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Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).
The administrative units of Pakistan (انتظامی اکائیاں) consist of five provinces (Balochistan, Gilgit-Baltistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh), one autonomous territory (Azad Jammu and Kashmir) and one federal territory (Islamabad Capital Territory).
Advice, in constitutional law, is formal, usually binding, instruction given by one constitutional officer of state to another.
Al-Wefaq National Islamic Society (جمعية الوفاق الوطني الإسلامية; transliterated: Jam'īyat al-Wifāq al-Waṭanī al-Islāmīyah), or Al-Wefaq for short, is a Bahraini political party.
Alberto Kenya Fujimori Fujimori (born 26 July 1938 or 4 August 1938) is a Peruvian former politician who served as the President of Peru from 28 July 1990 to 22 November 2000.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
The Andra kammaren (lit. Second Chamber), was the lower house of the bicameral Riksdag of Sweden between 1866 and 1970 that replaced the Riksdag of the Estates.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of the Argentine National Congress.
The Argentine Senate (Honorable Senado de la Nación Argentina; lit. "Honourable Senate of the Argentine Nation") is the upper house of the National Congress of Argentina.
The Assembly of the Union (ပြည်ထောင်စု လွှတ်တော် Pyidaungsu Hluttaw) is the national-level bicameral legislature of Myanmar (officially known as the Republic of the Union of Myanmar) established by the 2008 National Constitution.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian Capital Territory (ACT; known as the Federal Capital Territory until 1938) is Australia's federal district, located in the south-east of the country and enclaved within the state of New South Wales.
The Australian House of Representatives is one of the two Houses (chambers) of the Parliament of Australia.
The Australian Labor Party (ALP, also Labor, was Labour before 1912) is a political party in Australia.
The Australian Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Austrian Parliament (Österreichisches Parlament) is the bicameral legislature of Austria.
In Spain, an autonomous community (comunidad autónoma, autonomia erkidegoa, comunitat autònoma, comunidade autónoma, comunautat autonòma) is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
The Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek; République Batave) was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
The Bavarian Senate (German Bayerischer Senat) was the corporative upper chamber of Bavaria's parliamentary system from 1946 to 1999, when it was abolished by a popular vote (referendum) changing the constitution of this State of the German federation.
The Belgian Federal Parliament is the bicameral parliament of Belgium.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature.
The Bishop of Durham is the Anglican bishop responsible for the Diocese of Durham in the Province of York.
The Bishop of London is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury.
The Bishop of Winchester is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Winchester in the Church of England.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (Freie Hansestadt Bremen) is the smallest and least populous of Germany's 16 states.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
Buenos Aires (Provincia de Buenos Aires; English: "good airs") is the largest and most populous Argentinian province.
The German Bundesrat (literally "Federal Council") is a legislative body that represents the sixteen Länder (federated states) of Germany at the national level.
The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canadian Senate divisions refers to two aspects of the Senate of Canada.
Catamarca is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country.
Córdoba is a province of Argentina, located in the center of the country.
The chamber of deputies is the legislative body such as the lower house of a bicameral legislature, or also a unicameral legislature.
The Chamber of Deputies (Câmara dos Deputados) is a federal legislative body and the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil.
The Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de los Diputados) is the lower house of the Parliament of Equatorial Guinea.
The Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Députés; Chanm Depite) is the lower house of Haiti's bicameral legislature, the National Assembly.
The Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei deputati) is a house of the bicameral Parliament of Italy (the other being the Senate of the Republic).
The Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, the bicameral legislature of Mexico.
The Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputaților) is the lower house in Romania's bicameral parliament.
The Honourable Chamber of Deputies of the Republic of Chile (Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of Chile's bicameral Congress.
The Chamber of Deputies (Poslanecká sněmovna) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of the Czech Republic.
The Chamber of Peers of Portugal, alternatively translatable as the House of Lords and formally styled the Chamber of the Most Worthy Peers of the Kingdom (Portuguese: Câmara dos Pares or Câmara dos Digníssimos Pares do Reino) was the upper house of the Cortes Gerais, the legislature of the Kingdom of Portugal during most of the constitutional monarchy period.
The Chamber of Representatives (Dutch:, Chambre des représentants, Abgeordnetenkammer) is one of the two chambers in the bicameral Federal Parliament of Belgium, the other being the Senate.
The Chamber of Representatives (Cámara de Representantes) is the lower house of the General Assembly of Uruguay (Asamblea General).
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The clerk, chief clerk, or secretary of a legislative chamber is the senior administrative officer responsible for ensuring that its business runs smoothly.
The Coalition (or Liberal–National Coalition) is an alliance of centre-right political parties that forms one of the two major groupings in Australian federal politics.
A committee (or "commission") is a body of one or more persons that is subordinate to a deliberative assembly.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Belgium is a federal state comprising three communities, three regions, and four language areas.
A concurrent majority, in US history, was a constitutional rule proposed to enable minorities to block the actions of majorities.
The Congress of the Republic of Colombia (Congreso de la República de Colombia) is the name given to Colombia's bicameral national legislature.
The Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados; Diputatuen Kongresua; Congrés dels Diputats; Congreso dos Deputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spain's legislative branch.
The Congress of the Philippines (Kongreso ng Pilipinas), is the national legislature of the Philippines.
The Congress of the Republic of Peru (Congreso de la República) is the unicameral body that assumes legislative power in Peru.
The Congress of the Union (Congreso de la Unión), formally known as the General Congress of the United Mexican States (Congreso General de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of Mexico consisting of two chambers: the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies.
The Connecticut Compromise (also known as the Great Compromise of 1787 or Sherman Compromise) was an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution.
The Constitutional Act of the Kingdom of Denmark (Danmarks Riges Grundlov), or simply the Constitution (Grundloven), is the constitution of the Kingdom of Denmark, applying equally in Denmark proper, Greenland and the Faroe Islands.
The Constitution of Peru is the supreme law of Peru.
The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Конституция Российской Федерации, Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii) was adopted by national referendum on.
The Constitution of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Anayasası), also known as the Constitution of 1982, is Turkey's fundamental law.
The Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is the current and twenty-sixth constitution of Venezuela.
The Consultative Assembly (مجلس الشورى; transcription: Majlis al-Shura) is the lower house of the Council of Oman.
The Consultative Council (Majlis al-shura) is the name given to the upper house of the National Assembly, the main legislative body of Bahrain.
Corrientes (‘currents’ or ‘streams’; Taragui Tetãmini) is a province in northeast Argentina, in the Mesopotamia region.
The Cortes Generales (General Courts) are the bicameral legislature of the Kingdom of Spain, consisting of two chambers: the Congress of Deputies (the lower house) and the Senate (the upper house).
The Council of Oman is a bicameral parliament, made up of the members of the State Council and the Consultation Council, as stipulated in Article 58 of the Basic Law of the State.
The Council of Representatives (Majlis an-nuwab), sometimes translated as the "Chamber of Deputies", is the name given to the lower house of the Bahraini National Assembly, the main legislative body of Bahrain.
The Council of State (Majlis al-Dawla) is the upper house of the Council of Oman.
The Council of States (Ständerat, Conseil des États, Consiglio degli Stati, Cussegl dals Stadis) is the smaller chamber of the Federal Assembly of Switzerland, and is considered the Assembly's upper house, with the National Council being the lower house.
The Council of the District of Columbia is the legislative branch of the local government of the District of Columbia.
The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.
The Council of the Nation (majlis al'umm) is the upper house of the Algerian Parliament.
The Council of the Republic (Савет Рэспублікі, Savyet Respubliki; Совет Республики, Sovet Respubliki) is the upper house in Belarus' bicameral parliament, the National Assembly.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
A crossbencher is an independent or minor party member of some legislatures, such as the British House of Lords and the Parliament of Australia.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
A constitutional and electoral age referendum was held in Denmark on 28 May 1953.
Dáil Éireann (lit. Assembly of Ireland) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann (the upper house).
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure to make decisions.
The Dewan Negara (Malay for Senate, literally State Hall) is the upper house of the Parliament of Malaysia, consisting of 70 senators of whom 26 are elected by the state legislative assemblies, with two senators for each state, while the other 44 are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King), including four who are appointed to represent the federal territories.
The Dewan Rakyat (Malay for House of Representatives, literally People's Hall) is the lower house of the Parliament of Malaysia, consisting of members elected during elections from federal constituencies drawn by the Election Commission.
In politics, a diet is a formal deliberative assembly.
In Australia, electoral districts for the Australian House of Representatives are called divisions or more commonly referred to as electorates or seats.
The Duke of Norfolk is the premier duke in the peerage of England, and also, as Earl of Arundel, the premier earl.
Earl Marshal (alternatively Marschal, Marischal or Marshall) is a hereditary royal officeholder and chivalric title under the sovereign of the United Kingdom used in England (then, following the Act of Union 1800, in the United Kingdom).
The Election Committee is a Hong Kong electoral college, the function of which is to select the Chief Executive (CE).
An electoral college is a set of electors who are selected to elect a candidate to a particular office.
Entre Ríos (Between Rivers) is a central province of Argentina, located in the Mesopotamia region.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
The Första kammaren (lit. First Chamber, often abbreviated 'FK'), was the upper house of the bicameral Riksdag of Sweden between 1866 and 1970 that replaced the Riksdag of the Estates.
The Federal Assembly (p) is the national legislature of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of Russian Federation (1993).
The Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung, Assemblée fédérale, Assemblea federale, Assamblea federala) is Switzerland's federal legislature.
The Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht; abbreviated: BVerfG) is the supreme constitutional court for the Federal Republic of Germany, established by the constitution or Basic Law of Germany.
The Federal Council (German: Bundesrat is the second chamber of the Austrian Parliament, representing the nine States of Austria (Bundesländer) on federal level. As part of a bicameral legislature alongside of the National Council (Nationalrat), it can be compared with an upper house or a senate. In fact, however, it is far less powerful than the National Council: although it has to approve every new law decided for by this "lower" chamber, the latter can—in most cases—overrule the Federal Council's refusal to approve. The Bundesrat has its seat at the Austrian Parliament Building in Vienna, in a conclave of the former Herrenhaus chamber of the Imperial Council (Reichsrat). During a major renovation of the Parliament Building the Federal Council meets in the Hofburg.
The Federal Parliament of Nepal (संघीय संसद नेपाल, saṅghīya sansada Nēpāl) is the federal and supreme legislative body of Nepal.
The Parliament of Ethiopia consists of two chambers.
The Federal Senate (Senado Federal) is the upper house of the National Congress of Brazil.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
The Federation Council (Сове́т Федера́ции; Sovet Federatsii, common abbreviation: Совфед (Sovfed) or Senate) is the upper house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (the parliament of the Russian Federation), according to the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation.
The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (abbreviated FB&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina (FBiH) / Федерација Боснa и Херцеговина (ФБиХ), Croatian: Federacija Bosna i Hercegovina (FBiH)) is one of the two political entities that compose Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being Republika Srpska.
The First Republic of Korea was South Korea's first independent government, ruling the country from 1948 to 1960.
The Folketing (Folketinget,; lit. the people's thing), also known as the Danish Parliament in English, is the unicameral national parliament (legislature) of the Kingdom of Denmark.
The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The French Parliament (Parlement français) is the bicameral legislature of the French Republic, consisting of the Senate (Sénat) and the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale).
In the political systems of Hong Kong, a functional constituency is a professional or special interest group involved in the electoral process.
The General Assembly of Uruguay (Asamblea General) has two chambers.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, commonly the Hong Kong Government or simplified as GovHK, refers to the executive authorities of the Hong Kong SAR.
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.
The Governor General of Canada (Gouverneure générale du Canada) is the federal viceregal representative of the.
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or Parliament (Meclis or Parlamento), is the unicameral Turkish legislature.
The first constitution of the Kingdom of Greece was the Greek Constitution of 1844.
The Second National Assembly of the Hellenes took place in Athens (1863 - 1864) and dealt both with the election of a new sovereign as well as with the drafting of a new Constitution, thereby implementing the transition from constitutional monarchy to a crowned republic.
The Greek Senate (Γερουσία, Gerousia) was the upper chamber of the parliament in Greece, extant several times in the country's history.
The Haitian Parliament (Parlement Haïtien, Palman Ayisyen) is the bicameral legislature of the Republic of Haiti, consisting of the upper house as the Senate (Sénat) and the lower house as the Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Députés).
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
The Hellenic Parliament (Βουλή των Ελλήνων, "Parliament of the Hellenes", transliterated Voulí ton Ellínon) is the parliament of Greece, located in the Old Royal Palace, overlooking Syntagma Square in Athens.
The Hereditary peers form part of the peerage in the United Kingdom.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The House of Assembly of Zimbabwe is the lower chamber of Zimbabwe's bicameral Parliament.
The House of Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Barbados.
The Parliament of Saint Lucia has two chambers.
The House of Commons is the elected lower house of the bicameral parliaments of the United Kingdom and Canada and historically was the name of the lower houses of the Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Southern Ireland, North Carolina and South Korea.
The House of Commons (Korean hangul: 민의원, hanja: 民議院) was the lower house of the National Assembly of the Republic of Korea during its Second Republic.
The House of Commons of Canada (Chambre des communes du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The is the upper house of the National Diet of Japan.
Palau has a bicameral legislature, the Palau National Congress (Olbiil era Kelulau), consisting of the House of Delegates and the Senate of Palau.
The House of Elders or Mesherano Jirga (مشرانو جرگه), is the upper house of the bicameral National Assembly of Afghanistan, alongside the lower House of the People (Wolesi Jirga).
The House of Federation (Amharic language የፌዴሬሽን ምክር ቤት Yefedereshn Mekir Bet) is the upper house of the bicameral Federal Parliamentary Assembly, the parliament of Ethiopia.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Lords Act 1999 (c. 34) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that was given Royal Assent on 11 November 1999.
The House of Nationalities (အမျိုးသားလွှတ်တော်, Amyotha Hluttaw) is the upper house of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the bicameral legislature of Myanmar (Burma).
The was the upper house of the Imperial Diet as mandated under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan (in effect from 11 February 1889 to 3 May 1947).
The House of Peoples' Representatives (ተጋሩ የሕዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት, yehizbtewekayoch mekir bet) is the lower chamber of the Ethiopian Federal Parliamentary Assembly, the House of Federation being the upper chamber.
The House of Representatives of Antigua and Barbuda is the lower chamber of the country's bicameral parliament.
The House of Representatives of Belize is one of two chambers of the National Assembly, the other being the Senate.
The House of Representatives (Spanish: Cámara de Representantes) is the lower house of the Congress of Colombia.
The is the lower house of the National Diet of Japan.
The House of Representatives (ပြည်သူ့ လွှတ်တော်, Pyithu Hluttaw) is the lower house of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the bicameral legislature of Myanmar (Burma).
The House of Representatives (प्रतिनिधि सभा; Pratinidi Sabha) is the lower house of the bicameral Federal parliament of Nepal, with the Upper house being the National Assembly. Members of the House of Representatives are elected through a parallel voting system. They hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers. The house meets in the International Convention Centre in Kathmandu. The House has 275 members; 165 elected from single-member constituencies by first-past-the-post voting and 110 elected through proportional electoral system where voters vote for political parties, considering the whole country as a single election constituency. The House of Representatives, unless dissolved, continues to operate for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, in a state of emergency, the term of the House of Representatives may be extended, not exceeding one year in accordance with federal law. The current House of Representatives was elected in 2017 and its first meeting was held on 4 March 2018.
The House of Representatives (pronounced; commonly referred to as the, literally Second Chamber) is the lower house of the bicameral parliament of the Netherlands, the States General, the other one being the Senate.
The House of Representatives is the lower house of Nigeria's bicameral National Assembly.
The House of Representatives is the elected lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago.
Under the 1996 Constitution, the House of Representatives (Palata Pradstawnikow,, Palata Predstaviteley) is the lower house of the parliament of Belarus.
The House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the bicameral legislative branch of Liberia, and together with the Senate comprises the Legislature of Liberia.
The House of Representatives of the Philippines (Kapulungan ng mga Kinatawan ng Pilipinas), is the lower house of the Congress of the Philippines.
The House of the People or Wolesi Jirga (مجلس نمایندگان افغانستان, د افغانستان ولسي جرگه) abbreviated WJ, is the lower house of the bicameral National Assembly of Afghanistan, alongside the upper House of Elders.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Instant-runoff voting (IRV) is a voting method used in single-seat elections with more than two candidates.
The Islamic religious police (مطوع muṭawwiʿ, plural مطوعون muṭawwiʿūn – derived from classical Arabic: mutaṭawwiʿa/muṭṭawwiʿa) is the official vice squad of some Islamic states, who on behalf of the state, enforces Sharia law in respect to religious behavior (morality), or the precepts of Wahhabism.
The Italian Parliament (Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of the Italian Republic.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
A constitutional referendum was held in Ivory Coast on 30 October 2016.
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
Jesse Ventura (born James George Janos; July 15, 1951) is an American media personality, actor, author, former politician and retired professional wrestler, who served as the 38th Governor of Minnesota from 1999 to 2003.
John Bright (16 November 1811 – 27 March 1889) was a British Radical and Liberal statesman, one of the greatest orators of his generation and a promoter of free trade policies.
A joint committee is a committee made up of members of both chambers of a bicameral legislature.
A joint session or joint convention is, most broadly, when two normally separate decision-making groups meet together, often in a special session or other extraordinary meeting, for a specific purpose.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).
The Landsting was a house of the Rigsdag in Denmark from 1849 until 1953, when the bicameral system was abolished.
The Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico (Asamblea Legislativa de Puerto Rico) is the territorial legislature of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, responsible for the legislative branch of the government of Puerto Rico.
The Legislative Chamber (Qonunchilik palatasi) is the lower chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
The Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (LegCo) is the unicameral parliamentary legislature of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
The Legislature of Liberia is the bicameral legislature of the government of Liberia.
The Liberal Party of Australia is a major centre-right political party in Australia, one of the two major parties in Australian politics, along with the centre-left Australian Labor Party (ALP).
In the United Kingdom, life peers are appointed members of the peerage whose titles cannot be inherited, in contrast to hereditary peers.
The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha.
In the United Kingdom, the Lord Great Chamberlain is the sixth of the Great Officers of State (not to be confused with the Great Offices of State), ranking beneath the Lord Privy Seal and above the Lord High Constable.
Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, commonly known as Law Lords, were judges appointed under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 to the British House of Lords in order to exercise its judicial functions, which included acting as the highest court of appeal for most domestic matters.
The Lords Spiritual of the United Kingdom are the 26 bishops of the established Church of England who serve in the House of Lords along with the Lords Temporal.
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.
The Luxembourg Palace (Palais du Luxembourg) is located at 15 rue de Vaugirard in the 6th arrondissement of Paris.
Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright (born May 15, 1937) is an American politician and diplomat.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Marquess of Cholmondeley is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Mauritanian Parliament (Barlamane/Parlement) was made up, until 2017, of two chambers.
The May 16 military coup d'état was a military coup d'état in South Korea in 1961, organized and carried out by Park Chung-hee and his allies who formed the Military Revolutionary Committee, nominally led by Army Chief of Staff Chang Do-yong after the latter's acquiescence on the day of the coup.
The Mazhilis (Májilis, also transliterated as Majilis; "Assembly" in Kazakh) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Kazakhstan, known as the Parlamenti, in the Government of Kazakhstan.
The Province of Mendoza is a province of Argentina, located in the western central part of the country in the Cuyo region.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
The Municipal Corporations Act 1835 (5 & 6 Wm. IV., c.76), sometimes known as the Municipal Reform Act, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reformed local government in the incorporated boroughs of England and Wales.
The National Assembly (ملی شورا Mili Shura, شورای ملی Shura-i Milli), also known as the Afghan Parliament, is Afghanistan's national legislature.
The National Assembly is the name of both chambers of the Bahraini parliament when sitting in joint session, as laid out in the Constitution of 2002.
The National Assembly is the bicameral legislature of the nation of Belize.
The National Assembly is the elected lower house of Bhutan's new bicameral Parliament which also comprises the Druk Gyalpo (Dragon King) and the National Council.
The National Assembly is the lower chamber of Parliament in Burundi.
The National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) is the lower house of the Parliament of Cameroon.
The National Assembly is the lower house of the Parliament of the Central African Republic.
The National Assembly is the lower house and main legislative political body of the Parliament of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).
The National Assembly is lower house of the Parliament of Ivory Coast since November 2016.
The National Assembly is the lower house of the Parliament of Kenya.
The National Assembly is the lower chamber of Lesotho's bicameral Parliament.
The Parliament has two chambers.
The National Assembly (الجمعية الوطنية; Assemblée Nationale) is the legislative house of Parliament of Mauritania.
The National Assembly (राष्ट्रिय सभा; Rastriya Sabha) is the upper house of the bicameral Federal Parliament of Nepal, the lower house being the House of Representatives.
The National Assembly of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a bicameral legislature established under section 4 of the Nigerian Constitution.
The National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of the Republic of the Congo.
The National Assembly of Republic of Srpska (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian: Народна скупштина Републике Српске/Narodna skupština Republike Srpske), abbreviated as NSRS (НСРС), is the legislative body of the Republika Srpska, one of two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The National Assembly of the Republic of Korea, often shortened to the National Assembly in domestic English-language media, is the 300-member unicameral national legislature of South Korea.
The National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional) is a de jure legislature for Venezuela that was first elected in 2000.
The National Assembly of the Republic of Belarus (Нацыянальны сход Рэспублікі Беларусь, Nacyjanalny schod Respubliki Biełaruś; Национальное собрание Республики Беларусь, Natsionalnoye sobran'ye Respubliki Belarus) is the bicameral parliament that governs Belarus.
The National Assembly (រដ្ឋសភា, Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses (chambers) of the Parliament of Cambodia.
The National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) is the lower house of the Parliament of Gabon.
Qaumi Assembly Pakistan (قومی اسمبلئ پاکستان or National Assembly of Pakistan (ایوانِ زیریں پاکستان) is the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura, which also comprises the President of Pakistan and Aiwan-e Bala (upper house). The Qaumi Assembly and the Aiwan-e Bala both convene at Parliament House in Islamabad. The National Assembly is a democratically elected body consisting of a total of 342 members who are referred to as Members of the National Assembly (MNAs), of which 272 are directly elected members and 70 reserved seats for women and religious minorities. A political party must secure 172 seats to obtain and preserve a majority. Members are elected through the first-past-the-post system under universal adult suffrage, representing electoral districts known as National Assembly constituencies. According to the constitution, the 70 seats reserved for women and religious minorities are allocated to the political parties according to their proportional representation. Each National Assembly is formed for a five-year term, commencing from the date of the first sitting, after which it is automatically dissolved. Currently the National Assembly can not be dissolved by the President of Pakistan, it is dissolved by the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Election for 13th National Assembly was held on 18 February 2008. On March 17, 2013 13th National Assembly was dissolved on completion of its five-year term under Article 52 of the Constitution. Pakistani general election, 2013 (for the 14th National Assembly) was held on May 11, 2013. Members of 14th National Assembly took oath on June 1, 2013. The 14th National Assembly dissolved on 31 May 2018 after completing its 5 year term.
The National Assembly is the lower house of the Parliament of South Africa, located in Cape Town, Western Cape Province.
The Congress of the Argentine Nation (Congreso de la Nación Argentina) is the legislative branch of the government of Argentina.
The National Congress of Brazil (Congresso Nacional do Brasil) is the legislative body of Brazil's federal government.
The National Congress of Chile (Congreso Nacional de Chile) is the legislative branch of the government of the Republic of Chile.
The National Council (Nationalrat) is one of the two houses of the Austrian Parliament and is frequently referred to as the lower house.
The National Council is the upper house of Bhutan's new bicameral Parliament, which also comprises the Druk Gyalpo (Dragon King) and the National Assembly.
The National Council (Nationalrat, Conseil national, Consiglio nazionale, Cussegl naziunal) is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Switzerland, the upper house being the Council of States.
The National Council of Provinces (NCOP) is the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa under the (post-apartheid) constitution which came into full effect in 1997.
The is Japan's bicameral legislature.
The National Party of Australia (also known as The Nationals or simply, The Nats) is an Australian political party.
Nebraska is a state that lies in both the Great Plains and the Midwestern United States.
The Nebraska Legislature (also called the Unicameral) is the supreme legislative body of the state of Nebraska.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
The New South Wales Legislative Assembly is the lower of the two houses of the Parliament of New South Wales, an Australian state.
The New South Wales Legislative Council, or upper house, is one of the two chambers of the parliament of the Australian state of New South Wales.
The New Zealand House of Representatives is a component of the New Zealand Parliament, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor-General).
The Legislative Council of New Zealand existed from 1841 until 1951.
The New Zealand Parliament (Pāremata Aotearoa) is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives.
Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
The Northern Territory (abbreviated as NT) is a federal Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia.
The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Nunavut (Inuktitut syllabics ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada.
The Oireachtas, sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature of Ireland.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
The Painted Chamber was part of the medieval Palace of Westminster.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Palais Bourbon is a government building located in the 7th arrondissement of Paris, on the left bank of the Seine, across from the Place de la Concorde.
Palau has a bicameral legislature, the Palau National Congress (Olbiil era Kelulau), consisting of the House of Delegates and the Senate of Palau, which both sit at the capitol complex in Ngerulmud, Melekeok State.
The Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 are two Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which form part of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
The Parliament of Algeria consists of two chambers.
The Parliament of Antigua and Barbuda consists of.
The Parliament of Australia (officially the Federal Parliament; also known as the Commonwealth Parliament or just Parliament) is the legislative branch of the government of Australia.
The Parliament of Barbados is the national legislature of Barbados.
The Parliament of Bhutan (རྒྱལ་ཡོངས་ཚོགས་ཁང་ gyelyong tshokhang) consists of the King of Bhutan together with a bicameral parliament.
The Parliament of Burundi consists of two chambers.
The Parliament of the Kingdom of Cambodia (សភាតំណាងរាស្ត្រ ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា; Saphea Damnang Reastr ney Preăh Réachéanachâk Kâmpŭchéa, Parlement du Royaume du Cambodge) is the bicameral legislature of the Government of Cambodia, consisting of the Senate and the National Assembly.
The Parliament of Cameroon is the legislature of Cameroon.
The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital.
The Parliament is the national legislature of Equatorial Guinea.
The Parliament of Gabon consists of two chambers.
The Parliament of Grenada is composed of the monarch and two chambers: Senate and the House of Representatives.
The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India.
The Parliament of Ivory Coast is the legislature of Ivory Coast.
The Parliament of Jamaica is the legislative branch of the government of Jamaica.
The Parliament of Jordan (مجلس الأمة) is the bicameral Jordanian national assembly.
The Parliament of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Қазақстан Республикасының Парламенті, Qazaqstan Respuwblïkasınıñ Parlamenti; Парламент Республики Казахстан, Parliament Respubliki Kazakhstan) is the bicameral legislature of Kazakhstan, according to the 1995 Constitution of Kazakhstan. The lower house is the Majilis, with 107 seats, (98 seats are from party lists, 9 - from Assembly of People) which are elected to four year terms. The upper house is the Senate, which has 47 members. As of January 2007, 10% of the parliament's representatives are women and 19% of local and city council officials are women. RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty Its predecessor was the Supreme Soviet.
The Parliament of Kenya is the bicameral legislature of Kenya.
The Parliament of Lesotho consists of two chambers.
The Parliament of Madagascar has two chambers.
The Parliament of Malaysia (Parlimen Malaysia) is the national legislature of Malaysia, based on the Westminster system.
The Parliament of New South Wales, located in Parliament House on Macquarie Street, Sydney, is the main legislative body in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW).
The Parliament of Pakistan (مجلس شوریٰ پاکستان —) is the federal and supreme legislative body of Pakistan.
The parliament of Poland has an upper house, the Senate, and a lower house, the Sejm.
The Parliament of Romania (Parlamentul României) is the national legislature of Romania, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputaților), and the Senate (Senat).
The Parliament of Saint Lucia consists of.
The Parliament of South Africa is South Africa's legislature and under the country's current Constitution is composed of the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces.
The Parliament of South Australia at Parliament House, Adelaide is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of South Australia.
The Parliament of The Bahamas is the bicameral national parliament of Commonwealth of The Bahamas.
The bicameral Parliament is the legislative body of the Central African Republic.
The Parliament of the Czech Republic (Parlament České republiky) or just Parliament (Parlament) is the legislative body of the Czech Republic, seated in Malá Strana, Prague.
The Parliament of the Democratic Republic of the Congo consists of two chambers.
The Parliament of the Republic of Congo consists of two chambers.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
The Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago is the legislative branch of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago.
The Parliament of Zimbabwe consists of two chambers.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat Republik Indonesia, MPR-RI) is the legislative branch in Indonesia's political system.
The People's National Assembly (al-Majlis al-Sha'abi al-Watani), abbreviated APN, is the lower house of the Algerian Parliament.
The People's Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat, DPR), alternatively translatable as the House of Representatives or as the House of People's Representatives, is one of two elected national legislative assemblies in Indonesia.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
A plenary session is a session of a conference which all members of all parties are to attend.
The Plurinational Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa Plurinacional) is the national legislature of Bolivia, placed in La Paz, the country's seat of government.
The political system of the Soviet Union took place in a single-party socialist republic framework which was characterized by the superior role of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), the only party permitted by the Constitution.
In the Medieval Kingdom of Portugal, the Cortes was an assembly of representatives of the estates of the realm - the nobility, clergy and bourgeoisie.
In parliamentary systems and presidential systems of government, primary legislation and secondary legislation, the latter also called delegated legislation or subordinate legislation, are two forms of law, created respectively by the legislative and executive branches of government.
The Prime Minister of Canada (Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus Canada's head of government, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or Governor General of Canada on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
A private member's bill in a parliamentary system of government is a bill (proposed law) introduced into a legislature by a legislator who is not acting on behalf of the executive branch.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
Argentina is subdivided into twenty-three provinces (provincias, singular provincia) and one autonomous city (ciudad autónoma), Buenos Aires, which is the federal capital of the nation (Capital Federal) as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system.
South Africa is divided into nine provinces.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Queensland (abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia.
The Queensland Legislative Council was the upper house of the parliament in the Australian state of Queensland.
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India.
The Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, DPD), alternatively translatable as the House of Regions or as the House of Regional Representatives, is one of two parliamentary chambers in Indonesia.
In the United Kingdom, representative peers were those peers elected by the members of the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of Ireland to sit in the British House of Lords.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Republika Srpska (Република Српскa,; literally "Serb Republic") is one of two constitutional and legal entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In law, resolution is a written motion adopted by a deliberative body.
Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability, the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy.
Rigsdagen was the name of the national legislature of Denmark from 1849 to 1953.
The Riksdag (riksdagen or Sveriges riksdag) is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
A referendum on modifying the size and structure of the Parliament from the current bicameral one with 137 senators and 334 deputies to a unicameral one with a maximum of 300 seats was held in Romania on 22 November 2009, at the same time as the first round of the 2009 presidential election.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Salta is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country.
San Luis is a province of Argentina located near the geographical center of the country (on the 32° South parallel).
The Province of Santa Fe (Provincia de Santa Fe) is a province of Argentina, located in the center-east of the country.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Seanad Éireann (Senate of Ireland) is the government upper house of the Oireachtas (the Irish legislature), which also comprises the President of Ireland and Dáil Éireann (the lower house).
The Second Hellenic Republic (Βʹ Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) is the modern historiographical term for the political regime of Greece between 24 March 1924 and 10 October 1935, which at the time was simply known as the Hellenic Republic.
The Second Republic of South Korea was the government of South Korea for eight months in 1960 and 1961.
The Sejm of the Republic of Poland (Sejm Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) is the lower house of the Polish parliament.
A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or chamber of a bicameral legislature or parliament.
The Senate is the Upper House of Parliament of Antigua and Barbuda.
The Senate (Dutch:, le Sénat, der Senat) is one of the two chambers of the bicameral Federal Parliament of Belgium, the other being the Chamber of Representatives.
The Senate is one of the chambers of the National Assembly of Belize.
The Senate is the upper chamber of Parliament in Burundi.
The Senate is the upper house of the Parliament of Cameroon.
The Senate is the upper house of the Parliament of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Senate is the upper house of the Parliament of Equatorial Guinea.
The Senate (Sénat; pronunciation) is the upper house of the French Parliament, presided over by a president.
The Senate (Sénat) is the upper house of Haiti's bicameral legislature, the National Assembly.
The Senate will be the upper house of the Parliament of Ivory Coast.
The Senate of Lesotho is the upper chamber of Lesotho's bicameral Parliament.
The Senate (Sénat) is the upper chamber of the bicameral Parliament of Madagascar.
The Senate (or simply, literally "First Chamber", or sometimes) is the upper house of the States General, the legislature of the Netherlands.
The Senate (Sénat) is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of the Republic of Congo (Parlement).
The Senate (Korean hangul: 참의원, hanja: 參議院) was the upper house of the National Assembly of the Republic of Korea during its Second Republic.
The Senate is the appointed upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago.
The Senate is the Upper House of the bicameral legislature the Parliament of Barbados.
The Senate (ព្រឹទ្ធសភា, Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of Cambodia.
The Senate of Canada (Sénat du Canada) is the upper house of the Parliament of Canada, along with the House of Commons and the Monarch (represented by the Governor General).
The Senate of the Republic of Chile is the upper house of Chile's bicameral National Congress, as established in the current Constitution of Chile.
The Senate of the Republic of Colombia (Senado de la República de Colombia) is the upper house of the Congress of Colombia, with the lower house being the House of Representatives.
The Senate (Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of Gabon.
The Senate of Kazakhastan (Қазақстан Парламентінің Сенаты, Qazaqstan Parlamentiniñ Senatı) is the upper house of two chambers in Kazakhstan's legislature, known as the Parliament (Parlamenti).
The Senate is the upper house of the Parliament of Kenya.
The Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislative branch of Liberia, and together with the House of Representatives comprises the Legislature of Liberia.
The Parliament (Barlamane/Parlement) was made up of two chambers.
The Senate is the upper house of the Nigeria's bicameral legislature, the National Assembly of Nigeria.
Aiwan-e Bala (ایوانِ بالا) or Senate of Pakistan is the upper legislative chamber of the bicameral legislature of Pakistan, and together with the Qaumi Assembly makes up the Majlis-e-Shoora.
The Senate of Palau is the upper house of the Palau National Congress (Olbiil era Kelulau).
The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Polish parliament, the lower house being the 'Sejm'.
The Senate (Senat) is the upper house in the bicameral Parliament of Romania.
The Senate of Saint Lucia is the upper house of the Parliament of Saint Lucia.
The Senate was the upper house of the Parliament of South Africa between 1910 and its abolition from 1 January 1981, and between 1994 and 1997.
The Senate (Senado) is the upper house of Spain's parliament, the Cortes Generales.
The Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic (Senát Parlamentu České republiky), usually referred to as Senate, is the upper chamber of the Parliament of the Czech Republic.
The Senate of the Philippines (Filipino: Senado ng Pilipinas, also Mataas na Kapulungan ng Pilipinas or "upper chamber") is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress; the House of Representatives is the lower house.
The Senate of the Republic (Senato della Repubblica) or Senate (Senato) is a house of the bicameral Italian Parliament (the other being the Chamber of Deputies).
The Senate of the Republic, (Senado de la República) constitutionally Chamber of Senators of the Honorable Congress of the Union (Cámara de Senadores del H. Congreso de la Unión), is the upper house of Mexico's bicameral Congress.
Senate of the Republic (Cumhuriyet Senatosu) was the upper house of Turkish Parliament between 1961 and 1980.
Palacio Legislativo, meeting place of the Senate The Chamber of Senators (Cámara de Senadores) is the upper house of the General Assembly (Asamblea General) of Uruguay.
The Senate (Senat) is the upper house of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
The Senate was the upper house of Venezuela's legislature under its 1961 constitution.
The Senate of Zimbabwe is the upper chamber of the country's bicameral Parliament.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
The Seventeenth Amendment (Amendment XVII) to the United States Constitution established the popular election of United States Senators by the people of the states.
The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through ranked voting in multi-seat organizations or constituencies (voting districts).
Soviets (singular: soviet; sovét,, literally "council" in English) were political organizations and governmental bodies, primarily associated with the Russian Revolutions and the history of the Soviet Union, and which gave the name to the latter state.
The speaker of a deliberative assembly, especially a legislative body, is its presiding officer, or the chair.
The State Duma (r), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Госду́ма (Gosduma), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Council of the Federation.
Australia (officially known as the Commonwealth of Australia) is a federation of six states, together with ten federal territories.
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.
The States General of the Netherlands (Staten-Generaal) is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Eerste Kamer) and the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer).
Austria is a federal republic made up of nine states, known in German as Länder.
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (Land, plural Länder; informally and very commonly Bundesland, plural Bundesländer).
The Storting (Stortinget, "the great thing" or "the great assembly") is the supreme legislature of Norway, established in 1814 by the Constitution of Norway.
The Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis, Cyrillic Олий Мажлис) is the parliament of Uzbekistan.
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English and Welsh law, Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law.
Sverdlovsk Oblast (Свердло́вская о́бласть, Sverdlovskaya oblast) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia located in the Ural Federal District.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
The Taoiseach (pl. Taoisigh) is the prime minister, chief executive and head of government of Ireland.
Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.
The House of Assembly, or Lower House, is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of Tasmania in Australia.
The Tasmanian Legislative Council is the upper house of the Parliament of Tasmania in Australia.
Telangana is a state in the south of India.
The Maritimes, also called the Maritime provinces (Provinces maritimes) or the Canadian Maritimes, is a region of Eastern Canada consisting of three provinces: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island (PEI).
"The mother of parliaments" is an expression coined by the British politician and reformer John Bright in a speech at Birmingham on 18 January 1865.
The Thirty-second Amendment of the Constitution (Abolition of Seanad Éireann) Bill 2013 was a proposal to amend the Constitution of Ireland to abolish Seanad Éireann, the upper house of the Irish parliament, the Oireachtas.
Tucumán is the most densely populated, and the smallest by land area, of the provinces of Argentina.
The Constitution of 1961, officially titled the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Anayasası), was the fundamental law of Turkey from 1961 to 1982.
Tyranny of the majority (or tyranny of the masses) refers to an inherent weakness of direct democracy and majority rule in which the majority of an electorate can and does place its own interests above, and at the expense of, those in the minority.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
A conference committee is a committee of the United States Congress appointed by the House of Representatives and Senate to resolve disagreements on a particular bill.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
A university constituency is a constituency, used in elections to a legislature, that represents the members of one or more universities rather than residents of a geographical area.
An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature), the other chamber being the lower house.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
The Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) was the lower house of Venezuela's legislative under its 1961 constitution; the Venezuelan Senate was the upper house.
Article 169 of the Constitution of India provides for the establishment of a Vidhan Parishad.
The Vidhan Sabha the Legislative Assembly is the lower house (in states with bicameral) or the sole house (in unicameral states) of the state legislature in the different states of India.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Walter Bagehot (3 February 1826 – 24 March 1877) was a British journalist, businessman, and essayist, who wrote extensively about government, economics, and literature.
Western Canada, also referred to as the Western provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region of Canada that includes the four provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yukon (also commonly called the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories (the other two are the Northwest Territories and Nunavut).
The One Hundred Fourth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives.
The One Hundred Thirteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, from January 3, 2013, to January 3, 2015, during the fifth and sixth years of Barack Obama's presidency.
The 12 September 1980 Turkish coup d'état (12 Eylül Darbesi), headed by Chief of the General Staff General Kenan Evren, was the third coup d'état in the history of the Republic, the previous having been the 1960 coup and the 1971 "Coup by Memorandum".
The 1992 Fujimori auto-coup, also known as the 1992 auto-coup, was a constitutional crisis that occurred in Peru after President Alberto Fujimori dissolved the Congress of Peru as well as the judiciary of Peru and assumed full legislative and judicial powers.
Bi-cameral parliament, Bicamaralism, Bicameral, Bicameral System, Bicameral legislature, Bicameral legislatures, Bicameral parliament, Bicameral system, Equal bicameralism, First Chamber, Free conference, Imperfect bicameralism, Perfect bicameral system, Perfect bicameralism, Second Chamber, The Bicameral Legislature.