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Biological organisation

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Biological organization is the hierarchy of complex biological structures and systems that define life using a reductionistic approach. [1]

72 relations: Abiogenesis, Abiotic component, Atom, Behavioral neuroscience, Biocoenosis, Biological interaction, Biological system, Biology, Biome, Biomolecular complex, Biosphere, Branches of science, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cell (biology), Cell theory, Cellular differentiation, Cengage, Chemical element, Chemistry, Cognitive neuroscience, Community (ecology), Complex system, Composition of the human body, DDT, Disease, Dissipative system, Domain (biology), Ecology, Ecosystem, Emergence, Evolutionary biology, Gaia hypothesis, Gene, Genome, Herbert A. Simon, Hierarchy, Histology, Holon (philosophy), Holt McDougal, Howard T. Odum, Human ecology, Insecticide, Life, Living systems, Location of Earth, Medicine, MIT Press, Molecule, New York City, Noogenesis, ..., Organ (anatomy), Organ system, Organelle, Organism, Outline of Earth sciences, Pharmacology, Phenomenon, Physical system, Physiology, Population, Reductionism, Scientific method, Self-organization, Set theory, Species, Spontaneous order, Springer Science+Business Media, Structure, Subatomic particle, System, Systems theory, Tissue (biology). Expand index (22 more) »

Abiogenesis

Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.

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Abiotic component

In biology and ecology, abiotic components or abiotic factors are non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the functioning of ecosystems.

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Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Behavioral neuroscience

Behavioral neuroscience, also known as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology, Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary is the application of the principles of biology to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and other animals.

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Biocoenosis

A biocenosis (UK English, biocoenosis, also biocenose, biocoenose, biotic community, biological community, ecological community, life assemblage) coined by Karl Möbius in 1877, describes the interacting organisms living together in a habitat (biotope).

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Biological interaction

Biological interactions are the effects that the organisms in a community have on each other.

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Biological system

A biological system is a complex network of biologically relevant entities.

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Biology

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Biome

A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.

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Biomolecular complex

Biomolecular complex, also called macromolecular complex or biomacromolecular complex, is any biological complex made of more than one molecule of protein, RNA, DNA, lipids, carbohydrates.

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Biosphere

The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.

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Branches of science

The branches of science, also referred to as sciences, "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines" are commonly divided into three major groups.

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Cambridge, Massachusetts

Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell theory

In biology, cell theory is the historic scientific theory, now universally accepted, that living organisms are made up of cells, that they are the basic structural/organizational unit of all organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.

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Cellular differentiation

In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.

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Cengage

Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Cognitive neuroscience

The term cognitive neuroscience was coined by George Armitage Miller and Michael Gazzaniga in year 1976.

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Community (ecology)

In ecology, a community is a group or association of populations of two or more different species occupying the same geographical area and in a particular time, also known as a biocoenosis The term community has a variety of uses.

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Complex system

A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other.

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Composition of the human body

Body composition may be analyzed in terms of molecular type e.g., water, protein, connective tissue, fats (or lipids), hydroxylapatite (in bones), carbohydrates (such as glycogen and glucose) and DNA.

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DDT

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts.

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Disease

A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Dissipative system

A dissipative system is a thermodynamically open system which is operating out of, and often far from, thermodynamic equilibrium in an environment with which it exchanges energy and matter.

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Domain (biology)

In biological taxonomy, a domain (Latin: regio), also superkingdom or empire, is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist.

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Ecology

Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.

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Ecosystem

An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Emergence

In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.

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Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.

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Gaia hypothesis

The Gaia hypothesis, also known as the Gaia theory or the Gaia principle, proposes that living organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic and self-regulating, complex system that helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for life on the planet.

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Gene

In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Genome

In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Herbert A. Simon

Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American economist and political scientist whose primary interest was decision-making within organizations and is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing".

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Hierarchy

A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.

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Histology

Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.

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Holon (philosophy)

A holon (Greek: ὅλον, holon neuter form of ὅλος, holos "whole") is something that is simultaneously a whole and a part.

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Holt McDougal

Holt McDougal is an American publishing company, a division of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, that specializes in textbooks for use in secondary schools.

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Howard T. Odum

Howard Thomas Odum (also known as Tom or just H.T.) (September 1, 1924 – September 11, 2002) was an American ecologist.

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Human ecology

Human ecology is an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary study of the relationship between humans and their natural, social, and built environments.

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Insecticide

Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.

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Life

Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

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Living systems

Living systems are open self-organizing life forms that interact with their environment.

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Location of Earth

Knowledge of the location of Earth has been shaped by 400 years of telescopic observations, and has expanded radically in the last century.

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Medicine

Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Noogenesis

Noogenesis (Ancient Greek: νοῦς.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Organ system

In biology, an organ system is a group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions.

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Organelle

In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.

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Organism

In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Outline of Earth sciences

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Earth science: Earth science – all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth.

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Pharmacology

Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).

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Phenomenon

A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.

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Physical system

In physics, a physical system is a portion of the physical universe chosen for analysis.

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Physiology

Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.

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Population

In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.

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Reductionism

Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.

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Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

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Self-organization

Self-organization, also called (in the social sciences) spontaneous order, is a process where some form of overall order arises from local interactions between parts of an initially disordered system.

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Set theory

Set theory is a branch of mathematical logic that studies sets, which informally are collections of objects.

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Species

In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Spontaneous order

Spontaneous order, also named self-organization in the hard sciences, is the spontaneous emergence of order out of seeming chaos.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Structure

Structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized.

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Subatomic particle

In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.

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System

A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.

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Systems theory

Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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Biological organization, Ecological organisation, Ecological organization, Ecological structure, Hierarchical Ecology, Hierarchical ecology, Hierarchy of life, Level of cell organization, Levels of Organization, Levels of Organization (anatomy), Levels of Organization (ecology), Levels of biological organisation, Levels of biological organization, Levels of organization, Levels of organization (ecology).

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_organisation

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