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Biological half-life

Index Biological half-life

The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential. [1]

69 relations: Adenosine, Alcohol, Alcohol dehydrogenase, Amiodarone, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Bedaquiline, Blood, Blood plasma, Blood–brain barrier, Bone, Brain, Buprenorphine, Cadmium, Caesium, Cell signaling, Central nervous system, Chelation therapy, Clearance (pharmacology), Clonazepam, Day, Diazepam, Donepezil, Drug, Dutasteride, Eating, Effective half-life, Ethanol, Ethylene glycol, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Fluoxetine, Flurazepam, Formaldehyde, Formic acid, Half-life, Intravenous therapy, Ion exchange, Lead, Liver, Loading dose, Mercury (element), Metabolite, Methadone, Methanol, Methotrexate, Methylmercury, Morphine, Nasal administration, Nordazepam, Norepinephrine (medication), Oxaliplatin, ..., Oxytocin, Phenytoin, Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling, Plasma protein binding, Plutonium, Polonium, Potassium, Prussian blue, Psychoactive drug, Psychoneuroendocrinology (journal), Reaction rate constant, Salbutamol, Sodium thiopental, Toxicity, Tritiated water, Tritium, Visual impairment, Volume of distribution, Zaleplon. Expand index (19 more) »


Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.

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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Alcohol dehydrogenase

Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones with the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ to NADH).

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Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic medication used to treat and prevent a number of types of irregular heartbeats.

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Atomic Energy Research Establishment

The Atomic Energy Research Establishment, known as AERE or colloquially Harwell Laboratory, near Harwell, Oxfordshire, was the main centre for atomic energy research and development in the United Kingdom from the 1940s to the 1990s.

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Bedaquiline, sold under the brand name Sirturo, is a medication used to treat active tuberculosis.

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Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Blood plasma

Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.

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Blood–brain barrier

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).

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A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Buprenorphine, sold under the brand name Subutex, among others, is an opioid used to treat opioid addiction, acute pain, and chronic pain.

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Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.

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Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.

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Cell signaling

Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Chelation therapy

Chelation therapy is a medical procedure that involves the administration of chelating agents to remove heavy metals from the body.

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Clearance (pharmacology)

In pharmacology, the clearance is a pharmacokinetic measurement of the volume of plasma from which a substance is completely removed per unit time; the usual units are mL/min.

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Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and for the movement disorder known as akathisia.

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A day, a unit of time, is approximately the period of time during which the Earth completes one rotation with respect to the Sun (solar day).

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Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.

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Donepezil, marketed under the trade name Aricept, is a medication used in the palliative treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

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A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.

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Dutasteride, sold under the brand name Avodart among others, is a medication used primarily to treat enlarged prostate in men.

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Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to allow for growth.

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Effective half-life

In pharmacokinetics, effective half-life is the rate of accumulation or elimination of a biochemical or pharmacological substance in an organism, the biological half-life, when the kinetics are governed by multiple independent mechanisms.

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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Ethylene glycol

Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2.

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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also known by several other names, is a chemical originating in multiseasonal plants with dormancy stages as a lipidopreservative which helps to develop the stem, currently used for both industrial and medical purposes.

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Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.

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Flurazepam (marketed under the brand names Dalmane and Dalmadorm) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative.

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No description.

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Formic acid

Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid.

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Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.

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Intravenous therapy

Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).

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Ion exchange

Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex.

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Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Loading dose

A loading dose is an initial higher dose of a drug that may be given at the beginning of a course of treatment before dropping down to a lower maintenance dose.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.

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Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.

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Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).

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Methotrexate (MTX), formerly known as amethopterin, is a chemotherapy agent and immune system suppressant.

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Methylmercury (sometimes methyl mercury) is an organometallic cation with the formula.

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Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.

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Nasal administration

Nasal administration is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose.

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Nordazepam (INN; marketed under brand names Nordaz, Stilny, Madar, Vegesan, and Calmday; also known as nordiazepam, desoxydemoxepam, and desmethyldiazepam) is a 1,4-benzodiazepine derivative.

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Norepinephrine (medication)

Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a medication used to treat people with very low blood pressure.

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Oxaliplatin, sold under the brand name Eloxatin, is a cancer medication used to treat colorectal cancer.

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Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.

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Phenytoin (PHT), sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication.

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Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling is a mathematical modeling technique for predicting the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of synthetic or natural chemical substances in humans and other animal species.

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Plasma protein binding

Plasma protein binding refers to the degree to which medications attach to proteins within the blood.

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Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.

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Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84.

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Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Prussian blue

Prussian blue is a dark blue pigment produced by oxidation of ferrous ferrocyanide salts.

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Psychoactive drug

A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.

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Psychoneuroendocrinology (journal)

Psychoneuroendocrinology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in psychoneuroendocrinology published by Elsevier.

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Reaction rate constant

In chemical kinetics a reaction rate constant or reaction rate coefficient, k, quantifies the rate of a chemical reaction.

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Salbutamol, also known as albuterol and marketed as Ventolin among other names, is a medication that opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs.

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Sodium thiopental

Sodium thiopental, also known as Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories, not to be confused with pentobarbital), thiopental, thiopentone, or Trapanal (also a trademark), is a rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic that is an analogue of thiobarbital.

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Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.

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Tritiated water

Tritiated water is a radioactive form of water where the usual protium atoms are replaced with tritium.

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Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.

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Visual impairment

Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.

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Volume of distribution

In pharmacology, the volume of distribution (VD, also known as apparent volume of distribution) is the theoretical volume that would be necessary to contain the total amount of an administered drug at the same concentration that it is observed in the blood plasma.

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Zaleplon (marketed under the brand names Sonata, Starnoc, and Andante) is a sedative-hypnotic, almost entirely used for the management/treatment of insomnia.

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Absorption half-life, Biological half life, Biological halflife, Biological halflive, Blood half-life, Distribution half-life, Drug half-life, Elimination half life, Elimination half-life, Half-life, biological, Metabolic half life, Plasma half-life, Terminal half-life.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_half-life

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