237 relations: Accusative case, Adjective, Affix, Aleph, Alveolar consonant, Amarna letters, Ammonite language, Ancient Greek, Approximant consonant, Aramaic alphabet, Aramaic language, Article (grammar), Ashkenazi Hebrew, Ashkenazi Jews, Asyndeton, Ayin, Ḍād, Ḏāl, Ḫāʾ, Ṯāʾ, Ẓāʾ, İstanbul Archaeology Museums, Babylonian captivity, Babylonian vocalization, Back vowel, Bar Kokhba revolt, Begadkefat, Bet (letter), Book of Amos, Book of Exodus, Book of Hosea, Book of Isaiah, Book of Judges, Book of Micah, Broken plural, Bronze Age, Canaan, Canaanite languages, Canaanite shift, Cantillation, Central Semitic languages, Classical Arabic, Classical Latin, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Consonant, Construct state, Dalet, Dating the Bible, Dead Sea Scrolls, ..., Deborah, Definiteness, Dental consonant, Derived stem, Diacritic, Eber, Echo vowel, Edom, Edomite language, Ejective consonant, Emphatic consonant, Epenthesis, Epigraphy, Ethnonym, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Functional load, Galilee, Gemara, Gemination, Genitive case, Gezer calendar, Ghayn, Ghil'ad Zuckermann, Gilead, Gimel, Glottal consonant, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Habiru, Hanina bar Hama, Hasmonean dynasty, He (letter), Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew language, Herod the Great, Heth, Hexapla, History of ancient Israel and Judah, Hortative, Hurrian language, Imperative mood, Infinitive, International Phonetic Alphabet, Iron Age, Isaac, Israel, Israelian Hebrew, Israelites, Jephthah, Jerome, Jerusalem, Jewish–Roman wars, Jordan River, Joseph Kimhi, Joshua Blau, Jussive mood, Kamatz, Kaph, Ketef Hinnom, Ketuvim, Khirbet Qeiyafa, Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy), Kingdom of Judah, Koine Greek, Ktiv hasar niqqud, Labial consonant, Lamedh, Lashon Hakodesh, Latin, Lenition, Markedness, Masoretes, Masoretic Text, Mater lectionis, Medieval Hebrew, Mediterranean Sea, Mem, Mesha Stele, Mid vowel, Middle Ages, Mimation, Mishnaic Hebrew, Mizrahi Jews, Moabite language, Modern Hebrew, Modern South Arabian languages, Mutual intelligibility, Nachmanides, Nasal consonant, Nashim, Nevi'im, New York City, Nominative case, Nonconcatenative morphology, Northwest Semitic languages, Nun (letter), Object (grammar), Old Aramaic language, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Origen, Ostracon, Palatal consonant, Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, Palestinian vocalization, Part of speech, Participle, Paternoster Press, Pausa, Pe (letter), Pesachim (Talmud), Pharyngeal consonant, Pharyngealization, Philippi's law, Phoenician alphabet, Phoenician language, Phoneme, Piyyut, Possession (linguistics), Postalveolar consonant, Priestly Blessing, Proto-Canaanite alphabet, Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Semitic language, Psalm 18, Pun, Qoph, Rachel, Resh, Saadia Gaon, Sacred language, Samaria, Samaritan alphabet, Samaritan Hebrew, Samaritan Pentateuch, Samaritans, Samekh, Samson, Second Temple, Second Temple period, Secunda (Hexapla), Segolate, Semitic languages, Semitic root, Sephardi Hebrew, Septuagint, Sherd, Shibboleth, Shin (letter), Siege of Jerusalem (70 CE), Siloam inscription, Solomon's Temple, Song of Moses, Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary, Stop consonant, Surface filter, Syllable, Talmud, Tanakh, Taw, Teth, Tetragrammaton, Tiberian vocalization, Transcription (linguistics), Trill consonant, Tsade, Ugaritic, University of Alberta, Uvular consonant, Velar consonant, Verb–subject–object, Voice (grammar), Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Vowel, Waw (letter), Waw-consecutive, Yemenite Hebrew, Yodh, Zayin, 2nd millennium BC. Expand index (187 more) » « Shrink index
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
Aleph (or alef or alif) is the first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician 'Ālep 𐤀, Hebrew 'Ālef א, Aramaic Ālap 𐡀, Syriac ʾĀlap̄ ܐ, Arabic ا, Urdu ا, and Persian.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
The Amarna letters (sometimes referred to as the Amarna correspondence or Amarna tablets, and cited with the abbreviation EA) are an archive, written on clay tablets, primarily consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom.
Ammonite is the extinct Canaanite language of the Ammonite people mentioned in the Bible, who used to live in modern-day Jordan, and after whom its capital Amman is named.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct from it by the 8th century BCE.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
Ashkenazi Hebrew (Hagiyya Ashkenazit, Ashkenazishe Havara), is the pronunciation system for Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew favored for liturgical use and study by Ashkenazi Jewish practice.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Asyndeton (from the ἀσύνδετον, "unconnected", sometimes called asyndetism) is a literary scheme in which one or several conjunctions are deliberately omitted from a series of related clauses.
Ayin (also ayn, ain; transliterated) is the sixteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac ܥ, and Arabic rtl (where it is sixteenth in abjadi order only).
(ض), is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In name and shape, it is a variant of.
(ذ, also be transcribed as) is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In Modern Standard Arabic it represents.
(خ, transliterated as (DIN-31635), (Hans Wehr), (ALA-LC) or (ISO 233)), is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). It is based on the ح. It represents the sound or in Modern Standard Arabic.
() is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In Modern Standard Arabic it represents the voiceless dental fricative, also found in English as the "th" in words such as "think" and "thin".
, or (ظ), is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In Classical Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic it represents a pharyngealized or velarized voiced dental fricative or.
The Istanbul Archaeology Museums (İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri) is a group of three archeological museums located in the Eminönü district of Istanbul, Turkey, near Gülhane Park and Topkapı Palace.
The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.
The Babylonian vocalization, also known as Babylonian supralinear punctuation, or Babylonian pointing or Babylonian niqqud Hebrew) is a system of diacritics (niqqud) and vowel symbols assigned above the text and devised by the Masoretes of Babylon to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to indicate the proper pronunciation of words (vowel quality), reflecting the Hebrew of Babylon. The Babylonian system is no longer in use outside Temani Judaism, having been supplanted by the sublinear Tiberian vocalization.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
The Bar Kokhba revolt (מרד בר כוכבא; Mered Bar Kokhba) was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire.
Begadkefat (also begadkephat, begedkefet) is the name given to a phenomenon of lenition affecting the non-emphatic stop consonants of Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic when they are preceded by a vowel and not geminated.
Bet, Beth, Beh, or Vet is the second letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Bēt, Hebrew Bēt, Aramaic Bēth, Syriac Bēṯ ܒ, and Arabic ب Its sound value is a voiced bilabial stop ⟨b⟩ or a voiced labiodental fricative ⟨v.
The Book of Amos is the third of the Twelve Minor Prophets in the Tanakh/Old Testament and the second in the Greek Septuagint tradition.
The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from ἔξοδος, éxodos, meaning "going out"; וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת, we'elleh shəmōṯ, "These are the names", the beginning words of the text: "These are the names of the sons of Israel" וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמֹות בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) immediately following Genesis.
The Book of Hosea is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible.
The Book of Isaiah (ספר ישעיהו) is the first of the Latter Prophets in the Hebrew Bible and the first of the Major Prophets in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Judges (Hebrew: Sefer Shoftim ספר שופטים) is the seventh book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Micah is a prophetic book in the TanakhOld Testament, and the sixth of the twelve minor prophets.
In linguistics, a broken plural (or internal plural) is an irregular plural form of a noun or adjective found in the Semitic languages and other Afroasiatic languages such as Berber.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
The Canaanite languages, or Canaanite dialects, are one of the three subgroups of the Northwest Semitic languages, the others being Aramaic and Amorite.
In historical linguistics, the Canaanite shift is a sound change that took place in the Canaanite dialects, which belong to the Northwest Semitic branch of the Semitic languages family.
Cantillation is the ritual chanting of readings from the Hebrew Bible in synagogue services.
The Central Semitic languages are a proposed intermediate group of Semitic languages, comprising the Late Iron Age, modern dialect of Arabic (prior to which Arabic was a Southern Semitic language), and older Bronze Age Northwest Semitic languages (which include Aramaic, Ugaritic, and the Canaanite languages of Hebrew and Phoenician).
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
In Afro-Asiatic languages, the first noun in a genitive phrase of a possessed noun followed by a possessor noun often takes on a special morphological form, which is termed the construct state (Latin status constructus).
Dalet (also spelled Daleth or Daled) is the fourth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Dālet, Hebrew 'Dālet ד, Aramaic Dālath, Syriac Dālaṯ ܕ, and Arabic د (in abjadi order; 8th in modern order).
The four tables give the most commonly accepted dates or ranges of dates for the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible, the Deuterocanonical books (included in Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox bibles, but not in the Hebrew and Protestant bibles) and the New Testament, including, where possible, hypotheses about their formation-history.
Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea.
According to the Book of Judges chapters 4 and 5, Deborah was a prophet of Yahweh the God of the Israelites, the fourth Judge of pre-monarchic Israel and the only female judge mentioned in the Bible, and the wife of Lapidoth.
In linguistics, definiteness is a semantic feature of noun phrases (NPs), distinguishing between referents/entities that are identifiable in a given context (definite noun phrases) and entities which are not (indefinite noun phrases).
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
Derived stems are a morphological feature of verbs common to the Semitic languages.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
Eber (ISO 259-3 ʕeber, Standard Hebrew Éver, Tiberian Hebrew ʻĒḇer, Arabic ʿĀbir) is an ancestor of the Israelites and the Ishmaelites, according to the "Table of Nations" in and.
An echo vowel, also known as a synharmonic vowel, is a paragogic vowel that repeats the final vowel in a word in speech.
Edom (Assyrian: 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 Uduma; Syriac: ܐܕܘܡ) was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west and the Arabian Desert to the south and east.
Edomite was a Canaanite language, very similar to Hebrew, spoken by the Edomites in southwestern Jordan and parts of Israel in the 1st millennium BC.
In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
In Semitic linguistics, an emphatic consonant is an obstruent consonant which originally contrasted with series of both voiced and voiceless obstruents.
In phonology, epenthesis (Greek) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word (at the beginning prothesis and at the end paragoge are commonly used).
Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
In linguistics and especially phonology, functional load (also referred to as phonemic load) refers to the importance of certain features in making distinctions in a language.
Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.
The Gemara (also transliterated Gemora, Gemarah, or, less commonly, Gemorra; from Hebrew, from the Aramaic verb gamar, study) is the component of the Talmud comprising rabbinical analysis of and commentary on the Mishnah.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
The Gezer calendar is a small inscribed limestone tablet discovered in 1908 by Irish archaeologist R. A. Stewart Macalister in the ancient Canaanite city of Gezer, 20 miles west of Jerusalem.
The Arabic letter غ (غين or) is the nineteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, one of the six letters not in the twenty-two akin to the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). It is the twenty-second letter in the new Persian alphabet.
Ghil'ad Zuckermann (גלעד צוקרמן,, born 1 June 1971) is a linguist and revivalist who works in contact linguistics, lexicology and the study of language, culture and identity.
Gilead or Gilaad (جلعاد; גִּלְעָד) is the name of three people and two geographic places in the Bible.
Gimel is the third letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Gīml, Hebrew ˈGimel ג, Aramaic Gāmal, Syriac Gāmal ܓ, and Arabic ج (in alphabetical order; fifth in spelling order).
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
Habiru (sometimes written as Hapiru, and more accurately as 'Apiru, meaning "dusty, dirty") is a term used in 2nd-millennium BCE texts throughout the Fertile Crescent for people variously described as rebels, outlaws, raiders, mercenaries, bowmen, servants, slaves, and laborers.
Hanina bar Hama (died c. 250) (Hebrew: חנינא בר חמא) was a Jewish Talmudist, halakist and haggadist frequently quoted in the Babylonian and the Jerusalem Talmud, and in the Midrashim.
The Hasmonean dynasty (חַשְׁמוֹנַּאִים, Ḥašmōna'īm) was a ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity.
He is the fifth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Hē, Hebrew Hē, Aramaic Hē, Syriac Hē ܗ, and Arabic ﻫ. Its sound value is a voiceless glottal fricative.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
Herod (Greek:, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE), also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.
or H̱et (also spelled Khet, Kheth, Chet, Cheth, Het, or Heth) is the eighth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Ḥēt, Hebrew Ḥēt, Aramaic Ḥēth, Syriac Ḥēṯ ܚ, and Arabic Ḥā'.
Hexapla (Ἑξαπλᾶ, "sixfold") is the term for a critical edition of the Hebrew Bible in six versions, four of them translated into Greek, preserved only in fragments.
The Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah were related kingdoms from the Iron Age period of the ancient Levant.
In linguistics, hortative modalities (abbreviated) are verbal expressions used by the speaker to encourage or discourage an action.
Hurrian is an extinct Hurro-Urartian language spoken by the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
According to the biblical Book of Genesis, Isaac (إسحٰق/إسحاق) was the son of Abraham and Sarah and father of Jacob; his name means "he will laugh", reflecting when Sarah laughed in disbelief when told that she would have a child.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Israelian Hebrew (or IH) is a proposed northern dialect of biblical Hebrew (BH).
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Jephthah (pronounced; יפתח Yip̄tāḥ), appears in the Book of Judges as a judge over Israel for a period of six years.
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The Jewish–Roman wars were a series of large-scale revolts by the Jews of the Eastern Mediterranean against the Roman Empire between 66 and 136 CE.
The Jordan River (also River Jordan; נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן Nahar ha-Yarden, ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ, نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ Nahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a -long river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.
Joseph Ḳimḥi (Kimchi) (Qimhi) (1105–1170) (יוסף קמחי) was a medieval Jewish rabbi and biblical commentator.
Joshua Blau (Hebrew: יהושע בלאו, born 1919 Cluj, Romania) is an Israeli scholar of Arabic language and literature, currently Professor Emeritus at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
The jussive (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood of verbs for issuing orders, commanding, or exhorting (within a subjunctive framework).
Kamatz or Qamatz (קָמַץ) is a Hebrew niqqud (vowel) sign represented by two perpendicular lines (looking like an uppercase T) underneath a letter.
Kaf (also spelled kaph) is the eleventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Kāp, Hebrew Kāf, Aramaic Kāp, Syriac Kāp̄, and Arabic Kāf / (in Abjadi order).
Ketef Hinnom (כָּתֵף הִינוֹם, "shoulder of Hinnom") is an archaeological site southwest of the Old City of Jerusalem, adjacent to St. Andrew's Church, now on the grounds of the Menachem Begin Heritage Center.
Ketuvim (כְּתוּבִים Kəṯûḇîm, "writings") is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), after Torah (instruction) and Nevi'im (prophets).
Khirbet Qeiyafa (Elah Fortress; Hirbet Kaifeh) is the site of an ancient fortress city overlooking the Elah Valley.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel was one of two successor states to the former United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
The United Monarchy is the name given to the Israelite kingdom of Israel and Judah, during the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon, as depicted in the Hebrew Bible.
The Kingdom of Judah (מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה, Mamlekhet Yehudāh) was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant.
Ktiv hasar niqqud (כתיב חסר ניקוד, literally "spelling lacking niqqud"), colloquially known as ktiv male (כתיב מלא, literally "full spelling"), are the rules for writing Hebrew without vowel pointers (niqqud), often replacing them with matres lectionis (ו and י).
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Lāmed, Hebrew 'Lāmed, Aramaic Lāmadh, Syriac Lāmaḏ ܠ, and Arabic.
Lashon Hakodesh (לָשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ; lit. "the tongue holiness" or "the Holy Tongue"), also spelled L'shon Hakodesh or Leshon Hakodesh (לְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ), is a Jewish term and appellation attributed to the Hebrew language, or sometimes to a mix of Hebrew and Aramaic, in which its religious texts and prayers were written, and served, during the Medieval Hebrew era, for religious purposes, liturgy and Halakha – in contrary to the secular tongue, which served for the routine daily needs, such as the Yiddish language.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.
In linguistics and social sciences, markedness is the state of standing out as unusual or divergent in comparison to a more common or regular form.
The Masoretes (Hebrew: Ba'alei ha-Masora) were groups of Jewish scribe-scholars who worked between the 6th and 10th centuries CE, based primarily in early medieval Palestine in the cities of Tiberias and Jerusalem, as well as in Iraq (Babylonia).
The Masoretic Text (MT, 𝕸, or \mathfrak) is the authoritative Hebrew and Aramaic text of the Tanakh for Rabbinic Judaism.
In the spelling of Hebrew and some other Semitic languages, matres lectionis (from Latin "mothers of reading", singular form: mater lectionis, אֵם קְרִיאָה), refers to the use of certain consonants to indicate a vowel.
Medieval Hebrew was a literary and liturgical language that existed between the 4th and 18th century.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Mem (also spelled Meem, Meme, or Mim) is the thirteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Mēm, Hebrew Mēm, Aramaic Mem, Syriac Mīm ܡܡ, and Arabic Mīm.
The Mesha Stele, also known as the Moabite Stone, is a stele (inscribed stone) set up around 840 BCE by King Mesha of Moab (a kingdom located in modern Jordan).
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mimation refers to the suffixed (the letter mem in many Semitic abjads) which occurs in some Semitic languages.
Mishnaic Hebrew is one of the few Hebrew dialects found in the Talmud, except for direct quotations from the Hebrew Bible.
Mizrahi Jews, Mizrahim (מִזְרָחִים), also referred to as Edot HaMizrach ("Communities of the East"; Mizrahi Hebrew), ("Sons of the East"), or Oriental Jews, are descendants of local Jewish communities in the Middle East from biblical times into the modern era.
Moabite is an extinct Canaanite language formerly spoken in Moab (modern day central-western Jordan) in the early 1st millennium BC.
The Modern South Arabian languages (Eastern South Semitic or Eastern South Arabian) are spoken mainly by small populations inhabiting the Arabian Peninsula, in Yemen and Oman.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Moses ben Nahman (מֹשֶׁה בֶּן־נָחְמָן Mōšeh ben-Nāḥmān, "Moses son of Nahman"; 1194–1270), commonly known as Nachmanides (Ναχμανίδης Nakhmanídēs), and also referred to by the acronym Ramban and by the contemporary nickname Bonastruc ça Porta (literally "Mazel Tov near the Gate", see wikt:ca:astruc), was a leading medieval Jewish scholar, Sephardic rabbi, philosopher, physician, kabbalist, and biblical commentator.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
__notoc__ Nashim (נשים "Women" or "Wives") is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud) containing family law.
Nevi'im (נְבִיאִים Nəḇî'îm, lit. "spokespersons", "Prophets") is the second main division of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh), between the Torah (instruction) and Ketuvim (writings).
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
Nonconcatenative morphology, also called discontinuous morphology and introflection, is a form of word formation in which the root is modified and which does not involve stringing morphemes together sequentially.
Northwest Semitic is a division of the Semitic language family comprising the indigenous languages of the Levant.
Nun is the fourteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Nūn, Hebrew Nun, Aramaic Nun, Syriac Nūn ܢܢ, and Arabic Nūn (in abjadi order).
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
Old Aramaic (code: oar) refers to the earliest stage of the Aramaic language, considered to give way to Middle Aramaic by the 3rd century (a conventional date is the rise of the Sasanian Empire in 224 CE).
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Origen of Alexandria (184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was a Hellenistic scholar, ascetic, and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.
An ostracon (Greek: ὄστρακον ostrakon, plural ὄστρακα ostraka) is a piece of pottery, usually broken off from a vase or other earthenware vessel.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet (Hebrew), also spelt Palaeo-Hebrew alphabet, is a variant of the Phoenician alphabet.
The Palestinian vocalization, Palestinian pointing, Palestinian niqqud or Eretz Israeli vocalization (Hebrew: Niqqud Eretz Israel) is an extinct system of diacritics (niqqud) devised by the Masoretes of Jerusalem to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to indicate vowel quality, reflecting the Hebrew of Jerusalem.
In traditional grammar, a part of speech (abbreviated form: PoS or POS) is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) which have similar grammatical properties.
A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
Paternoster Press is a British Christian publishing house which was founded by B. Howard Mudditt (1906-1992) in 1936.
In linguistics, pausa (Latin for "break", from Greek "παῦσις" pausis "stopping, ceasing") is the hiatus between prosodic units.
Pe is the seventeenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Pē, Hebrew Pē פ, Aramaic Pē, Syriac Pē ܦ, and Arabic ف (in abjadi order).
Pesachim (פסחים), often spelt Pesaḥim in academic writings, is the third tractate of Seder Moed ("Order of Festivals") of the Mishnah and of the Talmud.
A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx.
Pharyngealization is a secondary articulation of consonants or vowels by which the pharynx or epiglottis is constricted during the articulation of the sound.
Philippi's law refers to a sound rule in Biblical Hebrew first identified by F.W.M. Philippi in 1878, but has since been refined by Thomas O. Lambdin.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan" in Phoenician, Hebrew, Old Arabic, and Aramaic, "Phoenicia" in Greek and Latin, and "Pūt" in the Egyptian language.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
A piyyut or piyut (plural piyyutim or piyutim, פִּיּוּטִים / פיוטים, פִּיּוּט / פיוט; from Greek ποιητής poiētḗs "poet") is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services.
Possession, in the context of linguistics, is an asymmetric relationship between two constituents, the referent of one of which (the possessor) in some sense possesses (owns, has as a part, rules over, etc.) the referent of the other (the possessed).
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
The Priestly Blessing or priestly benediction, (ברכת כהנים; translit. birkat kohanim), also known in rabbinic literature as raising of the hands (Hebrew nesiat kapayim), or Dukhanen (Yiddish from the Hebrew word dukhan – platform – because the blessing is given from a raised rostrum), is a Hebrew prayer recited by Kohanim - the Hebrew Priests.
Proto-Canaanite is the name given to.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Proto-Semitic is a hypothetical reconstructed language ancestral to the historical Semitic languages.
Psalm 18 is the 18th psalm of the Book of Psalms.
The pun, also called paronomasia, is a form of word play that exploits multiple meanings of a term, or of similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect.
Qoph or Qop (Phoenician Qōp) is the nineteenth letter of the Semitic abjads.
Rachel (meaning ewe) was a Biblical figure best known for her infertility.
Resh is the twentieth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Rēsh, Hebrew Rēsh, Aramaic Rēsh, Syriac Rēsh ܪ, and Arabic.
Rabbi Sa'adiah ben Yosef Gaon (سعيد بن يوسف الفيومي / Saʻīd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi, Sa'id ibn Yusuf al-Dilasi, Saadia ben Yosef aluf, Sa'id ben Yusuf ra's al-Kull; רבי סעדיה בן יוסף אלפיומי גאון' or in short:; alternative English Names: Rabeinu Sa'adiah Gaon ("our Rabbi Saadia Gaon"), RaSaG, Saadia b. Joseph, Saadia ben Joseph or Saadia ben Joseph of Faym or Saadia ben Joseph Al-Fayyumi; 882/892 – 942) was a prominent rabbi, Jewish philosopher, and exegete of the Geonic period who was active in the Abbasid Caliphate.
A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily life.
Samaria (שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard, Tiberian Šōmərôn; السامرة, – also known as, "Nablus Mountains") is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of ancient Land of Israel, also known as Palestine, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south.
The Samaritan alphabet is used by the Samaritans for religious writings, including the Samaritan Pentateuch, writings in Samaritan Hebrew, and for commentaries and translations in Samaritan Aramaic and occasionally Arabic.
Samaritan Hebrew is a reading tradition used liturgically by the Samaritans for reading the Ancient Hebrew language of the Samaritan Pentateuch, in contrast to Biblical Hebrew (the language of the Masoretic Jewish Pentateuch).
The Samaritan Pentateuch, also known as the Samaritan Torah (תורה שומרונית torah shomronit), is a text of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible, written in the Samaritan alphabet and used as scripture by the Samaritans.
The Samaritans (Samaritan Hebrew: ࠔࠠࠌࠝࠓࠩࠉࠌ,, "Guardians/Keepers/Watchers (of the Torah)") are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant originating from the Israelites (or Hebrews) of the Ancient Near East.
Samekh or Simketh is the fifteenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Samek, Hebrew ˈSamekh, Aramaic Semkath, Syriac Semkaṯ ܣ, representing.
Samson (Shimshon, "man of the sun") was the last of the judges of the ancient Israelites mentioned in the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible (chapters 13 to 16) and one of the last of the leaders who "judged" Israel before the institution of the monarchy.
The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.
The Second Temple period in Jewish history lasted between 530 BCE and 70 CE, when the Second Temple of Jerusalem existed.
The Secunda is the second column of Origen's Hexapla, a compilation of the Hebrew Bible and Greek versions.
Segolates are words in the Hebrew language whose end is of the form CVCVC, where the penultimate vowel receives syllable stress.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals" (hence the term consonantal root).
Sephardi Hebrew (or Sepharadi Hebrew) is the pronunciation system for Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
In archaeology, a sherd, or more precisely, potsherd, is commonly a historic or prehistoric fragment of pottery, although the term is occasionally used to refer to fragments of stone and glass vessels, as well.
A shibboleth is any custom or tradition, particularly a speech pattern, that distinguishes one group of people (an ingroup) from others (outgroups).
Shin (also spelled Šin or Sheen) is the name of the twenty-first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Shin, Hebrew Shin, Aramaic Shin, Syriac Shin ܫ, and Arabic Shin (in abjadi order, 13th in modern order).
The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 CE was the decisive event of the First Jewish–Roman War.
The Siloam inscription or Shiloah inscription (כתובת השילוח) or Silwan inscription is a passage of inscribed text found in the Siloam tunnel which brings water from the Gihon Spring to the Pool of Siloam, located in the City of David in East Jerusalem neighborhood of Shiloah or Silwan.
According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ: Beit HaMikdash) in ancient Jerusalem before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE and its subsequent replacement with the Second Temple in the 6th century BCE.
The Song of Moses is the name sometimes given to the poem which appears in Deuteronomy of the Hebrew Bible, which according to the Bible was delivered just prior to Moses' death on Mount Nebo.
Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary (SEBTS) is a seminary of the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC), created to meet a need in the SBC's East Coast region.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, a surface filter is type of sound change that operates not at a particular point in time but over a longer period.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Taw, tav, or taf is the twenty-second and last letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Tāw, Hebrew Tav, Aramaic Taw, Syriac Taw ܬ, and Arabic Tāʼ ت (in abjadi order, 3rd in modern order).
Teth, also written as or Tet, is the ninth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Ṭēt, Hebrew Ṭēt, Aramaic Ṭēth, Syriac Ṭēṯ ܛ, and Arabic ط. It is 16th in modern Arabic order.
The tetragrammaton (from Greek Τετραγράμματον, meaning " four letters"), in Hebrew and YHWH in Latin script, is the four-letter biblical name of the God of Israel.
The Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian pointing, or Tiberian niqqud (Hebrew: Nikkud Tveriyani) is a system of diacritics (niqqud) devised by the Masoretes of Tiberias to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to produce the Masoretic Text.
Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of language in written form.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Ṣade (also spelled Ṣādē, Tsade, Ṣaddi,, Tzadi, Sadhe, Tzaddik) is the eighteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Çādē, Hebrew Ṣādi, Aramaic Ṣāḏē, Syriac Ṣāḏē ܨ, Ge'ez Ṣädäy ጸ, and Arabic.
Ugaritic is an extinct Northwest Semitic language discovered by French archaeologists in 1929.
The University of Alberta (also known as U of A and UAlberta) is a public research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
In linguistic typology, a verb–subject–object (VSO) language is one in which the most typical sentences arrange their elements in that order, as in Ate Sam oranges (Sam ate oranges).
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Waw/Vav ("hook") is the sixth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician wāw, Aramaic waw, Hebrew vav, Syriac waw ܘ and Arabic wāw و (sixth in abjadi order; 27th in modern Arabic order).
The waw-consecutive or vav-consecutive is a grammatical construction in Classical Hebrew.
Yemenite Hebrew (Ivrit Temanit), also referred to as Temani Hebrew, is the pronunciation system for Hebrew traditionally used by Yemenite Jews.
Yodh (also spelled yud, yod, jod, or jodh) is the tenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Yōd, Hebrew Yōd, Aramaic Yodh, Syriac Yōḏ ܚ, and Arabic ي (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order).
Zayin (also spelled zain or zayn or simply zay) is the seventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Zayin, Hebrew 'Zayin, Yiddish Zoyen, Aramaic Zain, Syriac Zayn ܙ, and Arabic Zayn or Zāy ز. It represents the sound.
The 2nd millennium BC spanned the years 2000 through 1001 BC.
Archaic Biblical Hebrew, Archaic biblical Hebrew, Biblibal hebrew Grammar, Biblical Hebrew Language, Biblical Hebrew Phonology, Biblical Hebrew grammar, Biblical Hebrew language, Biblical Hebrew phonology, Classical Hebrew, Classical Hebrew language, Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Late Biblical Hebrew, Old Hebrew, Old Hebrew language, Old Testament Hebrew, Old Testament Hebrew language, Phonology of Biblical Hebrew, Standard Biblical Hebrew.