90 relations: Acid, Acid dissociation constant, Active transport, Adenocarcinoma, Adenoma, Alan Hofmann, Amphiphile, Anandamide, Bariatric surgery, Bile, Bile acid malabsorption, Bile acid sequestrant, Bile bear, Bilirubin, Brush border, Cancer, Cannabinoid, Carbohydrate metabolism, Chen (genus), Chenodeoxycholic acid, Cholestasis, Cholesterol, Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, Cholic acid, Chyme, Colloid, Colorectal cancer, Concentration, Crohn's disease, CYP27A1, CYP7B1, CYP8B1, Cytochrome P450, Deoxycholic acid, Detergent, Diarrhea, Emulsion, Enterohepatic circulation, Ethanolamide, Farnesoid X receptor, FGF15/19, FGF19, G protein-coupled bile acid receptor, Glycine, Glycochenodeoxycholic acid, Glycocholic acid, Hepatic microvascular dysplasia, Hepatocyte, Hepatology (journal), Hormone, ..., Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, Ileum, Inflammatory bowel disease, Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, Irritable bowel syndrome, Itch, Jaundice, Large intestine, Lipase, Lithocholic acid, Liver, Mesotherapy, Metabolism, Micelle, Mitochondrion, Muricholic acid, N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D, NAPE-PLD, Neoplasm, Obeticholic acid, Oxysterol, Peroxisome, Phospholipid, Portosystemic shunt, Primary biliary cholangitis, Primary sclerosing cholangitis, Rate-determining step, Reactive oxygen species, SeHCAT, Sterane, Steroid, Surfactant, Taurine, Taurochenodeoxycholic acid, Taurocholic acid, Triglyceride, Ursodeoxycholic acid, 7α-Hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, 7α-Hydroxycholesterol. Expand index (40 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.
Adenocarcinoma (plural adenocarcinomas or adenocarcinomata) is a type of cancerous tumor that can occur in several parts of the body.
An adenoma (from Greek αδένας, adeno-, "gland" + -ώμα, -oma, "tumor") (plural adenomas or adenomata) is a benign tumor of epithelial tissue with glandular origin, glandular characteristics, or both.
Alan Frederick Hofmann, (born May 17, 1931) is a gastrointestinal physiologist, biochemist and clinician who is notable for his extensive basic, translational and clinical research on bile acids and lipid digestion.
An amphiphile (from the Greek αμφις, amphis: both and φιλíα, philia: love, friendship) is a chemical compound possessing both hydrophilic (water-loving, polar) and lipophilic (fat-loving) properties.
Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) an essential ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid.
Bariatric surgery (weight loss surgery) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who have obesity.
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.
Bile acid malabsorption, known also as bile acid diarrhea, is a cause of several gut-related problems, the main one being chronic diarrhea.
The bile acid sequestrants are a group of resins used to bind certain components of bile in the gastrointestinal tract.
Bile bears, sometimes called battery bears, are bears kept in captivity to harvest their bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder, which is used by some traditional Chinese medicine practitioners.
Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates.
A brush border (striated border or brush border membrane) is the microvilli-covered surface of simple cuboidal epithelium and simple columnar epithelium cells found in certain locations of the body.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown, and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms.
The white geese are a small group of waterfowl which are united in the genus or subgenus Chen, in the true geese and swan subfamily Anserinae.
Chenodeoxycholic acid (also known as chenodesoxycholic acid, chenocholic acid and 3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid) is a bile acid.
Cholestasis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase also known as cholesterol 7-alpha-monooxygenase or cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP7A1 gene which has an important role in cholesterol metabolism.
Cholic acid, also known as 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid is a primary bile acid that is insoluble in water (soluble in alcohol and acetic acid), it is a white crystalline substance.
Chyme or chymus (from Greek χυμός khymos, "juice") is the semi-fluid mass of partly digested food that is expelled by the stomach, through the pyloric valve, into the duodenum (the beginning of the small intestine).
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
CYP27A1 is a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 oxidase, and is commonly known as sterol 27-hydroxylase.
25-hydroxycholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase also known as oxysterol and steroid 7-alpha-hydroxylase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP7B1 gene.
CYP8B1 (cytochrome P450, family 8, subfamily B, polypeptide 1) also known as sterol 12-alpha-hydroxylase is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CYP8B1 gene.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Deoxycholic acid (conjugate base deoxycholate), also known as cholanoic acid, Kybella, Celluform Plus, Belkyra, and 3α,12α-dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid, is a bile acid.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).
Enterohepatic circulation refers to the circulation of biliary acids, bilirubin, drugs or other substances from the liver to the bile, followed by entry into the small intestine, absorption by the enterocyte and transport back to the liver.
Ethanolamides are chemical compounds which are amides formed from carboxylic acids and ethanolamine.
The bile acid receptor (BAR), also known as farnesoid X receptor (FXR) or NR1H4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4) is a nuclear receptor that is encoded by the NR1H4 gene in humans.
FGF15/19 refers to two orthologous fibroblast growth factors which share 50% aminoacid identity and have similar functions.
Fibroblast growth factor 19 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF19 gene.
The G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1) also known G-protein coupled receptor 19 (GPCR19), membrane-type receptor for bile acids (M-BAR) or TGR5 as is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPBAR1 gene.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
Glycochenodeoxycholic acid is a bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholic acid and glycine, usually found as the sodium salt.
Glycocholic acid, or cholylglycine, is a crystalline bile acid involved in the emulsification of fats.
Hepatic microvascular dysplasia (HMD or MVD) or portal atresia is a disorder where mixing of venous blood and arterial blood in the liver occurs at the microscopic level.
A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver.
Hepatology is a peer-reviewed medical journal of hepatology.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
The ileum is the final section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), also known as obstetric cholestasis, cholestasis of pregnancy, jaundice of pregnancy, and prurigo gravidarum, is a medical condition in which cholestasis occurs during pregnancy.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
A lipase is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats (lipids).
Lithocholic acid, also known as 3α-hydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid or LCA, is a bile acid that acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Mesotherapy (from Greek mesos, "middle", and therapy from Greek therapeia, "to treat medically") is a non-surgical cosmetic medicine treatment.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A micelle or micella (plural micelles or micellae, respectively) is an aggregate (or supramolecular assembly) of surfactant molecules dispersed in a liquid colloid.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Muricholic acids are a group of bile acids found as one of the main forms in mice, which gives them their name, and at low concentrations in other species.
N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the release of N-acylethanolamine (NAE) from N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE).
NAPE-PLD may refer to.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Obeticholic acid (abbreviated to OCA, trade name Ocaliva), is a semi-synthetic bile acid analogue which has the chemical structure 6α-ethyl-chenodeoxycholic acid.
Oxysterols are oxidized derivatives of cholesterol which may be important in many biological processes, including.
A peroxisome is a type of organelle known as a microbody, found in virtually all eukaryotic cells.
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
A portosystemic shunt (PSS), also known as a liver shunt, is a bypass of the liver by the body's circulatory system.
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), previously known as primary biliary cirrhosis, is an autoimmune disease of the liver.
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a long-term progressive disease of the liver and gallbladder characterized by inflammation and scarring of the bile ducts which normally allow bile to drain from the gallbladder.
In chemical kinetics, the overall rate of a reaction is often approximately determined by the slowest step, known as the rate-determining step (RDS) or rate-limiting step.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
SeHCAT (23-seleno-25-homotaurocholic acid, selenium homocholic acid taurine, or tauroselcholic acid) is a drug used in a clinical test to diagnose bile acid malabsorption.
Sterane (cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrenes or cyclopentane perhydro phenanthrene) compounds are a class of 4-cyclic compounds derived from steroids or sterols via diagenetic and catagenetic degradation and saturation.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.
Taurochenodeoxycholic acid is a bile acid formed in the liver of most species, including humans, by conjugation of chenodeoxycholic acid with taurine.
Taurocholic acid, known also as cholaic acid, cholyltaurine, or acidum cholatauricum, is a deliquescent yellowish crystalline bile acid involved in the emulsification of fats.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Ursodeoxycholic acid (INN, BAN and AAN), also known as ursodiol (USAN) and the abbreviation UDCA, from the root-word for bear urso, as bear bile contains the substance, is one of the secondary bile acids, which are metabolic byproducts of intestinal bacteria.
7α-Hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one is an intermediate in the biochemical synthesis of bile acids from cholesterol.
7α-Hydroxycholesterol is a precursor of bile acids, created by cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase.