Matthew) is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.
The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, the Mazarin Bible or the B42) was the first major book printed using mass-produced movable metal type in Europe.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Harold Lindsell (December 22, 1913 – January 15, 1998) was an evangelical Christian author and scholar, and one of the founding members of Fuller Theological Seminary.
The headline is the text indicating the nature of the article below it.
Hellenistic Judaism was a form of Judaism in the ancient world that combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
The term "high church" refers to beliefs and practices of ecclesiology, liturgy, and theology, generally with an emphasis on formality and resistance to "modernisation." Although used in connection with various Christian traditions, the term originated in and has been principally associated with the Anglican/Episcopal tradition, where it describes Anglican churches using a number of ritual practices associated in the popular mind with Roman Catholicism.
The historicity of the Bible is the question of the Bible's "acceptability as a history," in the words of Thomas L. Thompson, a scholar who has written widely on this topic as it relates to the Old Testament.
The Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah were related kingdoms from the Iron Age period of the ancient Levant.
Holy Spirit (also called Holy Ghost) is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.
The Holy Spirit in Judaism, also termed "Divine Inspiration," generally refers to the inspiration through which attuned individuals perceive and channel the Divine through action, writing, or speech.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.
The incipit of a text is the first few words of the text, employed as an identifying label.
In a written or published work, an initial or drop cap is a letter at the beginning of a word, a chapter, or a paragraph that is larger than the rest of the text.
According to the biblical Book of Genesis, Isaac (إسحٰق/إسحاق) was the son of Abraham and Sarah and father of Jacob; his name means "he will laugh", reflecting when Sarah laughed in disbelief when told that she would have a child.
Isaac Asimov (January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Israel is a Biblical given name.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Jacob, later given the name Israel, is regarded as a Patriarch of the Israelites.
Jacob Neusner (July 28, 1932 – October 8, 2016) was an American academic scholar of Judaism.
The Jahwist, or Yahwist, often abbreviated J, is one of the hypothesized sources of the Pentateuch (Torah), together with the Deuteronomist, the Elohist and the Priestly source.
James A. Sanders (born 28 November 1927 in Memphis, Tennessee) is an American scholar of the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible and one of the Dead Sea Scrolls editors.
Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ, Modern:, Tiberian:; Ἰερεμίας; إرميا meaning "Yah Exalts"), also called the "Weeping prophet", was one of the major prophets of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament).
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jewish Christians, also Hebrew Christians or Judeo-Christians, are the original members of the Jewish movement that later became Christianity.
Jewish religious movements, sometimes called "denominations" or "branches", include different groups which have developed among Jews from ancient times.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Chrysostom (Ἰωάννης ὁ Χρυσόστομος; c. 349 – 14 September 407), Archbishop of Constantinople, was an important Early Church Father.
Joseph (יוֹסֵף meaning "Increase", Standard Yosef Tiberian Yôsēp̄; يوسف Yūsuf or Yūsif; Ἰωσήφ Iōsēph) is an important figure in the Bible's Book of Genesis.
Joseph Augustine Fitzmyer (November 4, 1920 – December 24, 2016) was an American Catholic priest of the Society of Jesus and professor emeritus at The Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C. He specialized in biblical studies, particularly the New Testament, though he also made contributions to the study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and early Jewish literature.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Ketuvim (כְּתוּבִים Kəṯûḇîm, "writings") is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), after Torah (instruction) and Nevi'im (prophets).
The King James Only movement is a movement within Anglosphere Protestantism which asserts the King James Version of the Bible as being superior to all other English translations.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
The United Monarchy is the name given to the Israelite kingdom of Israel and Judah, during the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon, as depicted in the Hebrew Bible.
The Kings of Judah were the monarchs who ruled over the ancient Kingdom of Judah.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.
The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope and the rest of the Catholic Church, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity.
The Leningrad Codex (Latin: Codex Leningradensis, the "codex of Leningrad") is the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible in Hebrew, using the Masoretic Text and Tiberian vocalization.
The Letter of Aristeas or Letter to Philocrates is a Hellenistic work of the 2nd century BCE, assigned by Biblical scholars to the Pseudepigrapha.
The Letter of Jeremiah, also known as the Epistle of Jeremiah, is a deuterocanonical book of the Old Testament; this letter purports to have been written by Jeremiah to the Jews who were about to be carried away as captives to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar.
The Life of Adam and Eve, also known, in its Greek version, as the Apocalypse of Moses, is a Jewish pseudepigraphical group of writings.
The Lincoln Bible is the Holy Bible owned by President Abraham Lincoln, and was later used by Barack Obama at his two inaugurations in 2009 and 2013.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
The Bible is a canonical collection of texts considered sacred in Judaism or Christianity.
A list of nations mentioned in the Bible.
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
Marc Brettler (Marc Zvi Brettler) is an American biblical scholar, and the Bernice and Morton Lerner Professor in Judaic Studies at Duke University.
Marginalia (or apostils) are marks made in the margins of a book or other document.
The Masoretes (Hebrew: Ba'alei ha-Masora) were groups of Jewish scribe-scholars who worked between the 6th and 10th centuries CE, based primarily in early medieval Palestine in the cities of Tiberias and Jerusalem, as well as in Iraq (Babylonia).
The Masoretic Text (MT, 𝕸, or \mathfrak) is the authoritative Hebrew and Aramaic text of the Tanakh for Rabbinic Judaism.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
Meqabyan, also referred to as Ethiopian Maccabees or Ethiopic Maccabees (Amharic: መቃብያን, which is also transliterated as Makabian), are three books found only in the Ethiopian Orthodox Old Testament and Beta Israel Mäṣḥafä Kedus Biblical canon.
Michael A. Fishbane (born 1943) is an American scholar of Judaism and rabbinic literature.
Michal (מיכל) was, according to the first Book of Samuel, the younger daughter of Saul, king of Israel, who loved and became the first wife of David, who later became king of Judah, and later still of the united Kingdom of Israel.
Milton Steinberg (November 25, 1903 – March 20, 1950) was an American rabbi, philosopher, theologian and author.
The word miniature, derived from the Latin minium, red lead, is a small illustration used to decorate an ancient or medieval illuminated manuscript; the simple illustrations of the early codices having been miniated or delineated with that pigment.
Moisés Silva (born September 4, 1945) is a Cuban-born American biblical scholar and translator.
A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.
Mordecai Menahem Kaplan (June 11, 1881 – November 8, 1983), was a rabbi, essayist and Jewish educator and the co-founder of Reconstructionist Judaism along with his son-in-law Ira Eisenstein.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
Movable type (US English; moveable type in British English) is the system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation) usually on the medium of paper.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
The Museum of the Bible is a museum in Washington D.C. which documents the narrative, history and impact of the Bible.
Nicholas Thomas Wright (born 1 December 1948) is a leading English New Testament scholar, Pauline theologian, and retired Anglican bishop.
Nevi'im (נְבִיאִים Nəḇî'îm, lit. "spokespersons", "Prophets") is the second main division of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh), between the Torah (instruction) and Ketuvim (writings).
The New American Standard Bible (NASB) is an English translation of the Bible by the Lockman Foundation.
The New Covenant (Hebrew; Greek διαθήκη καινή diatheke kaine) is a biblical interpretation originally derived from a phrase in the Book of Jeremiah, in the Hebrew Bible.
The New International Version (NIV) is an English translation of the Bible first published in 1978 by Biblica (formerly the International Bible Society).
The New King James Version (NKJV) is an English translation of the Bible first published in 1982 by Thomas Nelson.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
New Tribes Mission (NTM) now known as Ethnos360 is an international, theologically evangelical Christian mission organization based in Sanford, Florida, United States.
In Hebrew orthography, niqqud or nikkud is a system of diacritical signs used to represent vowels or distinguish between alternative pronunciations of letters of the Hebrew alphabet.
In Abrahamic religions, Noah was the tenth and last of the pre-Flood Patriarchs.
Norman Leo Geisler (born July 21, 1932) is a Christian systematic theologian and philosopher.
Nur-eldeen (Nur) Masalha (نور مصالحة; born 4 January 1957 in Galilee, Israel) is a Palestinian writer and academic.
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
Old Latin, also known as Early Latin or Archaic Latin, refers to the Latin language in the period before 75 BC: before the age of Classical Latin.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
The Orthodox Tewahedo churches within the Oriental Orthodox Church currently have the largest and most diverse biblical canon in traditional Christendom.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Bible.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
Passover or Pesach (from Hebrew Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday.
The pastoral epistles are three books of the canonical New Testament: the First Epistle to Timothy (1 Timothy) the Second Epistle to Timothy (2 Timothy), and the Epistle to Titus.
Paternoster Press is a British Christian publishing house which was founded by B. Howard Mudditt (1906-1992) in 1936.
The Patriarchs (אבות. Avot or Abot, singular אב. Ab or Aramaic: אבא Abba) of the Bible, when narrowly defined, are Abraham, his son Isaac, and Isaac's son Jacob, also named Israel, the ancestor of the Israelites.
The Pauline epistles, Epistles of Paul, or Letters of Paul, are the 13 New Testament books which have the name Paul (Παῦλος) as the first word, hence claiming authorship by Paul the Apostle.
The Peshitta (ܦܫܝܛܬܐ) is the standard version of the Bible for churches in the Syriac tradition.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Pope Damasus I (c. 305 – 11 December 384) was Pope of the Catholic Church, from October 366 to his death in 384.
Pope Gelasius I (died 19 November 496) was Pope from 1 March 492 to his death in 496.
Pope Hormisdas (450 – 6 August 523) was Pope from 20 July 514 to his death in 523.
The Prayer of Manasseh is a short work of 15 verses recording a penitential prayer attributed to king Manasseh of Judah.
The Priestly source (or simply P) is, according to the documentary hypothesis, one of four sources of the Torah, together with the Jahwist, the Elohist and the Deuteronomist.
The Professorship of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow was founded in 1861.
The Promised Land (הארץ המובטחת, translit.: Ha'Aretz HaMuvtahat; أرض الميعاد, translit.: Ard Al-Mi'ad; also known as "The Land of Milk and Honey") is the land which, according to the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible), was promised and subsequently given by God to Abraham and his descendants, and in modern contexts an image and idea related both to the restored Homeland for the Jewish people and to salvation and liberation is more generally understood.
A prophecy is a message that is claimed by a prophet to have been communicated to them by a god.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
A Protestant Bible is a Christian Bible whose translation or revision was produced by Protestants.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Psalm 151 is a short psalm found in most copies of the Septuagint but not in the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
Psalms 152 to 155 are additional Psalms found in two Syriac biblical manuscripts to date and several manuscripts of Elias of al-Anbar's "Book of Discipline".
One of the apocryphal books, the Psalms of Solomon is a group of eighteen psalms (religious songs or poems) written in the that are not part of any scriptural canon (they are, however, found in copies of the Peshitta and the Septuagint).
Purim (Hebrew: Pûrîm "lots", from the word pur, related to Akkadian: pūru) is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the saving of the Jewish people from Haman, who was planning to kill all the Jews.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism (יהדות רבנית Yahadut Rabanit) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Babylonian Talmud.
Rastafari, sometimes termed Rastafarianism, is an Abrahamic religion that developed in Jamaica during the 1930s.
Raymond Edward Brown (May 22, 1928 – August 8, 1998) was an American Catholic priest, a member of the Sulpician Fathers and a prominent biblical scholar.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
The Revised Standard Version (RSV) is an English translation of the Bible published in 1952 by the Division of Christian Education of the National Council of Churches.
The Revised Version (RV) or English Revised Version (ERV) of the Bible is a late 19th-century British revision of the King James Version.
Robert Bernard Alter (born 1935) is an American professor of Hebrew and comparative literature at the University of California, Berkeley, where he has taught since 1967.
Robert I Estienne (1503 – 7 September 1559), known as Robertus Stephanus in Latin and also referred to as Robert Stephens by 18th and 19th-century English writers, was a 16th-century printer and classical scholar in Paris.
Roland Edmund Murphy (July 19, 1917 - July 20, 2002) was an American Catholic priest of the Carmelite order, a biblical scholar and a specialist in the study of the Old Testament.
Rubrication was one of several steps in the medieval process of manuscript making.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
Sacred Tradition, or Holy Tradition, is a theological term used in some Christian traditions, primarily those claiming apostolic succession such as the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian, and Anglican traditions, to refer to the foundation of the doctrinal and spiritual authority of the Christian Church and of the Bible.
Scriptorium, literally "a place for writing", is commonly used to refer to a room in medieval European monasteries devoted to the writing, copying and illuminating of manuscripts by monastic scribes.
The Second Book of Enoch (usually abbreviated 2 Enoch, and otherwise variously known as Slavonic Enoch or The Secrets of Enoch) is a pseudepigraphic text (a text whose claimed authorship is unfounded) of the Old Testament.
The Second Epistle of John, often referred to as Second John and often written 2 John or II John, is a book of the New Testament attributed to John the Evangelist, traditionally thought to be the author of the Gospel of John and the other two epistles of John.
The Second Epistle of Peter, often referred to as Second Peter and written 2 Peter or in Roman numerals II Peter (especially in older references), is a book of the New Testament of the Bible, traditionally held to have been written by Saint Peter.
The Second Epistle to the Corinthians, often written as 2 Corinthians, is a Pauline epistle and the eighth book of the New Testament of the Bible.
The Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, often referred to as Second Thessalonians (US) or Two Thessalonians (UK) (and written 2 Thessalonians) is a book from the New Testament of the Christian Bible.
In the New Testament, the Second Epistle of Paul to Timothy, usually referred to simply as Second Timothy and often written 2 Timothy, is one of the three Pastoral Epistles traditionally attributed to Saint Paul.
The Second Temple period in Jewish history lasted between 530 BCE and 70 CE, when the Second Temple of Jerusalem existed.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
Rabbi Seymour Rossel (born August 9, 1945) is an American Jewish author, publisher, editor, educator, and founder of Rossel Books.
Shavuot or Shovuos, in Ashkenazi usage; Shavuʿoth in Sephardi and Mizrahi Hebrew (שבועות, lit. "Weeks"), is known as the Feast of Weeks in English and as Pentecost (Πεντηκοστή) in Ancient Greek.
The Sibylline Oracles (Oracula Sibyllina; sometimes called the pseudo-Sibylline Oracles) are a collection of oracular utterances written in Greek hexameters ascribed to the Sibyls, prophetesses who uttered divine revelations in a frenzied state.
Siku is the pseudonym of British/Nigerian artist and writer Ajibayo Akinsiku, best known for his work in 2000 AD.
The Book of the All-Virtuous Wisdom of Yeshua ben Sira, commonly called the Wisdom of Sirach or simply Sirach, and also known as the Book of Ecclesiasticus (abbreviated Ecclus.) or Ben Sira, is a work of ethical teachings, from approximately 200 to 175 BCE, written by the Jewish scribe Ben Sira of Jerusalem, on the inspiration of his father Joshua son of Sirach, sometimes called Jesus son of Sirach or Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira.
The Sof passuk (Hebrew:, end of verse, also spelled Sof pasuq and other variant English spellings, and sometimes called סלוק silluq) is the cantillation mark that occurs on the last word of every verse in the Tanakh.
Sola Scriptura (Latin: by scripture alone) is a theological doctrine held by some Christian denominations that the Christian scriptures are the sole infallible rule of faith and practice.
The Song of Songs, also Song of Solomon or Canticles (Hebrew:, Šîr HašŠîrîm, Greek: ᾎσμα ᾎσμάτων, asma asmaton, both meaning Song of Songs), is one of the megillot (scrolls) found in the last section of the Tanakh, known as the Ketuvim (or "Writings"), and a book of the Old Testament.
Stephen L. Harris (born 1937) is Professor Emeritus of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento.
Stephen Langton (c. 1150 – 9 July 1228) was an English Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and Archbishop of Canterbury between 1207 and his death in 1228.
Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת,, commonly translated as Feast of Tabernacles or Feast of the Ingathering, traditional Ashkenazi pronunciation Sukkos or Succos, literally Feast of Booths) is a biblical Jewish holiday celebrated on the 15th day of the seventh month, Tishrei (varies from late September to late October).
Susanna or Shoshana ("lily"), also called Susanna and the Elders, is included in the Book of Daniel (as chapter 13) by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.
A synod is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.
The Synod of Hippo refers to the synod of 393 which was hosted in Hippo Regius in northern Africa during the early Christian Church.
The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are referred to as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in a similar sequence and in similar or sometimes identical wording.
The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Trišaṯ Šubḥo; الكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية), or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to St. Peter and St. Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition.
Syria played an important or even predominant role in the beginning of Christianity.
The Syro-hexaplar version (also Syro-Hexapla) is the Syriac translation of the Septuagint based on the fifth column of Origen's Hexapla.
(تحريف, "distortion, alteration") is an Arabic term used by Muslims for the alterations which Islamic tradition claims Jews and Christians have made to the revealed books, specifically those that make up the Tawrat (or Torah), Zabur (possibly Psalms) and Injil (or Gospel).
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
The targumim (singular: "targum", תרגום) were spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures (also called the Tanakh) that a rabbi would give in the common language of the listeners, which was then often Aramaic.
Aramaic Targum Onkelos from the British Library. Targum Onkelos (or Onqelos),, is the official eastern (Babylonian) targum (Aramaic translation) to the Torah.
The Tel Dan Stele is a broken stele (inscribed stone) discovered in 1993–94 during excavations at Tel Dan in northern Israel.
The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is a constituent of the apocryphal scriptures connected with the Bible.
The exodus is the founding myth of Jews and Samaritans.
The Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Holy Children is a lengthy passage that appears after Daniel 3:23 in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Bibles, as well as in the ancient Greek Septuagint translation.
Theodicy, in its most common form, is the attempt to answer the question of why a good God permits the manifestation of evil.
Theodotion (Θεοδοτίων, gen.: Θεοδοτίωνος; died c. 200) was a Hellenistic Jewish scholar, perhaps working in Ephesus, who in c. AD 150 translated the Hebrew Bible into Greek.
The Third Epistle of John, often referred to as Third John and written 3 John or III John, is the antepenultimate book of the New Testament and attributed to John the Evangelist, traditionally thought to be the author of the Gospel of John and the other two epistles of John.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Tisha B'Av (תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב, "the ninth of Av") is an annual fast day in Judaism, on which a number of disasters in Jewish history occurred, primarily the destruction of both the First Temple by the Babylonians and the Second Temple by the Romans in Jerusalem.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
The Minor Prophets or Twelve Prophets (תרי עשר, Trei Asar, "Twelve"), occasionally Book of the Twelve, is the last book of the Nevi'im, the second main division of the Jewish Tanakh.
Typology in Christian theology and Biblical exegesis is a doctrine or theory concerning the relationship of the Old Testament to the New Testament.
Unitarian Universalism (UU) is a liberal religion characterized by a "free and responsible search for truth and meaning".
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
Ur Kaśdim (אוּר כַּשְׂדִּים ʾūr kaśdīm), commonly translated as Ur of the Chaldees, is a city mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as the birthplace of the Israelite and Ismaelite patriarch Abraham.
The Vatican Apostolic Library (Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly called the Vatican Library or simply the Vat, is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City.
Vetus Latina ("Old Latin" in Latin), also known as Vetus Itala ("Old Italian"), Itala ("Italian") See, for example, Quedlinburg ''Itala'' fragment.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
The Vienna Coronation Gospels, also known simply as the Coronation Gospels, is a late 8th century illuminated Gospel Book produced at the court of Charlemagne in Aachen.
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.
The wars of Alexander the Great were fought by King Alexander III of Macedon ("The Great"), first against the Achaemenid Persian Empire under Darius III, and then against local chieftains and warlords as far east as Punjab, India.
The Western text-type is one of several text-types used in textual criticism to describe and group the textual character of Greek New Testament manuscripts.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From? is a book by American biblical scholar and archaeologist William G. Dever.
The Whore of Babylon or Babylon the Great is a mythological female figure and also place of evil mentioned in the Book of Revelation in the Bible.
Willis Barnstone (born November 13, 1927) is an American poet, memoirist, translator, Hispanist, and comparatist.
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.
Wycliffe Global Alliance is an alliance of organisations with the common objective of translating the Bible for every language group that needs it.
Wycliffe's Bible is the name now given to a group of Bible translations into Middle English that were made under the direction of John Wycliffe.
Yehezkel Kaufmann (Hebrew: יחזקאל קויפמן; also: Yeḥezqêl Qâufman; Yeḥezḳel Ḳoyfman; Jehezqël Kaufmann) (1889 – 9 October 1963) was an Israeli philosopher and Biblical scholar associated with the Hebrew University.
1 Esdras (Ἔσδρας Αʹ), also Greek Esdras, Greek Ezra, or 3 Esdras, is an ancient Greek version of the biblical Book of Ezra in use among the early church, and many modern Christians with varying degrees of canonicity.
1 Maccabees is a book of the Bible written in Hebrew by a Jewish author after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom by the Hasmonean dynasty, about the latter part of the 2nd century BC.
2 Baruch is a Jewish pseudepigraphical text thought to have been written in the late 1st century AD or early 2nd century AD, after the destruction of the Temple in AD 70.
2 Esdras (also called 4 Esdras, Latin Esdras, or Latin Ezra) is the name of an apocalyptic book in many English versions of the BibleIncluding the KJB, RSV, NRSV, NEB, REB, and GNB (see Naming conventions below).
2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book which focuses on the Maccabean Revolt against Antiochus IV Epiphanes and concludes with the defeat of the Seleucid empire general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the hard work.
3 Baruch or the Greek Apocalypse of Baruch is a visionary, Jewish pseudepigraphic text thought to have been written in the first to third centuries AD, probably after the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in 70 AD.
3 Enoch is Biblical apocryphal in Hebrew.
The book of 3 Maccabees is found in most Orthodox Bibles as a part of the Anagignoskomena.
The book of 4 Maccabees is a homily or philosophic discourse praising the supremacy of pious reason over passion.
The tradition that 613 commandments (תרי"ג מצוות, taryag mitzvot, "613 mitzvot") is the number of mitzvot in the Torah, began in the 3rd century CE, when Rabbi Simlai mentioned it in a sermon that is recorded in Talmud Makkot 23b.
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