136 relations: Abies alba, Abiotic component, Abyssal zone, Afrotropical realm, Agricultural land, Agriculture, Antarctic realm, Anthropogenic biome, Arctic, Arid, Arthur Tansley, Australasian realm, Aziz Ab'Sáber, Benthic zone, Biocoenosis, Biodiversity, Biogeographic realm, Biogeography, Biomics, Biosphere, Biotope, Bivalvia, Central Indo-Pacific, Chaparral, Climate, Climate classification, Cline (biology), Cold seep, Continental climate, Continental shelf, Coral, Coral reef, David Goodall (botanist), Deciduous, Deep sea, Desert, Deserts and xeric shrublands, Dinaric Mountains mixed forests, Drift ice, Ecoregion, Ecosystem, Ecotope, Encyclopedia of Earth, Endolith, Endorheic basin, Evapotranspiration, Flooded grasslands and savannas, Flora, Forestry, Frederic Clements, ..., Fresh water, Global 200, Grassland, Habitat, Hadal zone, Heinrich Walter, Human microbiota, Human settlement, Humid continental climate, Humid subtropical climate, Hydrothermal vent, Ice cap climate, Indomalayan realm, International Biological Program, Intertidal zone, Island, Karl Möbius, Kelp forest, Lake, Land use, Life zone, List of biogeographic provinces, Littoral zone, Logistic regression, Longhurst code, Mangrove, Mediterranean climate, Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub, Mediterranean Sea, Montane grasslands and shrublands, Natural environment, Nearctic realm, Nekton, Nemoral, Neotropical realm, Neritic zone, Oceanian realm, Oceanic climate, Orjen, Palearctic realm, Pelagic zone, Physiognomy, Phytochorion, Pinophyta, Plant community, Polar climate, Porosity, Rain, Rangeland, River delta, Robert Bailey (geographer), Robert Whittaker, Savanna, Sclerophyll, Sea, Seasonal tropical forest, Southern Ocean, Subarctic climate, Subtropics, Sunlight, Taiga, Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest, Temperate climate, Temperate coniferous forest, Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands, Temperate Northern Pacific, Thallophyte, The New York Times, Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests, Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests, Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands, Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, Tropical Atlantic, Tropical Eastern Pacific, Tropical rainforest, Tropics, Tundra, Upland and lowland, Upwelling, Urbanization, Vegetation, Vegetation type, Western Indo-Pacific, Wetland, Woodland, World Wide Fund for Nature. Expand index (86 more) » « Shrink index
Abies alba, the European silver fir or silver fir, is a fir native to the mountains of Europe, from the Pyrenees north to Normandy, east to the Alps and the Carpathians, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Serbia and south to Italy, Bulgaria and northern Greece.
In biology and ecology, abiotic components or abiotic factors are non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the functioning of ecosystems.
The abyssal zone or abyssopelagic zone is a layer of the pelagic zone of the ocean.
The Afrotropical realm is one of the Earth's eight biogeographic realms.
Agricultural land is typically land devoted to agriculture, the systematic and controlled use of other forms of lifeparticularly the rearing of livestock and production of cropsto produce food for humans.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
The Antarctical realm is one of eight terrestrial biogeographic realms.
Anthropogenic biomes, also known as anthromes or human biomes, describe the terrestrial biosphere in its contemporary, human-altered form using global ecosystem units defined by global patterns of sustained direct human interaction with ecosystems.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.
Sir Arthur George Tansley FLS, FRS (15 August 1871 – 25 November 1955) was an English botanist and a pioneer in the science of ecology.
The Australasian realm is a biogeographic realm that is coincident, but not synonymous (by some definitions), with the geographical region of Australasia.
Aziz Nacib Ab'Sáber (October 24, 1924 – March 16, 2012) was an environmentalist and one of Brazil´s most respected scientists, honored with the highest awards of Brazilian science in geography, geology, ecology and archaeology.
The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers.
A biocenosis (UK English, biocoenosis, also biocenose, biocoenose, biotic community, biological community, ecological community, life assemblage) coined by Karl Möbius in 1877, describes the interacting organisms living together in a habitat (biotope).
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
A biogeographic realm or ecozone is the broadest biogeographic division of the Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial organisms.
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time.
Biomics is the biological study of biomes, and the processing of obtained information, such as ecological communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
A biotope is an area of uniform environmental conditions providing a living place for a specific assemblage of plants and animals.
Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.
The Central Indo-Pacific is a biogeographic region of the Earth's seas, comprising the tropical waters of the western Pacific Ocean, the eastern Indian Ocean, and the connecting seas.
Chaparral is a shrubland or heathland plant community found primarily in the US state of California and in the northern portion of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Climate classification systems are ways of classifying the world's climates.
In biology, a cline (from the Greek “klinein”, meaning “to lean”) is a measurable gradient in a single character (or biological trait) of a species across its geographical range.
A cold seep (sometimes called a cold vent) is an area of the ocean floor where hydrogen sulfide, methane and other hydrocarbon-rich fluid seepage occurs, often in the form of a brine pool.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
David William Goodall (4 April 1914 – 10 May 2018) was an English-born Australian botanist and ecologist.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
The deep sea or deep layer is the lowest layer in the ocean, existing below the thermocline and above the seabed, at a depth of 1000 fathoms (1800 m) or more.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Deserts and xeric shrublands are a biome characterized by receiving only a small amount of moisture, usually defined as less than 250 mm of annual precipitation.
The Dinaric Mountains mixed forests form a terrestrial ecoregion of the Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests Biome in Southeastern Europe, according to both the WWF and Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency.
Drift ice is any sea ice other than fast ice, the latter being attached ("fastened") to the shoreline or other fixed objects (shoals, grounded icebergs, etc.).Leppäranta, M. 2011.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Ecotopes are the smallest ecologically distinct landscape features in a landscape mapping and classification system.
The Encyclopedia of Earth (abbreviated EoE) is an electronic reference about the Earth, its natural environments, and their interaction with society.
An endolith is an organism (archaeon, bacterium, fungus, lichen, algae or amoeba) that lives inside rock, coral, animal shells, or in the pores between mineral grains of a rock.
An endorheic basin (also endoreic basin or endorreic basin) (from the ἔνδον, éndon, "within" and ῥεῖν, rheîn, "to flow") is a limited drainage basin that normally retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps, permanent or seasonal, that equilibrate through evaporation.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere.
Flooded grasslands and savannas is a terrestrial biome of the WWF biogeographical system.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
Frederic Edward Clements (September 16, 1874 – July 26, 1945) was an American plant ecologist and pioneer in the study of vegetation succession.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
The Global 200 is the list of ecoregions identified by WWF, the global conservation organization, as priorities for conservation.
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
The hadal zone (named after the realm of Hades, the underworld in Greek mythology), also known as the hadopelagic zone, is the deepest region of the ocean lying within oceanic trenches.
Heinrich Karl Walter (21 October 1898 – 15 October 1989) was a German-Russian botanist and eco-physiologist.
The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms that resides on or within any of a number of human tissues and biofluids, including the skin, mammary glands, placenta, seminal fluid, uterus, ovarian follicles, lung, saliva, oral mucosa, conjunctiva, biliary and gastrointestinal tracts.
In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
An ice cap climate is a polar climate where the temperature never exceeds.
The Indomalayan realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms.
The International Biological Program (IBP) was an effort between 1964 and 1974 to coordinate large-scale ecological and environmental studies.
The intertidal zone, also known as the foreshore and seashore and sometimes referred to as the littoral zone, is the area that is above water at low tide and under water at high tide (in other words, the area between tide marks).
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.
Karl August Möbius (7 February 1825 in Eilenburg – 26 April 1908 in Berlin) was a German zoologist who was a pioneer in the field of ecology and a former director of the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin.
Kelp forests are underwater areas with a high density of kelp.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as settlements and semi-natural habitats such as arable fields, pastures, and managed woods.
The life zone concept was developed by C. Hart Merriam in 1889 as a means of describing areas with similar plant and animal communities.
Biogeographic Province is a biotic subdivision of realms.
The littoral zone is the part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore.
In statistics, the logistic model (or logit model) is a statistical model that is usually taken to apply to a binary dependent variable.
Longhurst code refers to a set of geospatial four-letter geocodes for referencing geographic regions in oceanography.
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub are generally characterized by dry summers and rainy winters, although in some areas rainfall may be uniform.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Montane grasslands and shrublands is a biome defined by the World Wildlife Fund.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
The Nearctic is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface.
Nekton or necton refers to the aggregate of actively swimming aquatic organisms in a body of water.
Nemoral (pertaining to groves or woodland) biome zones according to the Walter classification system have a moderate temperate climate with short frost periods and are characterized by frost-resistant broadleaved deciduous forests.
The Neotropical realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface.
The neritic zone is the relatively shallow part of the ocean above the drop-off of the continental shelf, approximately in depth.
The Oceanian realm is one of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) biogeographic realms, and is unique in not including any continental land mass.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
Orjen (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Орјен) is transboundary Dinaric Mediterranean limestone mountain range, that stretches cca 25 km between Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight biogeographic realms on the Earth's surface, first identified in the 19th century, and still in use today as the basis for zoogeographic classification.
The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth.
Physiognomy (from the Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature" and gnomon meaning "judge" or "interpreter") is the assessment of character or personality from a person's outer appearance, especially the face often linked to racial and sexual stereotyping.
A phytochorion, in phytogeography, is a geographic area with a relatively uniform composition of plant species.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
A plant community (sometimes "phytocoenosis" or "phytocenosis") is a collection or association of plant species within a designated geographical unit, which forms a relatively uniform patch, distinguishable from neighboring patches of different vegetation types.
The polar climate regions are characterized by a lack of warm summers.
Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e. "empty") spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0% and 100%.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
Rangelands are grasslands, shrublands, woodlands, wetlands, and deserts that are grazed by domestic livestock or wild animals.
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
Robert G. Bailey (born 1939) is an American geographer.
Robert Harding Whittaker (December 27, 1920 – October 20, 1980) was a distinguished American plant ecologist, active in the 1950s to the 1970s.
A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.
Sclerophyll is a type of vegetation that has hard leaves, short internodes (the distance between leaves along the stem) and leaf orientation parallel or oblique to direct sunlight.
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.
Seasonal tropical forest: also known as moist deciduous, semi-evergreen seasonal, tropical mixed or monsoon forests, typically contain a range of tree species: only some of which drop some or all of their leaves during the dry season.
The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.
The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, subalpine climate, or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate terrestrial biome, with broadleaf tree ecoregions, and with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Temperate coniferous forest is a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest.
Temperate grasslands, savannahs, and shrublands are terrestrial biomes whose predominant vegetation consists of grass and/or shrubs.
The Temperate Northern Pacific is a biogeographic region of the Earth's seas, comprising the temperate waters of the northern Pacific Ocean.
The thallophytes (Thallophyta or Thallobionta) are a polyphyletic group of non-mobile organisms traditionally described as "thalloid plants", "relatively simple plants" or "lower plants".
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests are a tropical forest biome.
The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome, also known as tropical dry forest, monsoon forest, vine thicket, vine scrub and dry rainforest is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes.
Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands are terrestrial biomes dominated by grass and/or shrubs located in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes.
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome, sometimes referred to as jungle.
The Tropical Atlantic realm is one of twelve marine realms that cover the world's coastal seas and continental shelves.
The Tropical Eastern Pacific is one of the twelve marine realms that cover the shallow oceans of the world.
Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
Upland and lowland are conditional descriptions of a plain based on elevation above sea level.
Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Vegetation is an assemblage of plant species and the ground cover they provide.
Vegetation type or plant community refers to members of a group or aspect of plants that are often found growing in an area together (plant associates), or that share similar environmental conditions, characterized by the presence of one or more dominant species.
The Western Indo-Pacific is a biogeographic region of the Earth's seas, comprising the tropical waters of the eastern and central Indian Ocean.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
Woodland, is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.