288 relations: Acanthaceae, Adenocalymma, Adolf Engler, Aerial root, Aestivation (botany), Alwyn Howard Gentry, Amazon basin, Amphilophium, Amphitecna, Amphitecna macrophylla, Anemopaegma, Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, Anthocyanin, Anthony Huxley, Anthraquinones, Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, APG III system, Argylia, Aril, Astianthus, B chromosome, Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier, Bat, Bee, Berry (botany), Bignonia, Biodiversity, Biological specimen, Bird, Bolivia, Bootstrapping (statistics), Botany, Bract, Brandisia, Bud, Cambium, Campsis, Cancer, Capsule (fruit), Carl Linnaeus, Carl Sigismund Kunth, Carotenoid, Catalpa, Catophractes, Central America, Chemical compound, Chilopsis, Chromosome, Circumscription (taxonomy), Clade, ..., Cladistics, Classic, Clove, Clytostoma, Colombia, Commerce, Common name, Condiment, Conjunctivitis, Connation, Cosmopolitan distribution, Cotton, Crab, Crescentia, Crescentia alata, Crescentia cujete, Crucifixion, Cuspidaria (plant), Cybistax, Cydista, Data, Deciduous, Dehiscence (botany), Deplanchea, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, DNA, Dolichandrone, Domatium, Drug, Dye, Eccremocarpus, Economic botany, Ekmanianthe, Elevation, Endosperm, Entomophily, Ethnobotany, Evolutionary developmental biology, Extract, Family (biology), Fernandoa, Flavones, Flora Malesiana, Flora Neotropica, Flora of Australia (series), Flora of China (series), Flora of North America, Floral symmetry, Floristics, Flower, Flowering plant, Fridericia (plant), Fridericia elegans, Fruit, Gardening, Genus, George Bentham, George Don, Glossary of leaf morphology, Godmania, Guaiacum, Gynoecium, Habitat, Hallucinogen, Handroanthus, Herbaceous plant, History of plant systematics, Honey, Horchata, Horticulture, Identification (biology), Incarvillea, Incertae sedis, Indigenous (ecology), Indigenous peoples, Infertility, Inflorescence, Insect, Iridoid, Jacaranda, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Jean-Paul Bignon, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, Karl Anton Eugen Prantl, Karl Moritz Schumann, Kigelia, Kubitzki system, Lamiales, Lapachol, Leaf, Lentibulariaceae, Liana, List of Caribbean islands, Livestock, Locule, Lumber, Lumberjack, Mansoa (plant), Markhamia, Martinella, Martyniaceae, Mathematical optimization, Mayodendron, Mazaceae, Mexico, Millingtonia, Missouri Botanical Garden, Molecular phylogenetics, Monograph, Monophyly, Monotypic taxon, Montane ecosystems, Morphology (biology), Nectar, Neotropical realm, New World, Nicaragua, Nucleic acid sequence, Onion, Order (biology), Ornamental plant, Orobanchaceae, Oroxylum indicum, Ovary (botany), Ovule, Pajanelia, Pandorea, Paralysis, Paraphyly, Parenchyma, Parmentiera, Paulownia, Paulowniaceae, Pedaliaceae, Peru, Petal, Petiole (botany), Philippines, Phloem, Phrymaceae, Phyllotaxis, Phylogenetic tree, Phylogenetics, Pigment, Pinnation, Pithecoctenium, Plant anatomy, Plant propagation, Plant reproductive morphology, Plant taxonomy, Ploidy, Podranea, Poison, Pollination, Polyphyly, Polytomy, Posterior probability, Pure economic loss, Quercetin, Quinonoid zwitterion, Raceme, Radermachera, Religious symbol, Resampling (statistics), Research, Rhigozum, Rio de Janeiro, Romeroa, Roseodendron, Sample (material), Saponin, Saritaea, Schlegeliaceae, Scientific literature, Seed, Sensu, Sepal, Shrub, Sieve tube element, Silique, Sister group, South Africa, South America, Sowing, Spathodea, Species, Species Plantarum, Spirotecoma, Stamen, Staminode, Stereospermum, Stigma (botany), Stipule, Subshrub, Sympetalae, Symptom, Synapomorphy and apomorphy, Synonym (taxonomy), Tabebuia, Tabebuia heterophylla, Tabebuia rosea, Tanaecium, Tannin, Taxon, Taxonomic rank, Taxonomy (biology), Tecoma, Tecomanthe, Tecomeae, Tecomella, Temperate climate, Tendril, Therapy, Thomandersia, Treatise, Tree, Tribe (biology), Trichome, Tropics, Tynanthus, Type (biology), Ursolic acid, Validly published name, Vascular tissue, Verbascoside, Verbenaceae, Vine, Voucher, Wastebasket taxon, Wenceslas Bojer, Whorl (botany), Wightia, Wood, Woody plant, Xylem, Zeyheria, Zygophyllaceae. Expand index (238 more) » « Shrink index
Acanthaceae is a family (the acanthus family) of dicotyledonous flowering plants containing almost 250 genera and about 2500 species.
Adenocalymma is a genus of plants in the family Bignoniaceae.
Heinrich Gustav Adolf Engler (25 March 1844 – 10 October 1930) was a German botanist.
Aerial roots are roots above the ground.
Aestivation or estivation refers to the positional arrangement of the parts of a flower within a flower bud before it has opened.
Alwyn Howard Gentry (6 January 1945 – 3 August 1993) was an American botanist and plant collector, who made major contributions to the understanding of the vegetation of tropical forests.
The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
Amphilophium is a genus of flowering plants in the Bignoniaceae family, native to South America.
Amphitecna is a genus of plant in family Bignoniaceae.
Amphitecna macrophylla, commonly known as black calabash or chaff-bush, is a species of plant in the Bignoniaceae family.
Anemopaegma is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae.
The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (or APweb) is a well-known website dedicated to research on angiosperm phylogeny and taxonomy.
Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Greek: ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" and κυάνεος/κυανοῦς kyaneos/kyanous "dark blue") are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, or blue.
Anthony Julian Huxley (born 2 December 1920; died 26 December 1992 in Surbiton, Surrey) was a British botanist.
For the parent molecule 9,10-antraquinone, see anthraquinone Anthraquinones (also known as anthraquinonoids) are a class of naturally occurring phenolic compounds based on the 9,10-anthraquinone skeleton.
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (12 April 1748 – 17 September 1836) was a French botanist, notable as the first to publish a natural classification of flowering plants; much of his system remains in use today.
The APG III system of flowering plant classification is the third version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy being developed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG).
Argylia is a genus of flowering plants that is a member of the family Bignoniaceae.
An aril (pronounced), also called an arillus, is a specialized outgrowth from a seed that partly or completely covers the seed.
Astianthus is a monotypic genus of flowering plants in the Bignoniaceae family.
In addition to the normal karyotype, wild populations of many animal, plant, and fungi species contain B chromosomes (also known as supernumerary, accessory, (conditionally-)dispensable, or lineage-specific chromosomes).
Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier (3 April 1797 in Tournai – 9 June 1878) was a Belgian who conducted a parallel career of botanist and Member of Parliament.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
In botany, a berry is a fleshy fruit without a stone produced from a single flower containing one ovary.
Bignonia is a genus of flowering plants in the catalpa family, Bignoniaceae.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
A biological specimen (also called a biospecimen) is a biological laboratory specimen held by a biorepository for research.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
In statistics, bootstrapping is any test or metric that relies on random sampling with replacement.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
In botany, a bract is a modified or specialized leaf, especially one associated with a reproductive structure such as a flower, inflorescence axis or cone scale.
The genus Brandisia is in the family Paulowniaceae in the major group Angiosperms (flowering plants).
In botany, a bud is an undeveloped or embryonic shoot and normally occurs in the axil of a leaf or at the tip of a stem.
A cambium (plural cambia or cambiums), in botany, is a tissue layer that provides partially undifferentiated cells for plant growth.
Campsis (trumpet creeper, trumpet vine) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae, native to woodland in China and North America.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
In botany a capsule is a type of simple, dry, though rarely fleshy dehiscent fruit produced by many species of angiosperms (flowering plants).
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Carl Sigismund Kunth (18 June 1788 – 22 March 1850), also Karl Sigismund Kunth or anglicized as Charles Sigismund Kunth, was a German botanist.
Carotenoids, also called tetraterpenoids, are organic pigments that are produced by plants and algae, as well as several bacteria and fungi.
Catalpa, commonly called catalpa or catawba, is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae, native to warm temperate and subtropical regions of North America, the Caribbean, and East Asia.
Catophractes alexandri, the only species in the genus Catophractes, is a spiny shrub or small tree up to 3m tall, belonging to the family Bignoniaceae and occurring in the hot, low-rainfall regions of Namibia, the Northern Cape, Kalahari Desert, Botswana, western Zimbabwe and Limpopo.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
Chilopsis is a monotypic genus of flowering plants containing the single species Chilopsis linearis.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
In biological taxonomy, circumscription is the definition of a taxon, that is, a group of organisms.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.
A classic is an outstanding example of a particular style; something of lasting worth or with a timeless quality; of the first or highest quality, class, or rank – something that exemplifies its class.
Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum.
Clytostoma was a genus of woody-stemmed vines from tropical America, native to Argentina and the southern part of Brazil.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Commerce relates to "the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale.” Commerce includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that operate in any country or internationally.
In biology, a common name of a taxon or organism (also known as a vernacular name, English name, colloquial name, trivial name, trivial epithet, country name, popular name, or farmer's name) is a name that is based on the normal language of everyday life; this kind of name is often contrasted with the scientific name for the same organism, which is Latinized.
A condiment is a spice, sauce, or preparation that is added to food to impart a particular flavor, to enhance its flavor, or in some cultures, to complement the dish.
Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is inflammation of the outermost layer of the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid.
Connation in plants is the developmental fusion of organs of the same type, for example, petals to one another to form a tubular corolla.
In biogeography, a taxon is said to have a cosmopolitan distribution if its range extends across all or most of the world in appropriate habitats.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.
Crescentia (calabash tree, huingo, krabasi, or kalebas) is a genus of six species of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae, native to southern North America, the Caribbean, Central America northern South America, West Africa and South Africa.
Crescentia alata (variously called Mexican calabash, jícaro, morro, morrito, winged calabash) is a species in the trumpet-flower family Bignoniaceae and in the calabash trees genus Crescentia, native to southern Mexico and Central America south to Costa Rica.
Crescentia cujete, commonly known as the Calabash Tree, is species of flowering plant that is native to Central, South America, West Africa and South Africa.
Crucifixion is a method of capital punishment in which the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden beam and left to hang for several days until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation.
Cuspidaria is a genus of plants in the family Bignoniaceae.
Cybistax is a genus of trees in the Bignoniaceae family.
Cydista is a genus that consists of more than twenty species of lowland, showy, evergreen, ornamental shrubs and woody vines, ranging from central and southern Mexico to Paraguay and eastern Brazil.
Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
Dehiscence is the splitting along a built-in line of weakness in a plant structure in order to release its contents, and is common among fruits, anthers and sporangia.
Deplanchea is a genus of about eight species of tropical rainforest trees, constituting part of the plant family Bignoniaceae.
Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien (1887–1915) by Adolf Engler and Karl Anton Prantl is a complete revision of plant families down to generic level and often even further.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dolichandrone is a genus of flowering plants in the Bignoniaceae family.
A domatium (plural: domatia, from the Latin "domus", meaning home) is a tiny chamber produced by plants that houses arthropods.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
Eccremocarpus (syn. Calampelis D.Don) is a genus of five species of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae, native to western South America in Chile, western Argentina, and Peru.
Economic botany is the study of the relationship between people (individuals and cultures) and plants.
Ekmanianthe is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae.
The elevation of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface (see Geodetic datum § Vertical datum).
The endosperm is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization.
Entomophily or insect pollination is a form of pollination whereby pollen of plants, especially but not only of flowering plants, is distributed by insects.
Ethnobotany is the study of a region's plants and their practical uses through the traditional knowledge of a local culture and people.
Evolutionary developmental biology (informally, evo-devo) is a field of biological research that compares the developmental processes of different organisms to infer the ancestral relationships between them and how developmental processes evolved.
An extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material, often by using a solvent such as ethanol or water.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
Fernandoa is a genus of plant in family Bignoniaceae.
Flora Malesiana is a multi-volume flora describing the vascular plants of Malesia (the biogeographical region consisting of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea), published by the National Herbarium of the Netherlands since 1950.
Flora Neotropica is a series of monographs published by the New York Botanical Garden Press, and is the official publication of the Organization for Flora Neotropica.
The Flora of Australia is a 59 volume series describing the vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens present in Australia and its external territories.
Flora of China is a scientific publication aimed at describing the plants native to China.
The Flora of North America North of Mexico (usually referred to as FNA) is a multivolume work describing the native plants of North America.
Floral symmetry describes whether, and how, a flower, in particular its perianth, can be divided into two or more identical or mirror-image parts.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Fridericia is a genus of plants in the family Bignoniaceae.
Fridericia elegans is a species of plants in the family Bignoniaceae.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
George Bentham (22 September 1800 – 10 September 1884) was an English botanist, described by the weed botanist Duane Isely as "the premier systematic botanist of the nineteenth century".
George Don (29 April 1798 – 25 February 1856) was a Scottish botanist.
The following is a defined list of terms which are used to describe leaf morphology in the description and taxonomy of plants.
Godmania may refer to a genus of five species of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae, native to the new world tropics.
Guaiacum (OED 2nd edition, 1989. in, retrieved 2013-04-30.), sometimes spelled Guajacum, is a genus of flowering plants in the caltrop family Zygophyllaceae.
Gynoecium (from Ancient Greek γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
Handroanthus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae.
Herbaceous plants (in botanical use frequently simply herbs) are plants that have no persistent woody stem above ground.
The history of plant systematics—the biological classification of plants—stretches from the work of ancient Greek to modern evolutionary biologists.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
Horchata, or orxata, is the name of several kinds of beverages, made of ground rice.
Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).
Identification in biology is the process of assigning a pre-existing taxon name to an individual organism.
Incarvillea is a genus of about 16 species Flora of China.
Incertae sedis (Latin for "of uncertain placement") is a term used for a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined.
In biogeography, a species is defined as indigenous to a given region or ecosystem if its presence in that region is the result of only natural process, with no human intervention.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.
An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Iridoids are a type of monoterpenoids in the general form of cyclopentanopyran, found in a wide variety of plants and some animals.
Jacaranda is a genus of 49 species of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae, native to tropical and subtropical regions of Mexico, Central America, South America, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and the Bahamas.
Jacaranda mimosifolia is a sub-tropical tree native to south-central South America that has been widely planted elsewhere because of its beautiful and long-lasting blue flowers.
The Abbé Jean-Paul Bignon, Cong.Orat. (19 September 1662, Paris – 14 March 1743, Île Belle) was a French ecclesiastic, statesman, writer and preacher and librarian to Louis XIV of France.
Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911) was a British botanist and explorer in the 19th century.
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (5 June 1656 – 28 December 1708) was a French botanist, notable as the first to make a clear definition of the concept of genus for plants.
Karl Anton Eugen Prantl (10 September 1849 – 24 February 1893), also known as Carl Anton Eugen Prantl, was a German botanist.
Karl Moritz Schumann (17 June 1851 in Görlitz – 22 March 1904 in Berlin) was a German botanist.
Kigelia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae.
The Kubitzki system is a system of plant taxonomy devised by Klaus Kubitzki, and is the product of an ongoing survey of vascular plants, entitled The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, and extending to 13 volumes in 2015.
The Lamiales are an order in the asterid group of dicotyledonous flowering plants.
Lapachol is a natural phenolic compound isolated from the bark of the lapacho tree.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Lentibulariaceae, the bladderwort family, is a family of carnivorous plants containing three genera: Genlisea, the corkscrew plants; Pinguicula, the butterworts; and Utricularia, the bladderworts.
A liana is any of various long-stemmed, woody vines that are rooted in the soil at ground level and use trees, as well as other means of vertical support, to climb up to the canopy to get access to well-lit areas of the forest.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
A locule (plural locules) or loculus (plural loculi) (meaning "little place" in Latin) is a small cavity or compartment within an organ or part of an organism (animal, plant, or fungus).
Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
Lumberjacks are North American workers in the logging industry who perform the initial harvesting and transport of trees for ultimate processing into forest products.
Mansoa is a genus of tropical, flowering vines in the Trumpet-creeper family.
Markhamia is a genus of flowering plants in the Bignoniaceae family.
Martinella is a genus of air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Streptaxidae.
Martyniaceae is a family of flowering plants in the Lamiales order that are restricted to the New World.
In mathematics, computer science and operations research, mathematical optimization or mathematical programming, alternatively spelled optimisation, is the selection of a best element (with regard to some criterion) from some set of available alternatives.
Mayodendron is a monotypic genus in the flowering plant family Bignoniaceae.
Mazaceae is a family of plants in the order Lamiales.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Millingtonia hortensis, tree jasmine or Indian cork tree, the sole species in the genus Millingtonia, is a tree native to South Asia & South East Asia.
The Missouri Botanical Garden is a botanical garden located at 4344 Shaw Boulevard in St. Louis, Missouri.
Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.
A monograph is a specialist work of writing (in contrast to reference works) on a single subject or an aspect of a subject, often by a single author, and usually on a scholarly subject.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
In biology, a monotypic taxon is a taxonomic group (taxon) that contains only one immediately subordinate taxon.
Montane ecosystems refers to any ecosystem found in mountains.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.
The Neotropical realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
Ornamental plants are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as houseplants, for cut flowers and specimen display.
Orobanchaceae, the broomrapes, is a family of mostly parasitic plants of the order Lamiales, with about 90 genera and more than 2000 species.
Oroxylum indicum is a species of flowering plant belonging to the monotypic genus Oroxylum and the family Bignoniaceae, are commonly called midnight horror, oroxylum, Indian trumpet flower, broken bones, Indian caper, or tree of Damocles.
In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium.
In seed plants, the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells.
Pajanelia is a genus of flowering plants that is a member of the family Bignoniaceae.
Pandorea is a genus of 6 species, of woody climbing vines and creepers in the family Bignoniaceae.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.
Parenchyma is the bulk of a substance.
Parmentiera is a genus of plant in family Bignoniaceae.
Paulownia is a genus of six to 17 species (depending on taxonomic authority) of flowering plants in the family Paulowniaceae, related to and sometimes included in the Scrophulariaceae.
Paulowniaceae is a family of flowering plants.
Pedaliaceae, the pedalium family or sesame family, is a flowering plant family classified in the order Scrophulariales in the Cronquist system and Lamiales in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers.
In botany, the petiole is the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that transports the soluble organic compounds made during photosynthesis and known as photosynthates, in particular the sugar sucrose, to parts of the plant where needed.
Phrymaceae, also known as the lopseed family, is a small family of flowering plants in the order Lamiales.
In botany, phyllotaxis or phyllotaxy is the arrangement of leaves on a plant stem (from Ancient Greek phýllon "leaf" and táxis "arrangement").
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Pinnation (also called pennation) is the arrangement of feather-like or multi-divided features arising from both sides of a common axis.
Pithecoctenium, monkey's-comb, is a Bignoniaceae genus of some 20 species of climbing shrubs occurring in the Caribbean and Tropical South America from Brazil to Mexico.
Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure of plants.
Plant propagation is the process of creating new plants from a variety of sources: seeds, cuttings and other plant parts.
Plant reproductive morphology is the study of the physical form and structure (the morphology) of those parts of plants directly or indirectly concerned with sexual reproduction.
Plant taxonomy is the science that finds, identifies, describes, classifies, and names plants.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
Podranea, is a genus of one or two species of African flowering vines in the Bignoniaceae family.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
A polyphyletic group is a set of organisms, or other evolving elements, that have been grouped together but do not share an immediate common ancestor.
In biology, a polytomy is a section of a phylogeny in which the relationships cannot be fully resolved to dichotomies, thus presenting an unlikely picture of many apparently simultaneous temporally based branches.
In Bayesian statistics, the posterior probability of a random event or an uncertain proposition is the conditional probability that is assigned after the relevant evidence or background is taken into account.
Economic loss is a term of art which refers to financial loss and damage suffered by a person such as can be seen only on a balance sheet rather than as physical injury to the person or destruction of property.
Quercetin, a plant flavonol from the flavonoid group of polyphenols, is found in many fruits, vegetables, leaves, and grains; red onions and kale are common foods containing appreciable content of quercetin.
A quinonoid zwitterion is a special type of zwitterion (or more precisely Mesoionic) based on quinone related chemical compounds.
A raceme is an unbranched, indeterminate type of inflorescence bearing pedicellate flowers (flowers having short floral stalks called pedicels) along its axis.
Radermachera is a genus of about 17 species of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae, native to southeastern Asia.
A religious symbol is an iconic representation intended to represent a specific religion, or a specific concept within a given religion.
In statistics, resampling is any of a variety of methods for doing one of the following.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
Rhigozum is a genus of flowering plants in the Bignoniaceae family.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
Romeroa is a genus of plant in family Bignoniaceae.
Roseodendron is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae.
In general, a sample is a limited quantity of something which is intended to be similar to and represent a larger amount of that thing(s).
Saponins are a class of chemical compounds found in particular abundance in various plant species.
Saritaea is a monotypic genus in the trumpet-vine family, Bignoniaceae.
Schlegeliaceae is a family of plants native to tropical America.
Scientific literature comprises scholarly publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the natural and social sciences, and within an academic field, often abbreviated as the literature.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Sensu is a Latin word meaning "in the sense of".
A sepal is a part of the flower of angiosperms (flowering plants).
A shrub or bush is a small to medium-sized woody plant.
Sieve elements are specialized cells that are important for the function of phloem, which is highly organized tissue that transports organic compounds made during photosynthesis.
A silique or siliqua (plural siliques or siliquae) is a type of fruit (seed capsule) having two fused carpels with the length being more than three times the width.
A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
Sowing is the process of planting.
Spathodea is a monotypic genus in the flowering plant family Bignoniaceae.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Species Plantarum (Latin for "The Species of Plants") is a book by Carl Linnaeus, originally published in 1753, which lists every species of plant known at the time, classified into genera.
Spirotecoma is a genus of plant in family Bignoniaceae.
The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.
In botany, a staminode is an often rudimentary, sterile or abortive stamen, which means that it does not produce pollen.
Stereospermum is a genus of trees in the paleotropical clade of the family Bignoniaceae.
The stigma (plural: stigmata) is the receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower.
In botany, stipule (Latin stipula: straw, stalk) is a term coined by LinnaeusConcise English Dictionary Wordsworth Editions Ltd.
A subshrub (Latin suffrutex) or dwarf shrub is a short woody plant.
Sympetalae Rchb. (1828), meaning “with fused petals”, is a descriptive botanical name used in the Eichler, Engler, and Wettstein systems for a group in the flowering plants.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
In phylogenetics, apomorphy and synapomorphy refer to derived characters of a clade – characters or traits that are derived from ancestral characters over evolutionary history.
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,''ICN'', "Glossary", entry for "synonym" although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.
Tabebuia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae.
Tabebuia heterophylla is a species of Tabebuia native to the Caribbean islands of South America and to the Swan Islands of Honduras, and is also cultivated.
Tabebuia rosea, also called pink poui, and rosy trumpet tree is a neotropical tree that grows up to and can reach a diameter at breast height of up to.
Tanaecium is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae, native to south and Central America.
Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of astringent, polyphenolic biomolecules that bind to and precipitate proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Tecoma is a genus of 14 species of shrubs or small trees in the trumpet vine family, Bignoniaceae.
Tecomanthe is a genus of 5 species of tropical or subtropical forest lianes in the family Bignoniaceae.
Tecomeae is a tribe with 44 genera of trees in the family Bignoniaceae.
Tecomella undulata is a tree species, locally known as rohida found in Thar Desert regions of India and Pakistan.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
In botany, a tendril is a specialized stem, leaves or petiole with a threadlike shape that is used by climbing plants for support, attachment and cellular invasion by parasitic plants, generally by twining around suitable hosts found by touch.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
Thomandersia is the sole genus in the Thomandersiaceae, an African family of flowering plants.
A treatise is a formal and systematic written discourse on some subject, generally longer and treating it in greater depth than an essay, and more concerned with investigating or exposing the principles of the subject.
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.
In biology, a tribe is a taxonomic rank above genus, but below family and subfamily.
Trichomes, from the Greek τρίχωμα (trichōma) meaning "hair", are fine outgrowths or appendages on plants, algae, lichens, and certain protists.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
Tynanthus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Bignoniaceae.
In biology, a type is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached.
Ursolic acid (sometimes referred to as urson, prunol, malol, or 3-beta-3-hydroxy-urs-12-ene-28-oic-acid), is a pentacyclic triterpenoid identified in the epicuticular waxes of apples as early as 1920 and widely found in the peels of fruits, as well as in herbs and spices like rosemary and thyme.
In botanical nomenclature, a validly published name is a name that meets the requirements in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants for valid publication.
Vascular tissue is a complex conducting tissue, formed of more than one cell type, found in vascular plants.
Verbascoside is a caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside in which the phenylpropanoid caffeic acid and the phenylethanoid hydroxytyrosol form an ester and an ether bond respectively, to the rhamnose part of a disaccharide, namely β-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→3)-β-D-(4-O-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside.
The Verbenaceae are a family, commonly known as the verbena family or vervain family, of mainly tropical flowering plants.
A vine (Latin vīnea "grapevine", "vineyard", from vīnum "wine") is any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent (that is, climbing) stems, lianas or runners.
A voucher is a bond of the redeemable transaction type which is worth a certain monetary value and which may be spent only for specific reasons or on specific goods.
Wastebasket taxon (also called a wastebin taxon, dustbin taxon or catch-all taxon) is a term used by some taxonomists to refer to a taxon that has the sole purpose of classifying organisms that do not fit anywhere else.
Wenceslas (Václav, or Wenzel) Bojer (23 September 1795 in Řesanice, Bohemia, now Czech Republic – 4 June 1856 in Port Louis, Mauritius) was a notable naturalist and botanist.
In botany, a whorl or verticil is an arrangement of sepals, petals, leaves, stipules or branches that radiate from a single point and surround or wrap around the stem.
Wightia speciosissima is a species of flowering plant in the family Paulowniaceae, and the only species in the genus Wightia.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
A woody plant is a plant that produces wood as its structural tissue.
Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other.
Zeyheria is a genus of plant in family Bignoniaceae.
Zygophyllaceae is a family, of flowering plants, that contain the bean-caper and caltrop.