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Bioinformatics

Index Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data. [1]

273 relations: Accuracy and precision, Algorithm, Alzheimer's disease, Amino acid, Anduril (workflow engine), Apache Taverna, Approximation algorithm, Artificial intelligence, Artificial life, Base calling, Bayesian inference, Bernd Sturmfels, Biochemistry, Bioclipse, BioCompute Object, Bioconductor, BioCyc database collection, Biodiversity, Biodiversity informatics, Bioimage informatics, Bioinformatics Open Source Conference, Bioinformatics workflow management system, BioJava, BioJS, Biological computation, Biological data visualization, Biological database, Biological engineering, Biological network, Biology, Biomarkers in Medicine, Biomolecular structure, BioPerl, Biophysics, Biopython, BioRuby, BLAST, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Breast cancer, Canadian Bioinformatics Workshops, Cancer, Cell (biology), Cell cycle, Cell nucleus, Cellular model, Cellular respiration, Chemical Reviews, ChIA-PET, Chromosome conformation capture, Cluster analysis, ..., Comparative genomic hybridization, Computational biology, Computational genomics, Computational linguistics, Computer, Computer program, Computer programming, Computer science, Computer simulation, Consensus clustering, Control theory, Copy-number variation, Coursera, Creative Commons, Current Opinion (Elsevier), Current Protocols, Data mining, David J. Lipman, De facto, Diabetes mellitus, Diagnosis, Digital image processing, Discrete mathematics, DNA, DNA barcoding, DNA microarray, DNA sequencing, Drug design, Drug discovery, EdX, Elvin A. Kabat, EMBOSS, ENCODE, Endosymbiont, Enhancer (genetics), Environmental niche modelling, Enzyme, Epithelium, European Bioinformatics Institute, European Conference on Computational Biology, European Federation for Medical Informatics, Evolution, Evolutionary biology, Exome, Expressed sequence tag, Flow cytometry, Food and Drug Administration, Frederick Sanger, Free and open-source software, Functional genomics, Galaxy (computational biology), GenBank, Gene, Gene Disease Database, Gene duplication, Gene expression, Gene mapping, Gene ontology, Gene prediction, Gene regulatory network, GeneMark, Genetic algorithm, GenoCAD, Genome, Genome-wide association study, Genomics, George Washington University, Germline, Graph theory, Haemophilus influenzae, Harvard University, Health informatics, Heuristic, Hidden Markov model, Hierarchical clustering, High-content screening, High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment, Homology (biology), Homology modeling, Horizontal gene transfer, Hormone, Human genome, Human Genome Project, Human Variome Project, Immunohistochemistry, In silico, Infertility, Informatics, Information theory, Insulin, Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology, Interactome, Interdisciplinarity, International Society for Computational Biology, InterPro, J. Craig Venter Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Jumping library, K-means clustering, KEGG, Kepler scientific workflow system, Leghemoglobin, Lesion, Lior Pachter, List of bioinformatics companies, List of bioinformatics institutions, List of bioinformatics journals, List of open-source bioinformatics software, List of sequence alignment software, Machine learning, Macromolecular docking, Margaret Oakley Dayhoff, Markov chain Monte Carlo, Mass spectrometry, Massive open online course, Massively parallel signature sequencing, Mathematics, Medical imaging, Messenger RNA, Metabolic network, Metabolism, Metabolomics, Methods (journal), Microarray, Microbiota, Mitochondrion, Modelling biological systems, Molecular biology, Molecular phylogenetics, Morphometrics, Multiple sequence alignment, Mutation, National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, New York Genome Center, Noise, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins, Nuclear organization, Nucleic acid, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleotide, Objectivity (science), OBO Foundry, Oligonucleotide, Ontology (information science), Open Bioinformatics Foundation, Open-source software, Orange (software), Organelle, Owen White, Pattern recognition, Paulien Hogeweg, Pfam, Phi X 174, Phylogenetic tree, Phylogenetics, Plug-in (computing), Point mutation, Population genetics, Prion, Programming tool, Protein, Protein Data Bank, Protein domain, Protein function prediction, Protein microarray, Protein primary structure, Protein structure, Protein structure prediction, Protein subcellular localization prediction, Protein–protein interaction, Proteomics, Provenance, Quantitative structure–activity relationship, Raspberry Pi, Regulation of gene expression, Regulatory sequence, Representational state transfer, Research in Computational Molecular Biology, RNA splicing, RNA-Seq, Rosalind (education platform), Self-organizing map, Sequence alignment, Sequence assembly, Sequence motif, Sequence Read Archive, Sequencing, Serial analysis of gene expression, Service-orientation, Shotgun sequencing, Signal, Signal processing, Signal transduction, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, SOAP, Soft computing, Software, Speciation, Species, Species richness, Speciesism, Srinivas Aluru, Stanford University, Statistics, Structural alignment, Structural bioinformatics, Sulston score, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Systems theory, Taxonomic database, Terabyte, Text mining, Tissue microarray, Topologically associating domain, UGENE, Umbrella term, UniProt, University of California, San Diego, Virtual screening, Workflow management system, X-ray crystallography, .NET Bio. Expand index (223 more) »

Accuracy and precision

Precision is a description of random errors, a measure of statistical variability.

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Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

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Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Anduril (workflow engine)

Anduril is an open source component-based workflow framework for scientific data analysis developed at the Systems Biology Laboratory, University of Helsinki.

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Apache Taverna

Apache Taverna is an open source software tool for designing and executing workflows, initially created by the myGrid project under the name Taverna Workbench, now a project under the Apache incubator.

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Approximation algorithm

In computer science and operations research, approximation algorithms are efficient algorithms that find approximate solutions to NP-hard optimization problems with provable guarantees on the distance of the returned solution to the optimal one.

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Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.

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Artificial life

Artificial life (often abbreviated ALife or A-Life) is a field of study wherein researchers examine systems related to natural life, its processes, and its evolution, through the use of simulations with computer models, robotics, and biochemistry.

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Base calling

Base calling is the process of assigning bases (nucleobases) to chromatogram peaks.

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Bayesian inference

Bayesian inference is a method of statistical inference in which Bayes' theorem is used to update the probability for a hypothesis as more evidence or information becomes available.

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Bernd Sturmfels

Bernd Sturmfels (born March 28, 1962 in Kassel, West Germany) is a Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science at the University of California, Berkeley and is a director of the Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences in Leipzig since 2017.

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Biochemistry

Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Bioclipse

The Bioclipse project is a Java-based, open source, visual platform for chemo- and bioinformatics based on the Eclipse Rich Client Platform (RCP).

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BioCompute Object

The BioCompute Object (BCO) Project is a community-driven initiative to build a framework for standardizing and sharing computations and analyses generated from High-throughput sequencing (HTS), also referred to as next-generation sequencing (NGS) or massively parallel sequencing (MPS).

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Bioconductor

Bioconductor is a free, open source and open development software project for the analysis and comprehension of genomic data generated by wet lab experiments in molecular biology.

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BioCyc database collection

The BioCyc database collection is an assortment of organism specific Pathway/ Genome Databases (PGDBs).

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Biodiversity

Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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Biodiversity informatics

Biodiversity Informatics is the application of informatics techniques to biodiversity information for improved management, presentation, discovery, exploration and analysis.

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Bioimage informatics

Bioimage informatics is a subfield of bioinformatics and computational biology.

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Bioinformatics Open Source Conference

The Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC) is an academic conference on open-source programming in bioinformatics organised by the Open Bioinformatics Foundation.

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Bioinformatics workflow management system

A bioinformatics workflow management system is a specialized form of workflow management system designed specifically to compose and execute a series of computational or data manipulation steps, or a workflow, that relate to bioinformatics.

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BioJava

BioJava is an open-source software project dedicated to provide Java tools to process biological data.

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BioJS

BioJS is an open-source project for bioinformatics data on the web.

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Biological computation

The term "biological computation" refers, variously, to any of the following: - the study of the computations performed by natural biota, including the subject matter of systems biology.

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Biological data visualization

Biology data visualization is a branch of bioinformatics concerned with the application of computer graphics, scientific visualization, and information visualization to different areas of the life sciences.

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Biological database

Biological databases are libraries of life sciences information, collected from scientific experiments, published literature, high-throughput experiment technology, and computational analysis.

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Biological engineering

Biological engineering or bio-engineering is the application of principles of biology and the tools of engineering to create usable, tangible, economically viable products.

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Biological network

A biological network is any network that applies to biological systems.

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Biology

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Biomarkers in Medicine

Biomarkers in Medicine is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal established in 2007 and published by Future Medicine.

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Biomolecular structure

Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.

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BioPerl

BioPerl is a collection of Perl modules that facilitate the development of Perl scripts for bioinformatics applications.

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Biophysics

Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.

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Biopython

The Biopython Project is an open-source collection of non-commercial Python tools for computational biology and bioinformatics, created by an international association of developers.

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BioRuby

BioRuby is a collection of open-source Ruby code, comprising classes for computational molecular biology and bioinformatics.

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BLAST

In bioinformatics, BLAST for Basic Local Alignment Search Tool is an algorithm for comparing primary biological sequence information, such as the amino-acid sequences of proteins or the nucleotides of DNA sequences.

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Bovine spongiform encephalopathy

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease, is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and fatal neurodegenerative disease in cattle that may be passed to humans who have eaten infected flesh.

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

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Canadian Bioinformatics Workshops

Canadian Bioinformatics Workshops (CBW) are a series of advanced training workshops in bioinformatics, founded in 1999 in response to an identified need for a skilled bioinformatics workforce in Canada.

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Cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell cycle

The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Cellular model

Creating a cellular model has been a particularly challenging task of systems biology and mathematical biology.

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Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.

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Chemical Reviews

Chemical Reviews is peer-reviewed scientific journal published twice per month by the American Chemical Society.

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ChIA-PET

Chromatin Interaction Analysis by Paired-End Tag Sequencing (ChIA-PET) is a technique that incorporates chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-based enrichment, chromatin proximity ligation, Paired-End Tags, and High-throughput sequencing to determine de novo long-range chromatin interactions genome-wide.

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Chromosome conformation capture

Chromosome conformation capture techniques (often abbreviated to 3C technologies or 3C-based methods) are a set of molecular biology methods used to analyze the spatial organization of chromatin in a cell.

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Cluster analysis

Cluster analysis or clustering is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster) are more similar (in some sense) to each other than to those in other groups (clusters).

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Comparative genomic hybridization

Comparative genomic hybridization is a molecular cytogenetic method for analysing copy number variations (CNVs) relative to ploidy level in the DNA of a test sample compared to a reference sample, without the need for culturing cells.

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Computational biology

Computational biology involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological, behavioral, and social systems.

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Computational genomics

Computational genomics (often referred to as Computational Genetics) refers to the use of computational and statistical analysis to decipher biology from genome sequences and related data, including both DNA and RNA sequence as well as other "post-genomic" data (i.e., experimental data obtained with technologies that require the genome sequence, such as genomic DNA microarrays).

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Computational linguistics

Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective, as well as the study of appropriate computational approaches to linguistic questions.

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Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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Computer program

A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.

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Computer programming

Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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Computer simulation

Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.

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Consensus clustering

Clustering is the assignment of objects into groups (called clusters) so that objects from the same cluster are more similar to each other than objects from different clusters.

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Control theory

Control theory in control systems engineering deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines.

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Copy-number variation

Copy number variation (CNV) is a phenomenon in which sections of the genome are repeated and the number of repeats in the genome varies between individuals in the human population.

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Coursera

Coursera is an online learning platform founded by Stanford professors Andrew Ng and Daphne Koller that offers courses, specializations, and degrees.

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Creative Commons

Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share.

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Current Opinion (Elsevier)

Current Opinion is a collection of review journals on various disciplines of the life sciences published by Elsevier.

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Current Protocols

Current Protocols is a series of laboratory manuals for life scientists.

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Data mining

Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.

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David J. Lipman

David J. Lipman is an American biologist who since 1989 to 2017 had been the Director of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the National Institutes of Health.

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De facto

In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diagnosis

Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.

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Digital image processing

In computer science, Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images.

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Discrete mathematics

Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA barcoding

DNA barcoding is a taxonomic method that uses a short genetic marker in an organism's DNA to identify it as belonging to a particular species.

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DNA microarray

A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.

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DNA sequencing

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.

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Drug design

Drug design, often referred to as rational drug design or simply rational design, is the inventive process of finding new medications based on the knowledge of a biological target.

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Drug discovery

In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered.

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EdX

edX is a massive open online course (MOOC) provider.

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Elvin A. Kabat

Elvin Abraham Kabat (September 1, 1914 – June 16, 2000) was an American biomedical scientist and one of the founding fathers of modern quantitative immunochemistry.

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EMBOSS

EMBOSS is a free open source software analysis package developed for the needs of the molecular biology and bioinformatics user community.

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ENCODE

The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) is a public research project which aims to identify functional elements in the human genome.

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Endosymbiont

An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.

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Enhancer (genetics)

In genetics, an enhancer is a short (50–1500 bp) region of DNA that can be bound by proteins (activators) to increase the likelihood that transcription of a particular gene will occur.

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Environmental niche modelling

Environmental niche modelling, alternatively known as species distribution modelling, (ecological) niche modelling, predictive habitat distribution modelling, and climate envelope modelling refers to the process of using computer algorithms to predict the distribution of species in geographic space on the basis of a mathematical representation of their known distribution in environmental space (.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Epithelium

Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.

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European Bioinformatics Institute

The European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) is a centre for research and services in bioinformatics, and is part of European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL).

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European Conference on Computational Biology

The European Conference on Computational Biology (ECCB) is a scientific meeting on the subjects of bioinformatics and computational biology.

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European Federation for Medical Informatics

The European Federation for Medical Informatics (EFMI) is a non-profit organization, which was conceived at a meeting, assisted by the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organisation (WHO), in Copenhagen, (Denmark, Europe), in September 1976.

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Evolution

Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.

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Exome

The exome is the part of the genome composed of exons, the sequences which, when transcribed, remain within the mature RNA after introns are removed by RNA splicing and contribute to the final protein product encoded by that gene.

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Expressed sequence tag

In genetics, an expressed sequence tag (EST) is a short sub-sequence of a cDNA sequence.

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Flow cytometry

In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser- or impedance-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them through an electronic detection apparatus.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Frederick Sanger

Frederick Sanger (13 August 1918 – 19 November 2013) was a British biochemist who twice won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, one of only two people to have done so in the same category (the other is John Bardeen in physics), the fourth person overall with two Nobel Prizes, and the third person overall with two Nobel Prizes in the sciences.

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Free and open-source software

Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software that can be classified as both free software and open-source software.

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Functional genomics

Functional genomics is a field of molecular biology that attempts to make use of the vast wealth of data given by genomic and transcriptomic projects (such as genome sequencing projects and RNA sequencing) to describe gene (and protein) functions and interactions.

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Galaxy (computational biology)

Galaxy is a scientific workflow, data integration, and data and analysis persistence and publishing platform that aims to make computational biology accessible to research scientists that do not have computer programming or systems administration experience.

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GenBank

The GenBank sequence database is an open access, annotated collection of all publicly available nucleotide sequences and their protein translations.

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Gene

In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Gene Disease Database

In Bioinformatics, a Gene Disease Database is a systematized collection of data, typically structured to model aspects of reality, in a way to comprehend the underlying mechanisms of complex diseases, by understanding multiple composite interactions between phenotype-genotype relationships and gene-disease mechanisms.

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Gene duplication

Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Gene mapping

Gene mapping describes the methods used to identify the locus of a gene and the distances between genes.

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Gene ontology

Gene ontology (GO) is a major bioinformatics initiative to unify the representation of gene and gene product attributes across all species.

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Gene prediction

In computational biology, gene prediction or gene finding refers to the process of identifying the regions of genomic DNA that encode genes.

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Gene regulatory network

A gene (or genetic) regulatory network (GRN) is a collection of molecular regulators that interact with each other and with other substances in the cell to govern the gene expression levels of mRNA and proteins.

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GeneMark

GeneMark is a generic name for a family of ab initio gene prediction programs developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta.

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Genetic algorithm

In computer science and operations research, a genetic algorithm (GA) is a metaheuristic inspired by the process of natural selection that belongs to the larger class of evolutionary algorithms (EA).

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GenoCAD

GenoCAD is one of the earliest computer assisted design tools for synthetic biology.

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Genome

In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Genome-wide association study

In genetics, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS), also known as whole genome association study (WGA study, or WGAS), is an observational study of a genome-wide set of genetic variants in different individuals to see if any variant is associated with a trait.

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Genomics

Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.

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George Washington University

No description.

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Germline

In biology and genetics, the germline in a multicellular organism is the population of its bodily cells that are so differentiated or segregated that in the usual processes of reproduction they may pass on their genetic material to the progeny.

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Graph theory

In mathematics, graph theory is the study of graphs, which are mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects.

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Haemophilus influenzae

Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Health informatics

Health informatics (also called health care informatics, healthcare informatics, medical informatics, nursing informatics, clinical informatics, or biomedical informatics) is information engineering applied to the field of health care, essentially the management and use of patient healthcare information.

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Heuristic

A heuristic technique (εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a heuristic, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method, not guaranteed to be optimal, perfect, logical, or rational, but instead sufficient for reaching an immediate goal.

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Hidden Markov model

Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is a statistical Markov model in which the system being modeled is assumed to be a Markov process with unobserved (i.e. hidden) states.

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Hierarchical clustering

In data mining and statistics, hierarchical clustering (also called hierarchical cluster analysis or HCA) is a method of cluster analysis which seeks to build a hierarchy of clusters.

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High-content screening

High-content screening (HCS), also known as high-content analysis (HCA) or cellomics, is a method that is used in biological research and drug discovery to identify substances such as small molecules, peptides, or RNAi that alter the phenotype of a cell in a desired manner.

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High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment

The (HIVE) is a distributed computing environment used for biological research, including analysis of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) data, post market data, adverse events, metagenomic data, etc.

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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Homology modeling

Homology modeling, also known as comparative modeling of protein, refers to constructing an atomic-resolution model of the "target" protein from its amino acid sequence and an experimental three-dimensional structure of a related homologous protein (the "template").

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Horizontal gene transfer

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.

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Hormone

A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Human genome

The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.

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Human Genome Project

The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.

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Human Variome Project

The Human Variome Project (HVP) is the global initiative to collect and curate all human genetic variation affecting human health.

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Immunohistochemistry

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) involves the process of selectively imaging antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.

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In silico

In silico (literally cod Latin for "in silicon", alluding to the mass use of silicon for semiconductor computer chips) is an expression used to mean "performed on computer or via computer simulation." The phrase was coined in 1989 as an allusion to the Latin phrases in vivo, in vitro, and in situ, which are commonly used in biology (see also systems biology) and refer to experiments done in living organisms, outside living organisms, and where they are found in nature, respectively.

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Infertility

Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.

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Informatics

Informatics is a branch of information engineering.

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Information theory

Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.

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Insulin

Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology

Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB) is an annual academic conference on the subjects of bioinformatics and computational biology organised by the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB).

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Interactome

In molecular biology, an interactome is the whole set of molecular interactions in a particular cell.

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Interdisciplinarity

Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).

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International Society for Computational Biology

Founded in 1997, the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) is a scholarly society for researchers in computational biology and bioinformatics working towards advancing understanding of living systems through computation and for communicating scientific advances worldwide.

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InterPro

InterPro is a database of protein families, domains and functional sites in which identifiable features found in known proteins can be applied to new protein sequences in order to functionally characterise them.

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J. Craig Venter Institute

The J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) is a non-profit genomics research institute founded by J. Craig Venter, Ph.D. in October 2006.

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Johns Hopkins University

Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.

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Jumping library

Jumping libraries or junction-fragment libraries are collections of genomic DNA fragments generated by chromosome jumping.

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K-means clustering

k-means clustering is a method of vector quantization, originally from signal processing, that is popular for cluster analysis in data mining.

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KEGG

KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a collection of databases dealing with genomes, biological pathways, diseases, drugs, and chemical substances.

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Kepler scientific workflow system

Kepler is a free software system for designing, executing, reusing, evolving, archiving, and sharing scientific workflows.

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Leghemoglobin

Leghemoglobin (also leghaemoglobin or legoglobin) is an oxygen carrier and hemoprotein found in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants.

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Lesion

A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.

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Lior Pachter

Lior Pachter is a computational biologist.

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List of bioinformatics companies

This is a list of bioinformatics companies that have articles at Wikipedia.

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List of bioinformatics institutions

This is a list of major bioinformatics institutions.

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List of bioinformatics journals

This is a list of articles about journals containing peer-reviewed scientific journals that focus on bioinformatics and computational biology.

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List of open-source bioinformatics software

This is a list of computer software which is made for bioinformatics and released under open-source software licenses with articles in Wikipedia.

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List of sequence alignment software

This list of sequence alignment software is a compilation of software tools and web portals used in pairwise sequence alignment and multiple sequence alignment.

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Machine learning

Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to "learn" (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.

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Macromolecular docking

Macromolecular docking is the computational modelling of the quaternary structure of complexes formed by two or more interacting biological macromolecules.

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Margaret Oakley Dayhoff

Margaret Belle (Oakley) Dayhoff (March 11, 1925 – February 5, 1983) was an American physical chemist and a pioneer in the field of bioinformatics.

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Markov chain Monte Carlo

In statistics, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods comprise a class of algorithms for sampling from a probability distribution.

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Mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

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Massive open online course

A massive open online course (MOOC) is an online course aimed at unlimited participation and open access via the web.

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Massively parallel signature sequencing

Massive parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) is a procedure that is used to identify and quantify mRNA transcripts, resulting in data similar to serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), although it employs a series of biochemical and sequencing steps that are substantially different.

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Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Medical imaging

Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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Metabolic network

A metabolic network is the complete set of metabolic and physical processes that determine the physiological and biochemical properties of a cell.

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Metabolism

Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Metabolomics

Metabolomics is the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites, the small molecule intermediates and products of metabolism.

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Methods (journal)

Methods is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on techniques in the experimental biological and medical sciences.

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Microarray

A microarray is a multiplex lab-on-a-chip.

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Microbiota

A microbiota is an "ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms" found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals.

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Mitochondrion

The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Modelling biological systems

Modelling biological systems is a significant task of systems biology and mathematical biology.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Molecular phylogenetics

Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.

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Morphometrics

Morphometrics (from Greek μορϕή morphe, "shape, form", and -μετρία metria, "measurement") or morphometry refers to the quantitative analysis of form, a concept that encompasses size and shape.

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Multiple sequence alignment

A multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a sequence alignment of three or more biological sequences, generally protein, DNA, or RNA.

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Mutation

In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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National Center for Biotechnology Information

The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.

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New York Genome Center

The New York Genome Center (NYGC) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit biomedical research organization in New York, New York.

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Noise

Noise is unwanted sound judged to be unpleasant, loud or disruptive to hearing.

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Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins (usually abbreviated protein NMR) is a field of structural biology in which NMR spectroscopy is used to obtain information about the structure and dynamics of proteins, and also nucleic acids, and their complexes.

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Nuclear organization

Nuclear organization refers to the spatial distribution of chromatin within a cell nucleus.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.

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Nucleic acid sequence

A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

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Nucleotide

Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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Objectivity (science)

Objectivity in science is a value that informs how science is practiced and how scientific truths are discovered.

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OBO Foundry

The Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry (now The Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry) is a collaborative experiment involving developers of science-based ontologies.

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Oligonucleotide

Oligonucleotides are short DNA or RNA molecules, oligomers, that have a wide range of applications in genetic testing, research, and forensics.

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Ontology (information science)

In computer science and information science, an ontology encompasses a representation, formal naming, and definition of the categories, properties, and relations of the concepts, data, and entities that substantiate one, many, or all domains.

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Open Bioinformatics Foundation

The Open Bioinformatics Foundation is a non profit, volunteer run organization focused on supporting open source programming in bioinformatics.

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Open-source software

Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software whose source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.

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Orange (software)

Orange is an open-source data visualization, machine learning and data mining toolkit.

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Organelle

In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.

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Owen White

Owen White is a bioinformatician and director of the Institute For Genome Sciences at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.

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Pattern recognition

Pattern recognition is a branch of machine learning that focuses on the recognition of patterns and regularities in data, although it is in some cases considered to be nearly synonymous with machine learning.

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Paulien Hogeweg

Paulien Hogeweg (born 1943) is a Dutch theoretical biologist and complex systems researcher studying biological systems as dynamic information processing systems at many interconnected levels.

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Pfam

Pfam is a database of protein families that includes their annotations and multiple sequence alignments generated using hidden Markov models.

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Phi X 174

The phi X 174 (or ΦX174) bacteriophage is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus and the first DNA-based genome to be sequenced.

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Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.

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Phylogenetics

In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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Plug-in (computing)

In computing, a plug-in (or plugin, add-in, addin, add-on, addon, or extension) is a software component that adds a specific feature to an existing computer program.

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Point mutation

A point mutation is a genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base is changed, inserted or deleted from a sequence of DNA or RNA.

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Population genetics

Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.

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Prion

Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.

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Programming tool

A programming tool or software development tool is a computer program that software developers use to create, debug, maintain, or otherwise support other programs and applications.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein Data Bank

The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a crystallographic database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids.

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Protein domain

A protein domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and (tertiary) structure that can evolve, function, and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain.

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Protein function prediction

Protein function prediction methods are techniques that bioinformatics researchers use to assign biological or biochemical roles to proteins.

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Protein microarray

A protein microarray (or protein chip) is a high-throughput method used to track the interactions and activities of proteins, and to determine their function, and determining function on a large scale.

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Protein primary structure

Protein primary structure is the linear sequence of amino acids in a peptide or protein.

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Protein structure

Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule.

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Protein structure prediction

Protein structure prediction is the inference of the three-dimensional structure of a protein from its amino acid sequence—that is, the prediction of its folding and its secondary and tertiary structure from its primary structure.

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Protein subcellular localization prediction

Protein subcellular localization prediction (or just protein localization prediction) involves the prediction of where a protein resides in a cell, its subcellular localization.

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Protein–protein interaction

Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect.

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Proteomics

Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins.

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Provenance

Provenance (from the French provenir, 'to come from/forth') is the chronology of the ownership, custody or location of a historical object.

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Quantitative structure–activity relationship

Quantitative structure–activity relationship models (QSAR models) are regression or classification models used in the chemical and biological sciences and engineering.

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Raspberry Pi

The Raspberry Pi is a series of small single-board computers developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi Foundation to promote the teaching of basic computer science in schools and in developing countries.

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Regulation of gene expression

Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.

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Regulatory sequence

A regulatory sequence is a segment of a nucleic acid molecule which is capable of increasing or decreasing the expression of specific genes within an organism.

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Representational state transfer

Representational State Transfer (REST) is an architectural style that defines a set of constraints and properties based on HTTP.

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Research in Computational Molecular Biology

Research in Computational Molecular Biology (RECOMB) is an annual academic conference on the subjects of bioinformatics and computational biology.

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RNA splicing

In molecular biology, splicing is the editing of the nascent precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) transcript into a mature messenger RNA (mRNA).

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RNA-Seq

RNA-Seq (RNA sequencing), also called whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (WTSS), uses next-generation sequencing (NGS) to reveal the presence and quantity of RNA in a biological sample at a given moment.

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Rosalind (education platform)

Rosalind is an educational resource and web project for learning bioinformatics through problem solving and computer programming.

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Self-organizing map

A self-organizing map (SOM) or self-organizing feature map (SOFM) is a type of artificial neural network (ANN) that is trained using unsupervised learning to produce a low-dimensional (typically two-dimensional), discretized representation of the input space of the training samples, called a map, and is therefore a method to do dimensionality reduction.

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Sequence alignment

In bioinformatics, a sequence alignment is a way of arranging the sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of similarity that may be a consequence of functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships between the sequences.

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Sequence assembly

In bioinformatics, sequence assembly refers to aligning and merging fragments from a longer DNA sequence in order to reconstruct the original sequence.

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Sequence motif

In genetics, a sequence motif is a nucleotide or amino-acid sequence pattern that is widespread and has, or is conjectured to have, a biological significance.

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Sequence Read Archive

The Sequence Read Archive (SRA, previously known as the Short Read Archive) is a bioinformatics database that provides a public repository for DNA sequencing data, especially the "short reads" generated by High-throughput sequencing, which are typically less than 1,000 base pairs in length.

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Sequencing

In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (sometimes falsely called primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer.

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Serial analysis of gene expression

Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a transcriptomic technique used by molecular biologists to produce a snapshot of the messenger RNA population in a sample of interest in the form of small tags that correspond to fragments of those transcripts.

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Service-orientation

Service-orientation is a design paradigm for computer software in the form of services.

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Shotgun sequencing

In genetics, shotgun sequencing is a method used for sequencing long DNA strands.

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Signal

A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".

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Signal processing

Signal processing concerns the analysis, synthesis, and modification of signals, which are broadly defined as functions conveying "information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon", such as sound, images, and biological measurements.

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Signal transduction

Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.

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Single-nucleotide polymorphism

A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).

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SOAP

SOAP (originally Simple Object Access Protocol) is a messaging protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of web services in computer networks.

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Soft computing

In computer science, soft computing (sometimes referred to as computational intelligence, though CI does not have an agreed definition) is the use of inexact solutions to computationally hard tasks such as the solution of NP-complete problems, for which there is no known algorithm that can compute an exact solution in polynomial time.

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Software

Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.

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Speciation

Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.

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Species

In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Species richness

Species richness is the number of different species represented in an ecological community, landscape or region.

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Speciesism

Speciesism involves the assignment of different values, rights, or special consideration to individuals solely on the basis of their species membership.

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Srinivas Aluru

Srinivas Aluru is a professor in the School of Computational Science and Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology, and co-Executive Director for the Georgia Tech Interdisciplinary Research Institute in Data Engineering and Science.

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

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Statistics

Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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Structural alignment

Structural alignment attempts to establish homology between two or more polymer structures based on their shape and three-dimensional conformation.

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Structural bioinformatics

Structural bioinformatics is the branch of bioinformatics which is related to the analysis and prediction of the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules such as proteins, RNA, and DNA.

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Sulston score

The Sulston score is an equation used in DNA mapping to numerically assess the likelihood that a given "fingerprint" similarity between two DNA clones is merely a result of chance.

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Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics

The SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics is an academic not-for-profit foundation which federates bioinformatics activities throughout Switzerland.

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Systems theory

Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems.

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Taxonomic database

A taxonomic database is a database created to hold information related to biological taxa - for example groups of organisms organized by species name or other taxonomic identifier - for efficient data management and information retrieval as required.

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Terabyte

The terabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

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Text mining

Text mining, also referred to as text data mining, roughly equivalent to text analytics, is the process of deriving high-quality information from text.

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Tissue microarray

Tissue microarrays (also TMAs) consist of paraffin blocks in which up to 1000 separate tissue cores are assembled in array fashion to allow multiplex histological analysis.

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Topologically associating domain

A topologically associating domain (TAD) is a self-interacting genomic region, meaning that DNA sequences within a TAD physically interact with each other more frequently than with sequences outside the TAD.

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UGENE

UGENE is computer software for bioinformatics.

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Umbrella term

An umbrella term is a word or phrase that covers a wide range of concepts belonging to a common category.

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UniProt

UniProt is a freely accessible database of protein sequence and functional information, many entries being derived from genome sequencing projects.

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University of California, San Diego

The University of California, San Diego is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, in the United States.

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Virtual screening

Virtual screening (VS) is a computational technique used in drug discovery to search libraries of small molecules in order to identify those structures which are most likely to bind to a drug target, typically a protein receptor or enzyme.

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Workflow management system

A workflow system provides an infrastructure for the set-up, performance and monitoring of a defined sequence of tasks, arranged as a workflow application.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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.NET Bio

.NET Bio was originally built and released by Microsoft Research under the name Microsoft Biology Foundation (MBF) and was part of the Microsoft Biology Initiative in the eScience division.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bioinformatics

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