372 relations: Abiogenesis, Acronym, Afforestation, Africa, Age of the Earth, Agriculture, Air pollution, Allopatric speciation, Alpha diversity, Alpine climate, American Journal of Botany, Amphibian, Animal, Animal husbandry, Aquatic ecosystem, Archaea, Arthropod, Associated Press, Astrobiology (journal), Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future, Atlantic Forest, Atmosphere, Australian Grains Genebank, Autocatalysis, Autocatalytic set, Background extinction rate, Bacteria, Base pair, BBC News, Belgium, Beta diversity, Biocapacity, Biodiversity banking, Biodiversity hotspot, Biodiversity loss, Biofuel, Biogas, Biogenic substance, Biogeography, Biological Diversity Act, 2002, Biomass (ecology), Biome, Bionics, Bioprospecting, BioScience, Biosphere, Biotic material, Bird, BirdLife International, Birdwatching, ..., Birth rate, Bog, Botanical garden, Brazil, Breeding program, Brown hairstreak, Cambrian explosion, Cape Floristic Region, Capital market, Captive breeding, Carbon, Carboniferous, Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, Catalysis, Cengage, CITES, Climate, Coexistence theory, Colombia, Conservation biology, Conservation International, Consortium for the Barcode of Life, Convention on Biological Diversity, Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, Cornell University, Cowpea, Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, Crop rotation, Crop yield, Crust (geology), Current Science, David King (chemist), Defaunation, Deforestation, Deforestation and climate change, Demography, Desert, Digital Automated Identification SYstem (DAISY), Dinosaur, Diurnality, DNA, E. O. Wilson, Earth, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Earth Summit, Ecological collapse, Ecological indicator, Ecological Society of America, Ecoregion, Ecosystem, Ecosystem diversity, Ecosystem services, Ecuador, Elaeis, Emergence, Endangered species, Endangered Species Act of 1973, Endemism, Entomophily, Environmental change, Environmentalism, Environmentally friendly, Eoarchean, Equator, Erosion control, Evolution, Exponential growth, Extinction, Extinction event, Extremophile, Fish, Fishery, Fishing, Fishkeeping, Fitness (biology), Flowering plant, Food security, Forest, Forest Ecology and Management, Forestry, Fossil, Four-dimensional space, Fractal, Fractal dimension, French language, Fresh water, Functional group (ecology), Fungal Biology, Fungus, Gaia hypothesis, Gamma diversity, Gardening, Gene, Gene bank, Gene flow, Gene pool, Genetic diversity, Genetic engineering, Genetic erosion, Genetic pollution, Genetic variability, Genetically modified crops, Genetically modified organism, Genetics, Genome, Genotype, Geographical pole, Geology, Gilbert White, Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Global Ocean Sampling Expedition, Global warming, Graphite, Great Famine (Ireland), Green Revolution, Greenhouse, Habitat, Habitat destruction, Hadean, Half-Earth, Hawaii, Health, Hemileia vastatrix, Herbarium, Hiking, History of Earth, Holocene extinction, Horizontal gene transfer, Human, Human impact on the environment, Human migration, Human overpopulation, Hybrid (biology), Hyperbolic growth, Index of biodiversity articles, Indonesia, Informed consent, Insect, Institut de recherche pour le développement, Integrated pest management, International Day for Biological Diversity, International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Introgression, Invasive species, IUCN Red List, J. Craig Venter Institute, James Lovelock, Japan–Australia Migratory Bird Agreement, Jared Diamond, John Wiley & Sons, Jones & Bartlett Learning, Kitaa, Kudzu, Land use, land-use change, and forestry, Last universal common ancestor, Latin America, Latitude, Latitudinal gradients in species diversity, Life, List of ecologists, Local extinction, Logging, Logistic function, Macrosociology, Madagascar, Madagascar dry deciduous forests, Mammal, Marine biology, Marine ecosystem, Megadiverse countries, Megafauna, Metabolism, Metasedimentary rock, Microbial mat, Microorganism, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Mite, Moisture, Molecular biology, Mongoose, Monoculture, Morphology (biology), Mountain, Multicellular organism, Musician, Mutation, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Science Foundation, Native Vegetation Management Framework, Natural capital, Natural history, Natural resource, Nature Geoscience, Negative feedback, Nocturnality, Norman Myers, Northern Europe, Nutrient, Observational study, Ocean, Organism, Overconsumption, Overexploitation, Overgrazing, Pacific Ocean, Palaeoworld, Parasitism, Patent, Paul R. Ehrlich, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Pesticide, Phanerozoic, Phylum, Phytophthora infestans, Plankton, Plant, PLOS, PLOS Biology, PLOS One, Poaching, Pollution, Polyculture, Population biology, Population decline, Population growth, Portmanteau, Positive feedback, Potato, Predation, Primary production, Proceedings, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Protist, Protozoa, Prunus spinosa, Quaternary extinction event, Rainforest, Ramsar Convention, Rare species, Rat, Recreation, Reforestation, Remineralisation, Reptile, Ribosomal RNA, Rice grassy stunt virus, River, Roberto Cazzolla Gatti, Sandstone, Science (journal), Science Advances, Scientific American, Scientist, Sea, Sea surface temperature, Selborne, Selection bias, Sigmar Gabriel, Sociobiology, Soil, Soil conservation, Soil contamination, Southern corn leaf blight, Species, Species complex, Species diversity, Species homogeneity, Species richness, Species–area relationship, Sri Lanka, Stochastic, Stone Age, Stuart Pimm, Sustainability, Taxonomy (biology), Telegraph Media Group, Temperature, Tetrapod, The BMJ, The Guardian, The Nature Conservancy, The New York Times, Thomas Lovejoy, Threatened species, Tonne, Trends (journals), Tropical forest, Tropics, Unicellular organism, Unintended consequences, United Nations, United Nations Decade on Biodiversity, United Nations Environment Programme, Universe, University of California Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, University of Minnesota, University of Sussex, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Vascular plant, Vertebrate, Water pollution, Water purification, Water supply, Western Australia, Wildfire, Wildlife corridor, Wildlife refuge, Wildlife trade, Winnipeg Free Press, Wood production, World Business Council for Sustainable Development, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, World Heritage site, World population, World Wide Fund for Nature, Yale University Press, Yasuni National Park, Zebra mussel, Zero-Force Evolutionary Law, Zoo. 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Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees (forestation) in an area where there was no previous tree cover.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The age of the Earth is 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years This age may represent the age of the Earth’s accretion, of core formation, or of the material from which the Earth formed.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Allopatric speciation (from the ancient Greek allos, meaning "other", and patris, meaning "fatherland"), also referred to as geographic speciation, vicariant speciation, or its earlier name, the dumbbell model, is a mode of speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange.
In ecology, alpha diversity (α-diversity) is the mean species diversity in sites or habitats at a local scale.
Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.
The American Journal of Botany is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal which covers all aspects of plant biology.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.
An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem in a body of water.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Astrobiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life across the universe.
The David R. Atkinson Center for a Sustainable Future is a unit within Cornell University that advances multidisciplinary sustainability research in the fields of energy, the environment, and economic development.
The Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) is a South American forest that extends along the Atlantic coast of Brazil from Rio Grande do Norte state in the north to Rio Grande do Sul state in the south, and inland as far as Paraguay and the Misiones Province of Argentina, where the region is known as Selva Misionera.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The Australian Grains Genebank (AGG) is a national center for storing genetic material for plant breeding and research.
A single chemical reaction is said to be autocatalytic if one of the reaction products is also a catalyst for the same or a coupled reaction.
An autocatalytic set is a collection of entities, each of which can be created catalytically by other entities within the set, such that as a whole, the set is able to catalyze its own production.
Background extinction rate, also known as the normal extinction rate, refers to the standard rate of extinction in earth's geological and biological history before humans became a primary contributor to extinctions.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
In ecology, beta diversity (β-diversity or true beta diversity) is the ratio between regional and local species diversity.
The biocapacity or biological capacity of an ecosystem is an estimate of its production of certain biological materials such as natural resources, and its absorption and filtering of other materials such as carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Biodiversity banking, also known as biodiversity trading or conservation banking, biodiversity mitigation banks, compensatory habitat, set-asides, biodiversity offsets, are conservation activities that compensate for the loss of biodiversity with the goal of biodiversity maintenance through a framework which allows biodiversity to be reliably measured, and market based solutions applied to improving biodiversity.
A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction.
Loss of biodiversity or biodiversity loss is the extinction of species (human, plant or animal) worldwide, and also the local reduction or loss of species in a certain habitat.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.
A biogenic substance is a substance produced by life processes.
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
The Biological Diversity Act, 2002 is an Act of the Parliament of India for preservation of biological diversity in India, and provides mechanism for equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of traditional biological resources and knowledge.
Biomass is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
Bionics or Biologically inspired engineering is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology.
Bioprospecting is the process of discovery and commercialization of new products based on biological resources.
BioScience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Institute of Biological Sciences.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Biotic material or biological derived material is any material that originates from living organisms.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
BirdLife International (formerly the International Council for Bird Preservation) is a global partnership of conservation organisations that strives to conserve birds, their habitats, and global biodiversity, working with people towards sustainability in the use of natural resources.
Birdwatching, or birding, is a form of wildlife observation in which the observation of birds is a recreational activity or citizen science.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.
A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms botanic and botanical and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
A breeding program is the planned breeding of a group of animals or plants, usually involving at least several individuals and extending over several generations.
The brown hairstreak (Thecla betulae) is a butterfly in the family Lycaenidae.
The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation was an event approximately in the Cambrian period when most major animal phyla appeared in the fossil record.
The Cape Floristic Region is a floristic region located near the southern tip of South Africa.
A capital market is a financial market in which long-term debt (over a year) or equity-backed securities are bought and sold.
Captive breeding is the process of maintaining plants or animals in controlled environments, such as wildlife reserves, zoos, botanic gardens, and other conservation facilities.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.
The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international agreement on biosafety as a supplement to the Convention on Biological Diversity effective since 2003.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention) is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Coexistence theory is a framework to understand how competitor traits can maintain species diversity and stave-off competitive exclusion even among similar species living in ecologically similar environments.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Conservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.
Conservation International (CI) is an American nonprofit environmental organization headquartered in Arlington, Virginia.
The Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) is an international initiative dedicated to supporting the development of DNA barcoding as a global standard for species identification.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treaty.
The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals -- more commonly abbreviated to just the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) or the Bonn Convention and CMS COP is known as Global Wildlife conference—aims to conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species throughout their range.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual herbaceous legume from the genus Vigna.
The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.
Crop rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar or different types of crops in the same area in sequenced seasons.
In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Current Science is an English-language peer-reviewed multidisciplinary scientific journal.
Sir David Anthony King, FRS HonFREng (born 12 August 1939) is an Emeritus Professor in Physical Chemistry at the University of Cambridge, Director of the Collegio Carlo Alberto, Chancellor of the University of Liverpool and a senior scientific adviser to UBS.
Defaunation is the loss of animals from ecological communities.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Deforestation is one of the main contributors to climate change.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Digital Automated Identification SYstem (DAISY) is an automated species identification system optimised for the rapid screening of invertebrates (e.g. insects) by non-experts (e.g. parataxonomists).
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.
Diurnality is a form of plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day, with a period of sleeping, or other inactivity, at night.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929), usually cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, researcher, theorist, naturalist and author.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on physical, chemical and mechanical processes of the Earth and other planets, including extrasolar ones.
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, the Rio Summit, the Rio Conference, and the Earth Summit (Portuguese: ECO92), was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.
Ecological collapse refers to a situation where an ecosystem suffers a drastic, possibly permanent, reduction in carrying capacity for all organisms, often resulting in mass extinction.
Ecological indicators are used to communicate information about ecosystems and the impact human activity has on ecosystems to groups such as the public or government policy makers.
The Ecological Society of America (ESA) is a professional organization of ecological scientists.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Ecosystem diversity deals with the variations in ecosystems within a geographical location and its overall impact on human existence and the environment.
Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits that humans freely gain from the natural environment and from properly-functioning ecosystems.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Elaeis is a genus of palms containing two species, called oil palms.
In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA; 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) is one of the few dozens of US environmental laws passed in the 1970s, and serves as the enacting legislation to carry out the provisions outlined in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
Entomophily or insect pollination is a form of pollination whereby pollen of plants, especially but not only of flowering plants, is distributed by insects.
Environmental change is a change or disturbance of the environment most often caused by human influences and natural ecological processes.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
Environmentally friendly or environment-friendly, (also referred to as eco-friendly, nature-friendly, and green) are sustainability and marketing terms referring to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies that claim reduced, minimal, or no harm upon ecosystems or the environment.
The Eoarchean (also spelled Eoarchaean) is the first era of the Archean Eon of the geologic record for which the Earth has a solid crust.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
Erosion control is the practice of preventing or controlling wind or water erosion in agriculture, land development, coastal areas, river banks and construction.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Exponential growth is exhibited when the rate of change—the change per instant or unit of time—of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the function's current value, resulting in its value at any time being an exponential function of time, i.e., a function in which the time value is the exponent.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.
An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
Fishkeeping is a popular hobby, practiced by aquarists, concerned with keeping fish in a home aquarium or garden pond.
Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.
Forest Ecology and Management is an international peer-reviewed journal that publishes articles linking forest ecology with the management of forest resources.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
A four-dimensional space or 4D space is a mathematical extension of the concept of three-dimensional or 3D space.
In mathematics, a fractal is an abstract object used to describe and simulate naturally occurring objects.
In mathematics, more specifically in fractal geometry, a fractal dimension is a ratio providing a statistical index of complexity comparing how detail in a pattern (strictly speaking, a fractal pattern) changes with the scale at which it is measured.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
A functional group is merely a set of species, or collection of organisms, that share alike characteristics within a community.
Fungal Biology is a scientific journal that publishes peer-reviewed papers on all aspects of basic and applied research of the fungi, including lichens, yeasts, oomycetes, and slime moulds.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The Gaia hypothesis, also known as the Gaia theory or the Gaia principle, proposes that living organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic and self-regulating, complex system that helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for life on the planet.
In ecology, gamma diversity (γ-diversity) is the total species diversity in a landscape.
Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene banks are a type of biorepository which preserve genetic material.
In population genetics, gene flow (also known as gene migration or allele flow) is the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another.
The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.
Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Genetic erosion is a process where the limited gene pool of an endangered species diminishes even more when reproductive individuals die off before reproducing low population.
Genetic pollution is a controversial term for uncontrolled gene flow into wild populations.
Genetic variability is either the presence of, or the generation of, genetic differences.
Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
A geographical pole is either of the two points on a rotating body (planet, dwarf planet, natural satellite, sphere...etc) where its axis of rotation intersects its surface.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
Gilbert White FRS (18 July 1720 – 26 June 1793) was a "parson-naturalist", a pioneering English naturalist and ornithologist.
The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) is an international organisation that focuses on making scientific data on biodiversity available via the Internet using web services.
The Global Ocean Sampling Expedition (GOS) is an ocean exploration genome project whose goal is to assess genetic diversity in marine microbial communities and to understand their role in nature's fundamental processes.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849.
The Green Revolution, or Third Agricultural Revolution, refers to a set of research and the development of technology transfer initiatives occurring between the 1930s and the late 1960s (with prequels in the work of the agrarian geneticist Nazareno Strampelli in the 1920s and 1930s), that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s.
A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a structure with walls and roof made mainly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.
The Hadean is a geologic eon of the Earth predating the Archean.
Half-Earth: Our Planet's Fight for Life is a 2016 book by E. O. Wilson, in which the author proposes that half of the Earth's land should be designated a human-free natural reserve to preserve biodiversity.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Hemileia vastatrix is a fungus of the order Pucciniales (previously also known as Uredinales) that causes coffee leaf rust (CLR), a disease that is devastating to susceptible coffee plantations.
A herbarium (plural: herbaria) is a collection of preserved plant specimens and associated data used for scientific study.
Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails (footpaths), in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks.
The history of Earth concerns the development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day.
The Holocene extinction, otherwise referred to as the Sixth extinction or Anthropocene extinction, is the ongoing extinction event of species during the present Holocene epoch, mainly as a result of human activity.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.
Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.
Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group.
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
When a quantity grows towards a singularity under a finite variation (a "finite-time singularity") it is said to undergo hyperbolic growth.
This is a list of topics in biodiversity.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Informed consent is a process for getting permission before conducting a healthcare intervention on a person, or for disclosing personal information.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
The French Research Institute for Development (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD) is a French science and technology establishment under the joint supervision of the French Ministries of Higher Education and Research and Foreign Affairs.
Integrated pest management (IPM), also known as integrated pest control (IPC) is a broad-based approach that integrates practices for economic control of pests.
The International Day for Biological Diversity (or World Biodiversity Day) is a United Nations–sanctioned international day for the promotion of biodiversity issues.
The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (IT PGRFA), popularly known as the International Seed Treaty, is a comprehensive international agreement in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity, which aims at guaranteeing food security through the conservation, exchange and sustainable use of the world's plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA), as well as the fair and equitable benefit sharing arising from its use.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
Introgression, also known as introgressive hybridization, in genetics is the movement of a gene (gene flow) from one species into the gene pool of another by the repeated backcrossing of an interspecific hybrid with one of its parent species.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
The J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) is a non-profit genomics research institute founded by J. Craig Venter, Ph.D. in October 2006.
James Ephraim Lovelock, (born 26 July 1919) is an independent scientist, environmentalist, and futurist who lives in Dorset, England.
The Japan Australia Migratory Bird Agreement (JAMBA) is a treaty between Australia and Japan to minimise harm to the major areas used by birds which migrate between the two countries.
Jared Mason Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American ecologist, geographer, biologist, anthropologist and author best known for his popular science books The Third Chimpanzee (1991); Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997, awarded a Pulitzer Prize); Collapse (2005); and The World Until Yesterday (2012).
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Jones & Bartlett Learning, a division of Ascend Learning, is a provider of instructional, assessment and learning-performance management solutions for the secondary, post-secondary, and professional markets.
Kitaa, originally Vestgrønland ("West Greenland"), is a former administrative division (landsdel) of Greenland.
Kudzu (also called Japanese arrowroot) is a group of plants in the genus Pueraria, in the pea family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.
Land use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF) is defined by the United Nations Climate Change Secretariat as a "greenhouse gas inventory sector that covers emissions and removals of greenhouse gases resulting from direct human-induced land use such as settlements and commercial uses, land-use change, and forestry activities." LULUCF has impacts on the global carbon cycle and as such, these activities can add or remove carbon dioxide (or, more generally, carbon) from the atmosphere, influencing climate.
The last universal common ancestor (LUCA), also called the last universal ancestor (LUA), cenancestor, or (incorrectlyThere is a common misconception that definitions of LUCA and progenote are the same; however, progenote is defined as an organism “still in the process of evolving the relationship between genotype and phenotype”, and it is only hypothesed that LUCA is a progenote.) progenote, is the most recent population of organisms from which all organisms now living on Earth have a common descent.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
The increase in species richness or biodiversity that occurs from the poles to the tropics, often referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), is one of the most widely recognized patterns in ecology.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
This is a list of ecologists who have pages on Wikipedia, in alphabetical order by surname.
Local extinction or extirpation is the condition of a species (or other taxon) that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere.
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars.
A logistic function or logistic curve is a common "S" shape (sigmoid curve), with equation: where.
Macrosociology is an approach to sociology which emphasizes the analysis of social systems and populations on a large scale, at the level of social structure, and often at a necessarily high level of theoretical abstraction.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
The Madagascar dry deciduous forests represent a tropical dry forest ecoregion situated in the western and northern part of Madagascar.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea.
Marine ecosystems are among the largest of Earth's aquatic ecosystems.
The term megadiverse country refers to any one of a group of nations that harbour the majority of Earth's species and high numbers of endemic species.
In terrestrial zoology, megafauna (from Greek μέγας megas "large" and New Latin fauna "animal life") are large or giant animals.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
In geology, metasedimentary rock is a type of metamorphic rock.
A microbial mat is a multi-layered sheet of microorganisms, mainly bacteria and archaea.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) is a major assessment of the human impact on the environment, called for by the United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan in 2000, launched in 2001 and published in 2005 with more than $14 million of grants.
Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina).
Moisture is the presence of a liquid, especially water, often in trace amounts.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of the 34 species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small feliform carnivorans native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa.
Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing a single crop, plant, or livestock species, variety, or breed in a field or farming system at a time.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
The Native Vegetation Management: A Framework for action 2002 is a Victorian strategy which aims to protect, enhance and revegetate Victoria's native vegetation.
Natural capital is the world's stock of natural resources, which includes geology, soils, air, water and all living organisms.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
Nature Geoscience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.
Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day.
Norman Myers (born 24 August 1934) is a British environmentalist specialising in biodiversity and also noted for his work on environmental refugees.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
In fields such as epidemiology, social sciences, psychology and statistics, an observational study draws inferences from a sample to a population where the independent variable is not under the control of the researcher because of ethical concerns or logistical constraints.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Overconsumption is a situation where resource use has outpaced the sustainable capacity of the ecosystem.
Overexploitation, also called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns.
Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to intensive grazing for extended periods of time, or without sufficient recovery periods.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Palaeoworld is a peer-reviewed academic journal with a focus on palaeontology and stratigraphy research in and around China.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
Paul Ralph Ehrlich (born May 29, 1932) is an American biologist, best known for his warnings about the consequences of population growth and limited resources.
The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
The Phanerozoic Eon is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale, and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed.
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
Phytophthora infestans is an oomycete or water mold, a microorganism which causes the serious potato and tomato disease known as late blight or potato blight.
Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
PLOS (for Public Library of Science) is a nonprofit open access science, technology and medicine publisher, innovator and advocacy organization with a library of open access journals and other scientific literature under an open content license.
PLOS Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of Biology.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
Poaching has been defined as the illegal hunting or capturing of wild animals, usually associated with land use rights.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
Polyculture is agriculture using multiple crops in the same space, providing crop diversity in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems, and avoiding large stands of single crops, or monoculture.
Population biology is an interdisciplinary field combining the areas of ecology and evolutionary biology.
A population decline (or depopulation) in humans is any great reduction in a human population caused by events such as long-term demographic trends, as in sub-replacement fertility, urban decay, white flight or rural flight, or due to violence, disease, or other catastrophes.
In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.
Positive feedback is a process that occurs in a feedback loop in which the effects of a small disturbance on a system include an increase in the magnitude of the perturbation.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary-production potential, and not an actual estimate of it. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE. In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.
In academia and librarianship, proceedings are the acts and happenings of an academic field, a learned society, or an academic conference.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
Prunus spinosa (blackthorn, or sloe) is a species of flowering plant in the rose family Rosaceae.
The Quaternary period saw the extinctions of numerous predominantly megafaunal species, which resulted in a collapse in faunal density and diversity, and the extinction of key ecological strata across the globe.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands.
A rare species is a group of organisms that are very uncommon, scarce, or infrequently encountered.
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.
Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time.
Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands (forestation) that have been depleted, usually through deforestation.
In biogeochemistry, remineralization (US, UK Spelling: remineralisation) refers to the breakdown or transformation of organic matter (those molecules derived from a biological source) into its simplest inorganic forms.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.
Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV) is a plant pathogenic virus transmitted by the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and two other Nilaparvata species, N. bakeri and N. muiri.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
Roberto Cazzolla Gatti (born February 11, 1984) is an Italian environmental and evolutionary biologist, and biodiversity researcher who studies the evolution and the ecology of life on Earth.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Science Advances is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary open-access scientific journal established in early 2015.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.
Sea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the ocean's surface.
Selborne is a village in the East Hampshire district of Hampshire, England.
Selection bias is the bias introduced by the selection of individuals, groups or data for analysis in such a way that proper randomization is not achieved, thereby ensuring that the sample obtained is not representative of the population intended to be analyzed.
Sigmar Hartmut Gabriel (born 12 September 1959) is a German politician who was Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2017 to 2018 and Vice-Chancellor of Germany from 2013 to 2018.
Sociobiology is a field of biology that aims to examine and explain social behavior in terms of evolution.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Soil conservation is the preventing of soil loss from erosion or reduced fertility caused by over usage, acidification, salinization or other chemical soil contamination.
Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment.
Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) is a fungal disease of maize caused by the plant pathogen Bipolaris maydis (also known as Cochliobolus heterostrophus in its teleomorph state).
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
In biology, a species complex is a group of closely related species that are very similar in appearance to the point that the boundaries between them are often unclear.
Species diversity is the number of different species that are represented in a given community (a dataset).
In ecology, species homogeneity is a lack of biodiversity.
Species richness is the number of different species represented in an ecological community, landscape or region.
The species–area relationship or species–area curve describes the relationship between the area of a habitat, or of part of a habitat, and the number of species found within that area.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
The word stochastic is an adjective in English that describes something that was randomly determined.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
Stuart Leonard Pimm (born 27 February 1949) is an American-British biologist and theoretical ecologist specializing in scientific research of biodiversity and conservation biology.
Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
The Telegraph Media Group (TMG, previously the Telegraph Group) is the proprietor of The Daily Telegraph and The Sunday Telegraph.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Nature Conservancy is a charitable environmental organization, headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, United States.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thomas E. Lovejoy, "the Godfather of Biodiversity", is a Senior Fellow at the United Nations Foundation and University Professor in the Environmental Science and Policy department at George Mason University.
Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, etc.) which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Trends is a series of scientific journals owned by Elsevier that publish review articles in a range of areas of biology.
Tropical forests are forested landscapes in tropical regions: i.e. land areas approximately bounded by the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, but possibly affected by other factors such as prevailing winds.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.
In the social sciences, unintended consequences (sometimes unanticipated consequences or unforeseen consequences) are outcomes that are not the ones foreseen and intended by a purposeful action.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations General Assembly declared 2011–20 the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity (Resolution 65/161).
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) is a paleontology museum located on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (often referred to as the University of Minnesota, Minnesota, the U of M, UMN, or simply the U) is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota.
The University of Sussex is a public research university in Falmer, Sussex, England.
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water.
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area.
A wildlife corridor, habitat corridor, or green corridor is an area of habitat connecting wildlife populations separated by human activities or structures (such as roads, development, or logging).
A wildlife sanctuary, is a naturally occurring sanctuary, such as an island, that provides protection for species from hunting, predation, competition or poaching; it is a protected area, a geographic territory within which wildlife is protected.
Wildlife trade refers to the commerce of products that are derived from non-domesticated animals or plants usually extracted from their natural environment or raised under controlled conditions.
The Winnipeg Free Press is a daily (excluding Sunday) broadsheet newspaper in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
Lumber and wood products are created from the trunks and branches of trees through a series of steps, as follows.
The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) is a CEO-led, global advocacy association of some 200 international companies dealing exclusively with business and sustainable development.
The UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) is an executive agency of the United Nations Environment Programme, based in Cambridge in the United Kingdom.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Yasuni National Park is in Ecuador with an area of 9,823 km2 between the Napo and Curaray Rivers in Napo and Pastaza Provinces in Amazonian Ecuador.
The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is a small freshwater mussel.
The Zero-Force Evolutionary Law, or ZFEL, is a theory proposed by Robert Brandon and Dan McShea regarding the evolution of diversity and complexity.
A zoo (short for zoological garden or zoological park and also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which all animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also breed.
Bio-diversity, Biodiverse, Biodiversity and evolution, Biodiversity threats, Biological distinctiveness, Biological diversity, Biologically diverse, Diversity (biology), Diversity (ecology), Diversity of life, Evolutionary diversification, Functional diversity (ecology), Geographic ecology, The value of Biodiversity, Threats to biodiversity, Value of biodiversity.