178 relations: Abortion, Alfred North Whitehead, Alternative medicine, American Journal of Bioethics, Amitai Etzioni, Animal rights, Applied ethics, Arthur Caplan, Artificial insemination, Artificial life, Artificial uterus, Assisted suicide, Belmont Report, Biocentrism (ethics), Bioethics (journal), Biological agent, Biological patent, Biology, Bioprospecting, Biorisk, Biotechnology, Biotechnology risk, Bioterrorism, Biotic ethics, Birth control, Blood transfusion, Body modification, Brain–computer interface, Buddhism, Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, Charles Colson, Chimera (genetics), Circumcision, Cloning, Confidentiality, Consent, Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine, Cryonics, Damien Keown, Dan W. Brock, Daniel Callahan, Deontological ethics, Dignity, Disability, Egg donation, Entheogen, Ethics, Eugenics, Euler Renato Westphal, Euthanasia, ..., Evangelium vitae, Exorcism, Faith, Faith healing, Feeding tube, Feminist Approaches to Bioethics, Francis Fukuyama, Gene theft, Gene therapy, Genetically modified food, Genetically modified organism, Genomics, Global justice, Great Ape Project, Greek language, H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr., Hastings Center Report, Health care, Hegemony, HeLa, Hindu, Human cloning, Human enhancement, Humanae vitae, Iatrogenesis, Immanuel Jakobovits, Baron Jakobovits, Infertility, Interdisciplinarity, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Intersex, InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, Intrinsic value (animal ethics), Islamic bioethics, Islamica Magazine, J. David Bleich, James Childress, Jewish medical ethics, Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, Joseph Fins, Journal of Medical Ethics, Julian Savulescu, Justice, Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, Law, Life extension, Life support, List of bioethics journals, List of Canadian bioethics programs, List of life sciences, Lobotomy, Mark Siegler, Masahiro Morioka, Mediation, Medical guideline, Medical law, Medical malpractice, Medical record, Medical research, Medical torture, Medicalization, Medicine, Michel Weber, MIT Press, Mitochondrial replacement therapy, Moral, Morality, Nanomedicine, National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, Natural law, Nazi human experimentation, Neuroethics, Nikolaos Loudovikos, Nursing ethics, Onora O'Neill, Ordinary and extraordinary care, Organ donation, Organ transplantation, Pain management, Parthenogenesis, Patients' rights, Peter Singer, Pharmacogenetics, Philosophy, Philosophy of science, Placebo, Point of view (philosophy), Political abuse of psychiatry, Politics, Pope John Paul II, Pope Paul VI, Population control, Preimplantation genetic diagnosis, Prescription drug prices in the United States, Primary care ethics, Professional ethics, Psychosurgery, Quality of life (healthcare), Quaternary prevention, Recreational drug use, Reproductive rights, Reproductive technology, Reprogenetics, Resources for clinical ethics consultation, Respect for persons, Sex reassignment therapy, Sperm donation, Springer Science+Business Media, Stem cell controversy, Sterilization (medicine), Suicide, Surrogacy, Technology, The Eighth Day (bioethics book), The Hastings Center, The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, Transhumanism, Transsexual, Tubal ligation, Unethical human experimentation in the United States, Unnecessary health care, Vaccine controversies, Value theory, Van Rensselaer Potter, Vandana Shiva, Wesley J. Smith, Xeno nucleic acid, Xenotransfusion, Xenotransplantation. Expand index (128 more) » « Shrink index
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.
Alfred North Whitehead (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
The American Journal of Bioethics is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Taylor & Francis, covering all aspects of bioethics.
Amitai Etzioni (born Werner Falk, 4 January 1929) is an Israeli-American sociologist, best known for his work on socioeconomics and communitarianism.
Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings.
Applied ethics is the branch of ethics concerned with the analysis of particular moral issues in private and public life.
Arthur L. Caplan, Ph.D. (born 1950), is the Drs.
Artificial insemination (AI) is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female's uterus or cervix for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual intercourse.
Artificial life (often abbreviated ALife or A-Life) is a field of study wherein researchers examine systems related to natural life, its processes, and its evolution, through the use of simulations with computer models, robotics, and biochemistry.
An artificial uterus (or artificial womb) is a hypothetical device that would allow for external pregnancy by growing a fetus outside the body of an organism that would normally carry the fetus to term.
Assisted suicide is suicide committed with the aid of another person, sometimes a physician.
The Belmont Report is a report created by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research.
Biocentrism (from Greek βίος bios, "life" and κέντρον kentron, "center"), in a political and ecological sense, as well as literally, is an ethical point of view that extends inherent value to all living things.
Bioethics is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell in association with the International Association of Bioethics.
A biological agent—also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon—is a bacterium, virus, protozoan, parasite, or fungus that can be used purposefully as a weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare (BW).
A biological patent is a patent on an invention in the field of biology that by law allows the patent holder to exclude others from making, using, selling, or importing the protected invention for a limited period of time.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Bioprospecting is the process of discovery and commercialization of new products based on biological resources.
Biorisk generally refers to the risk associated with biological materials and/or infectious agents.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Biotechnology risk is a form of existential risk that could come from biological sources, such as genetically engineered biological agents.
Bioterrorism is terrorism involving the intentional release or dissemination of biological agents.
Biotic ethics (also called life-centered ethics) is a branch of ethics that values not only species and biospheres, but life itself.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.
Body modification (or body alteration) is the deliberate altering of the human anatomy or human physical appearance.
A brain–computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a neural-control interface (NCI), mind-machine interface (MMI), direct neural interface (DNI), or brain–machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and an external device.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of bioethics.
Charles Wendell "Chuck" Colson (October 16, 1931 – April 21, 2012) served as Special Counsel to President Richard Nixon from 1969 to 1973.
A genetic chimerism or chimera (also spelled chimaera) is a single organism composed of cells with distinct genotypes.
Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.
Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.
Confidentiality involves a set of rules or a promise usually executed through confidentiality agreements that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information.
In common speech, consent occurs when one person voluntarily agrees to the proposal or desires of another.
Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine
The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine is an international instrument aiming to prohibit the misuse of innovations in biomedicine and to protect human dignity.
Cryonics (from Greek κρύος kryos meaning 'cold') is the low-temperature preservation (usually at −196°C) of human cadavers, with the hope that resuscitation and restoration to life and full health may be possible in the far future.
Damien Keown (born 1951) is a prominent bioethicist and authority on Buddhist bioethics.
Dan W. Brock is an American philosopher, bioethicist, and professor emeritus.
Daniel Callahan (born July 19, 1930) is an American philosopher who played a leading role in developing the field of biomedical ethics as co-founder of The Hastings Center, the world's first bioethics research institute.
In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek δέον, deon, "obligation, duty") is the normative ethical position that judges the morality of an action based on rules.
Dignity is the right of a person to be valued and respected for their own sake, and to be treated ethically.
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
Egg donation is the process by which a woman donates eggs to enable another woman to conceive as part of an assisted reproduction treatment or for biomedical research.
An entheogen is a class of psychoactive substances that induce any type of spiritual experience aimed at development.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.
Euler Renato Westphal (born July 2, 1957) is a university professor, writer and Lutheran theologian.
Euthanasia (from εὐθανασία; "good death": εὖ, eu; "well" or "good" – θάνατος, thanatos; "death") is the practice of intentionally ending a life to relieve pain and suffering.
Evangelium vitae, translated in English to "The Gospel of Life", is a papal encyclical promulgated on 25 March 1995 by Pope John Paul II.
Exorcism (from Greek εξορκισμός, exorkismós "binding by oath") is the religious or spiritual practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person, or an area, that are believed to be possessed.
In the context of religion, one can define faith as confidence or trust in a particular system of religious belief, within which faith may equate to confidence based on some perceived degree of warrant, in contrast to the general sense of faith being a belief without evidence.
Faith healing is the practice of prayer and gestures (such as laying on of hands) that are believed by some to elicit divine intervention in spiritual and physical healing, especially the Christian practice.
A feeding tube is a medical device used to provide nutrition to people who cannot obtain nutrition by mouth, are unable to swallow safely, or need nutritional supplementation.
Feminist Approaches to Bioethics (International Network on Feminist Approaches to Bioethics), or FAB, is a network of feminists in bioethics, adding feminist perspectives to ethical issues in health care and the biosciences.
Yoshihiro Francis "Frank" Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952) is an American political scientist, political economist, and author.
In bioethics and law, gene theft or DNA theft is the act of acquiring the genetic material of another human being without his or her permission, often from a public place.
In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
Genetically modified foods or GM foods, also known as genetically engineered foods, bioengineered foods, genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
Global justice is an issue in political philosophy arising from the concern about unfairness.
The Great Ape Project (GAP), founded in 1993, is an international organization of primatologists, anthropologists, ethicists, and others who advocate a United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Great Apes that would confer basic legal rights on non-human great apes: chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hugo Tristram Engelhardt Jr. (April 27, 1941 – June 21, 2018) was an American philosopher, holding doctorates in both philosophy from the University of Texas at Austin and medicine from Tulane University.
The Hastings Center Report is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal of bioethics.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
HeLa (also Hela or hela) is a cell type in an immortal cell line used in scientific research.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy (or clone) of a human.
Human enhancement (Augment) is "any attempt to temporarily or permanently overcome the current limitations of the human body through natural or artificial means.
Humanae vitae (Latin: Of Human Life) is an encyclical written by Pope Paul VI and dated 25 July 1968.
Iatrogenesis (from the Greek for "brought forth by the healer") refers to any effect on a person resulting from any activity of one or more persons acting as healthcare professionals or promoting products or services as beneficial to health that does not support a goal of the person affected.
Immanuel Jakobovits, Baron Jakobovits (8 February 192131 October 1999) was the Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth from 1967 to 1991.
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.
Intersex people are born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies".
InterVarsity Christian Fellowship/USA is an inter-denominational, evangelical Christian campus ministry founded in 1941, working with students and faculty on U.S. college and university campuses.
The intrinsic value of an animal refers to the value it possesses in its own right, as an end-in-itself, as opposed to its instrumental value, its value to other animals (including human beings).
Islamic bioethics, or Islamic medical ethics, (الأخلاق الطبية al-akhlaq al-tibbiyyah) refers to Islamic guidance on ethical or moral issues relating to medical and scientific fields, in particular, those dealing with human life.
Islamica Magazine was a quarterly magazine in the United States with editorial offices in Amman, Jordan, Cambridge, MA and London, UK., dedicated to presenting various perspectives and opinions on Islam and the Muslim world.
Judah David Bleich (born August 24, 1936, Tarrytown, New York) is an authority on Jewish law and ethics, including Jewish medical ethics.
James Franklin Childress (born October 4, 1940) is a philosopher and theologian whose scholarship addresses ethics, particularly biomedical ethics.
Jewish medical ethics is a modern scholarly and clinical approach to medical ethics that draws upon Jewish thought and teachings.
The Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics in Baltimore, Maryland, United States, is an independent, interdisciplinary center serving the entire Johns Hopkins University and Health System.
Joseph J. Fins, M.A.C.P. (born 1959) is an American physician and medical ethicist.
The Journal of Medical Ethics is a peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of bioethics established in 1975.
Julian Savulescu (born 22 December 1963) is an Australian philosopher and bioethicist.
Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.
The Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal is a quarterly academic journal established in 1991.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Life extension science, also known as anti-aging medicine, indefinite life extension, experimental gerontology, and biomedical gerontology, is the study of slowing down or reversing the processes of aging to extend both the maximum and average lifespan.
Life support refers to the treatments and techniques performed in an emergency in order to support life after the failure of one or more vital organs.
This is a list of peer-reviewed academic journals covering the field of bioethics.
This following list of Canadian bioethics undergraduate and graduate programs was developed by the Canadian Task-force of the Association of Bioethics Program Directors in March 2017, based on a 2012 list developed by the Canadian Bioethics Society.
The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.
Lobotomy, also known as leucotomy, is a neurosurgical and form of psychosurgery. Operation that involves severing connections in the brain's prefrontal lobe.
Mark Siegler (born June 20, 1941) is an American physician who specializes in internal medicine.
is a Japanese philosopher, who has contributed to the fields of philosophy of life, bioethics, gender studies, media theory, and civilization studies.
Mediation is a dynamic, structured, interactive process where a neutral third party assists disputing parties in resolving conflict through the use of specialized communication and negotiation techniques.
A medical guideline (also called a clinical guideline or clinical practice line) is a document with the aim of guiding decisions and criteria regarding diagnosis, management, and treatment in specific areas of healthcare.
Medical law is the branch of law which concerns the prerogatives and responsibilities of medical professionals and the rights of the patient.
Medical malpractice is a legal cause of action that occurs when a medical or health care professional deviates from standards in his or her profession, thereby causing injury to a patient.
The terms medical record, health record, and medical chart are used somewhat interchangeably to describe the systematic documentation of a single patient's medical history and care across time within one particular health care provider's jurisdiction.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
Medical torture describes the involvement of, or sometimes instigation by, medical personnel in acts of torture, either to judge what victims can endure, to apply treatments which will enhance torture, or as torturers in their own right.
Medicalization or medicalisation (see spelling differences) is the process by which human conditions and problems come to be defined and treated as medical conditions, and thus become the subject of medical study, diagnosis, prevention, or treatment.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Michel Weber is a Belgian philosopher, born in Brussels in 1963.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
Mitochondrial replacement (MRT, sometimes called mitochondrial donation) is a special form of in vitro fertilisation in which the future baby's mitochondrial DNA comes from a third party.
A moral (from Latin morālis) is a message that is conveyed or a lesson to be learned from a story or event.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology.
National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research was the first public national body to shape bioethics policy in the United States.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
Nazi human experimentation was a series of medical experiments on large numbers of prisoners, including children, by Nazi Germany in its concentration camps in the early to mid 1940s, during World War II and the Holocaust.
Neuroethics refers to two related fields of study: what the philosopher Adina Roskies has called the ethics of neuroscience, and the neuroscience of ethics.
Protopresbyter (Very Rev.) Fr.
Nursing ethics is a branch of applied ethics that concerns itself with activities in the field of nursing.
Onora Sylvia O'Neill, Baroness O'Neill of Bengarve (born 23 August 1941) is a philosopher and a crossbench member of the House of Lords.
Ordinary and extraordinary care are distinguished by some bioethical theories, including the teaching of the Catholic Church.
Organ donation is when a person allows an organ of theirs to be removed, legally, either by consent while the donor is alive or after death with the assent of the next of kin.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
Pain management, pain medicine, pain control or algiatry, is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those living with chronic pain The typical pain management team includes medical practitioners, pharmacists, clinical psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physician assistants, nurses.
Parthenogenesis (from the Greek label + label) is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.
A patient's bill of rights is a list of guarantees for those receiving medical care.
Peter Albert David Singer, AC (born 6 July 1946) is an Australian moral philosopher.
Pharmacogenetics is the study of inherited genetic differences in drug metabolic pathways which can affect individual responses to drugs, both in terms of therapeutic effect as well as adverse effects.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
In philosophy, a point of view is a specified or stated manner of consideration, an attitude how one sees or thinks of something, as in "from my personal point of view".
Political abuse of psychiatry is the misuse of psychiatry, including diagnosis, detention, and treatment, for the purposes of obstructing the human rights of individuals and/or groups in a society.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.
Pope Paul VI (Paulus VI; Paolo VI; born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini; 26 September 1897 – 6 August 1978) reigned from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978.
Population control is the practice of artificially maintaining the size of any population.
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD or PIGD) is the genetic profiling of embryos prior to implantation (as a form of embryo profiling), and sometimes even of oocytes prior to fertilization.
Prescription drug prices in the United States have been among the highest in the world.
Primary care ethics is the study of the everyday decisions that primary care clinicians make, such as: how long to spend with a particular patient, how to reconcile their own values and those of their patients, when and where to refer or investigate, how to respect confidentiality when dealing with patients, relatives and third parties.
Professional ethics encompass the personal, and corporate standards of behavior expected by professionals.
Psychosurgery, also called neurosurgery for mental disorder (NMD), is the neurosurgical treatment of mental disorder.
In general, quality of life (QoL or QOL) is the perceived quality of an individual's daily life, that is, an assessment of their well-being or lack thereof.
The quaternary prevention, concept coined by the Belgian general practitioner Marc Jamoulle, are the actions taken to identify a patient at risk of overmedicalisation, to protect them from new medical invasion, and to suggest interventions which are ethically acceptable.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health that vary amongst countries around the world.
Reproductive technology encompasses all current and anticipated uses of technology in human and animal reproduction, including assisted reproductive technology, contraception and others.
Reprogenetics is the use of reproductive and genetic technologies to select and genetically modify embryos with germinal choice technology for the purpose of human enhancement.
Clinical ethics support services initially developed in the United States of America, following court cases such as the Karen Ann Quinlan case, which stressed the need for mechanisms to resolve ethical disputes within health care.
Respect for persons is the concept that all people deserve the right to fully exercise their autonomy.
Sex reassignment therapy is the medical aspect of gender transitioning, that is, modifying one's characteristics to better suit one's gender identity.
Sperm donation is the provision (or "donation") by a man (known as a sperm donor) of his sperm (known as donor sperm), principally for it to be used in the artificial insemination of a woman or women who are not his sexual partners.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The stem cell controversy is the consideration of the ethics of research involving the development, use, and destruction of human embryos.
Sterilization (also spelled sterilisation) is any of a number of medical techniques that intentionally leaves a person unable to reproduce.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Surrogacy is a method or agreement whereby a woman agrees to carry a pregnancy for another person or persons, who will become the newborn child's parent(s) after birth.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
The Eighth Day is the second book of Dr.
The Hastings Center is an independent, non-partisan bioethics research institute based in Garrison, New York.
The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering bioethics and philosophy of medicine.
Transhumanism (abbreviated as H+ or h+) is an international intellectual movement that aims to transform the human condition by developing and making widely available sophisticated technologies to greatly enhance human intellect and physiology.
Transsexual people experience a gender identity that is inconsistent with, or not culturally associated with, their assigned sex, and desire to permanently transition to the gender with which they identify, usually seeking medical assistance (including hormone replacement therapy and other sex reassignment therapies) to help them align their body with their identified sex or gender.
Tubal ligation or tubectomy (also known as having one's "tubes tied") is a surgical procedure for sterilization in which a woman's fallopian tubes are clamped and block and sealed, either of which prevents eggs from reaching the uterus for implantation.
Unethical human experimentation in the United States describes numerous experiments performed on human test subjects in the United States that have been considered unethical, and were often performed illegally, without the knowledge, consent, or informed consent of the test subjects.
Unnecessary health care (overutilization, overuse, or overtreatment) is healthcare provided with a higher volume or cost than is appropriate.
Vaccine controversies have occurred since almost 80 years before the terms vaccine and vaccination were introduced, and continue to this day.
Value theory is a range of approaches to understanding how, why, and to what degree persons value things; whether the object or subject of valuing is a person, idea, object, or anything else.
Van Rensselaer Potter II (August 27, 1911 – September 6, 2001) was an American biochemist.
Vandana Shiva (born 5 November 1952) is an Indian scholar, environmental activist, food sovereignty advocate, and alter-globalization author.
Wesley J. Smith (born 1949) is an American lawyer and author, a Senior Fellow at the Discovery Institute's Center on Human Exceptionalism, a politically conservative non-profit think tank, best known for its advocacy of intelligent design (ID).
Xeno nucleic acid (XNA) is a synthetic alternative to the natural nucleic acids DNA and RNA as information-storing biopolymers that differs in the sugar backbone.
Xenotransfusion (from Greek xenos- strange or foreign), a form of xenotransplantation, was initially defined as the transfer of blood from one species into the veins of another.
Xenotransplantation (xenos- from the Greek meaning "foreign"), is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another.