46 relations: Adverse effect, Agonist, BindingDB, Biological activity, Birth control, Channel blocker, Chemical compound, Classical pharmacology, Conserved sequence, Covalent bond, Drug, Drug discovery, DrugBank, Environmental impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products, Enzyme, Enzyme activator, Enzyme inhibitor, Esterase, Estrogen, Ethinylestradiol, Evolutionary pressure, Feminization (biology), G protein–coupled receptor, Hormone, Insulin, Inverse agonist, Ion channel, Ligand (biochemistry), Ligand-gated ion channel, Medication, Membrane transport protein, Non-covalent interactions, Nuclear receptor, Nucleic acid, Phosphatase, Protease, Protein, Protein kinase, Protein structure, Receptor (biochemistry), Receptor antagonist, Reverse pharmacology, Therapeutic effect, Therapeutic Targets Database, Tubulin, Voltage-gated ion channel.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
BindingDB is a public, web-accessible database of measured binding affinities, focusing chiefly on the interactions of proteins considered to be candidate drug-targets with ligands that are small, drug-like molecules.
In pharmacology, biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.
A channel blocker is the biological mechanism in which a particular molecule is used to prevent the opening of ion channels in order to produce a physiological response in a cell.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
In the field of drug discovery, classical pharmacology, also known as forward pharmacology, or phenotypic drug discovery (PDD), relies on phenotypic screening (screening in intact cells or whole organisms) of chemical libraries of synthetic small molecules, natural products or extracts to identify substances that have a desirable therapeutic effect.
In evolutionary biology, conserved sequences are similar or identical sequences in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) or proteins across species (orthologous sequences) or within a genome (paralogous sequences).
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered.
The DrugBank database is a comprehensive, freely accessible, online database containing information on drugs and drug targets.
The environmental effect of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is largely speculative.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Enzyme activators are molecules that bind to enzymes and increase their activity.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
An esterase is a hydrolase enzyme that splits esters into an acid and an alcohol in a chemical reaction with water called hydrolysis.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an estrogen medication which is used widely in birth control pills in combination with progestins.
Any cause that reduces reproductive success in a portion of a population potentially exerts evolutionary pressure, selective pressure or selection pressure.
In biology and medicine, feminization is the development in an organism of physical characteristics that are usually unique to the female of the species.
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
In the field of pharmacology, an inverse agonist is an agent that binds to the same receptor as an agonist but induces a pharmacological response opposite to that agonist.
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane.
A non-covalent interaction differs from a covalent bond in that it does not involve the sharing of electrons, but rather involves more dispersed variations of electromagnetic interactions between molecules or within a molecule.
In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
A phosphatase is an enzyme that uses water to cleave a phosphoric acid monoester into a phosphate ion and an alcohol.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
A protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation).
Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
In the field of drug discovery, reverse pharmacology also known as target-based drug discovery (TDD), a hypothesis is first made that modulation of the activity of a specific protein target will have beneficial therapeutic effects.
Therapeutic effect refers to the responses(s) after a treatment of any kind, the results of which are judged to be desirable and beneficial.
Therapeutic Target Database (TTD) is a database provided by in National University of Singapore and (IDRB) in, which provides information about the known and explored therapeutic protein and nucleic acid targets, the targeted disease, pathway information and the corresponding drugs directed at each of these targets.
Tubulin in molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member proteins of that superfamily.
Voltage-gated ion channels are a class of transmembrane proteins that form ion channels that are activated by changes in the electrical membrane potential near the channel.