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Biopharmaceutical

Index Biopharmaceutical

A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources. [1]

129 relations: Abatacept, Active ingredient, Adalimumab, Alefacept, Algae fuel, Allergen, Anemia, Ankylosing spondylitis, Antibody, Antibody-drug conjugate, Antigen, ATryn, Bacteria, Biology, Biomedicine, Bioreactor, Biosimilar, Blood, Blood plasma, Breast cancer, Breast milk, Cardiology, Cell (biology), Cell culture, Cell therapy, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Chemotherapy, Chromatography, Chronic condition, Chronic kidney disease, Cleanroom, Clinical trial, Colony-stimulating factor, Crohn's disease, CTLA-4, Denileukin diftitox, Dermatology, Drug, Egg cell, Eli Lilly and Company, Erythropoietin, Escherichia coli, Etanercept, Europe, European Medicines Agency, European Union, Factor IX, Factor VIII, Fecal microbiota transplant, ..., Food and Drug Administration, Fusion protein, Gastroenterology, Gene therapy, Genentech, Genetic engineering, Genetically modified organism, Goat, Golimumab, Growth hormone, Hepatitis B, HER2/neu, Horizontal gene transfer, Hormone, Human fertilization, Humanized antibody, Hybridoma technology, Immunoassay, Infliximab, Insulin, Insulin (medication), Interferon, Interleukin, Interleukin 2, International nonproprietary name, Life, List of pharmaceutical companies, List of recombinant proteins, Macromolecule, Malignancy, Mass spectrometry, Medical device, Medication, Monoclonal antibody, Moss, Mycoplasma, Nanomedicine, Neurology, Nucleic acid, Oncology, Organ transplantation, Passive immunity, Patent, Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Pharmacology, Pharming (genetics), Plant tissue culture, Polysaccharide, Precursor (chemistry), Psoriasis, Psoriatic arthritis, Receptor antagonist, Recombinant DNA, Regulatory agency, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rheumatology, Semisynthesis, Small molecule, Somatic cell, Specialty drugs in the United States, Spermatozoon, Stem-cell therapy, T cell, Tissue (biology), Tissue plasminogen activator, Total synthesis, Trade name, Transgene, Trastuzumab, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, Tumor necrosis factor superfamily, Ulcerative colitis, United States, United States Adopted Name, United States patent law, Ustekinumab, Vaccine, Virus, Whole blood. Expand index (79 more) »

Abatacept

Abatacept (marketed as Orencia) is a drug used to treat autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, by interfering with the immune activity of T cells.

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Active ingredient

An active ingredient (AI) is the ingredient in a pharmaceutical drug that is biologically active.

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Adalimumab

Adalimumab, sold under the trade name Humira among others, is a medication used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, chronic psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

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Alefacept

Alefacept is a genetically engineered immunosuppressive drug.

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Algae fuel

Algae fuel, algal biofuel, or algal oil is an alternative to liquid fossil fuels that uses algae as its source of energy-rich oils.

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Allergen

An allergen is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body.

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Anemia

Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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Ankylosing spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of arthritis in which there is long term inflammation of the joints of the spine.

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Antibody

An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Antibody-drug conjugate

Antibody-drug conjugates or ADCs are an important class of highly potent biopharmaceutical drugs designed as a targeted therapy for the treatment of people with cancer.

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Antigen

In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.

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ATryn

ATryn is the brand name of the anticoagulant antithrombin manufactured by the Massachusetts-based U.S. company rEVO Biologics (formerly known as GTC Biotherapeutics).

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Biology

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Biomedicine

Biomedicine (i.e. medical biology) is a branch of medical science that applies biological and physiological principles to clinical practice.

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Bioreactor

A bioreactor may refer to any manufactured or engineered device or system that supports a biologically active environment.

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Biosimilar

A biosimilar (also known as follow-on biologic or subsequent entry biologic) is a biologic medical product which is almost an identical copy of an original product that is manufactured by a different company.

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Blood

Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Blood plasma

Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

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Breast milk

Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.

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Cardiology

Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell culture

Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment.

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Cell therapy

Cell therapy (also called cellular therapy or cytotherapy) is therapy in which cellular material is injected into a patient; this generally means intact, living cells.

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Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research

The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) is one of six main centers for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which is a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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Center for Drug Evaluation and Research

The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER, pronounced "see'-der") is a division of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that monitors most drugs as defined in the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

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Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

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Chromatography

Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.

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Chronic condition

A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.

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Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.

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Cleanroom

A cleanroom or clean room is a situation, ordinarily utilized as a part of assembling, including of pharmaceutical items or logical research, and in addition aviation semiconductor building applications with a low level of natural toxins, for example, tiny, airborne organisms, vaporized particles, and concoction vapors.

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Clinical trial

Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.

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Colony-stimulating factor

Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) are secreted glycoproteins that bind to receptor proteins on the surfaces of hemopoietic stem cells, thereby activating intracellular signaling pathways that can cause the cells to proliferate and differentiate into a specific kind of blood cell (usually white blood cells. For red blood cell formation, see erythropoietin).

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Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.

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CTLA-4

CTLA4 or CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4), also known as CD152 (cluster of differentiation 152), is a protein receptor that, functioning as an immune checkpoint, downregulates immune responses.

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Denileukin diftitox

Denileukin diftitox (trade name Ontak) was an antineoplastic agent, an engineered protein combining Interleukin-2 and Diphtheria toxin.

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Dermatology

Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.

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Drug

A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.

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Egg cell

The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

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Eli Lilly and Company

Eli Lilly and Company is a global pharmaceutical company headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, with offices in 18 countries.

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Erythropoietin

Erythropoietin (EPO), also known as hematopoietin or hemopoietin, is a glycoprotein cytokine secreted by the kidney in response to cellular hypoxia; it stimulates red blood cell production (erythropoiesis) in the bone marrow.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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Etanercept

Etanercept (trade name Enbrel) is a biopharmaceutical that treats autoimmune diseases by interfering with tumor necrosis factor (TNF, a soluble inflammatory cytokine) by acting as a TNF inhibitor.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Medicines Agency

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is a European Union agency for the evaluation of medicinal products.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Factor IX

Factor IX (or Christmas factor) is one of the serine proteases of the coagulation system; it belongs to peptidase family S1.

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Factor VIII

Factor VIII (FVIII) is an essential blood-clotting protein, also known as anti-hemophilic factor (AHF).

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Fecal microbiota transplant

Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), also known as a stool transplant, is the process of transplantation of fecal bacteria from a healthy individual into a recipient.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Fusion protein

Fusion proteins or chimeric (\kī-ˈmir-ik) proteins (literally, made of parts from different sources) are proteins created through the joining of two or more genes that originally coded for separate proteins.

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Gastroenterology

Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.

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Gene therapy

In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.

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Genentech

Genentech, Inc., is a biotechnology corporation which became a subsidiary of Roche in 2009.

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Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.

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Genetically modified organism

A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).

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Goat

The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.

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Golimumab

Golimumab (CNTO 148) is a human monoclonal antibody which is used as an immunosuppressive drug and marketed under the brand name Simponi.

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Growth hormone

Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.

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Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver.

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HER2/neu

Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2, also known as CD340 (cluster of differentiation 340), proto-oncogene Neu, Erbb2 (rodent), or ERBB2 (human), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ERBB2 gene.

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Horizontal gene transfer

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.

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Hormone

A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Human fertilization

Human fertilization is the union of a human egg and sperm, usually occurring in the ampulla of the fallopian tube.

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Humanized antibody

Humanized antibodies are antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to increase their similarity to antibody variants produced naturally in humans.

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Hybridoma technology

Hybridoma technology is a method for producing large numbers of identical antibodies (also called monoclonal antibodies).

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Immunoassay

An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule or a small molecule in a solution through the use of an antibody (usually) or an antigen (sometimes).

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Infliximab

Infliximab (trade names Remicade among others) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody biologic drug that works against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and is used to treat autoimmune diseases.

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Insulin

Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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Insulin (medication)

Insulin is a protein hormone that is used as a medication to treat high blood glucose.

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Interferon

Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells.

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Interleukin

Interleukins (ILs) are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes).

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Interleukin 2

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.

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International nonproprietary name

The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and non-proprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or an active ingredient.

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Life

Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

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List of pharmaceutical companies

It is limited to those companies notable enough to have articles in Wikipedia.

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List of recombinant proteins

The following is a list of notable proteins that are generated from recombinant DNA, using biomolecular engineering, focusing on those that are used in human and veterinary medicine.

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Macromolecule

A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).

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Malignancy

Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.

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Mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

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Medical device

A medical device is any apparatus, appliance, software, material, or other article—whether used alone or in combination, including the software intended by its manufacturer to be used specifically for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes and necessary for its proper application—intended by the manufacturer to be used for human beings for the purpose of.

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Medication

A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Monoclonal antibody

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.

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Moss

Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.

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Mycoplasma

Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall around their cell membrane.

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Nanomedicine

Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology.

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Neurology

Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.

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Oncology

Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.

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Organ transplantation

Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.

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Passive immunity

Passive immunity is the transfer of active humoral immunity in the form of ready-made antibodies.

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Patent

A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.

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Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, often shortened to the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or nicknamed Obamacare, is a United States federal statute enacted by the 111th United States Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010.

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Pharmacology

Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).

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Pharming (genetics)

Pharming, a portmanteau of "farming" and "pharmaceutical", refers to the use of genetic engineering to insert genes that code for useful pharmaceuticals into host animals or plants that would otherwise not express those genes, thus creating a genetically modified organism (GMO).

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Plant tissue culture

Plant tissue culture is a collection of techniques used to maintain or grow plant cells, tissues or organs under sterile conditions on a nutrient culture medium of known composition.

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Polysaccharide

Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

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Precursor (chemistry)

In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.

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Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin.

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Psoriatic arthritis

Psoriatic arthritis is a long-term inflammatory arthritis that occurs in people affected by the autoimmune disease psoriasis.

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Receptor antagonist

A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.

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Recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.

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Regulatory agency

A regulatory agency (also regulatory authority, regulatory body or regulator) is a public authority or government agency responsible for exercising autonomous authority over some area of human activity in a regulatory or supervisory capacity.

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Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.

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Rheumatology

Rheumatology (Greek ρεύμα, rheuma, flowing current) is a branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases.

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Semisynthesis

Semisynthesis or partial chemical synthesis is a type of chemical synthesis that uses chemical compounds isolated from natural sources (e.g., microbial cell cultures or plant material) as the starting materials to produce other novel compounds with distinct chemical and medicinal properties.

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Small molecule

Within the fields of molecular biology and pharmacology, a small molecule is a low molecular weight (< 900 daltons) organic compound that may regulate a biological process, with a size on the order of 1 nm.

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Somatic cell

A somatic cell (from the Greek σῶμα sôma, meaning "body") or vegetal cell is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell.

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Specialty drugs in the United States

Specialty drugs or specialty pharmaceuticals are a recent designation of pharmaceuticals that are classified as high-cost, high complexity and/or high touch.

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Spermatozoon

A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.

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Stem-cell therapy

Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition.

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T cell

A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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Tissue plasminogen activator

Tissue plasminogen activator (abbreviated tPA or PLAT) is a protein involved in the breakdown of blood clots.

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Total synthesis

Total synthesis is the complete chemical synthesis of a complex molecule, often a natural product, from simple, commercially available precursors.

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Trade name

A trade name, trading name, or business name is a pseudonym frequently used by companies to operate under a name different from their registered, legal name.

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Transgene

A transgene is a gene or genetic material that has been transferred naturally, or by any of a number of genetic engineering techniques from one organism to another.

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Trastuzumab

Trastuzumab, sold under the brand name Herceptin among others, is a monoclonal antibody used to treat breast cancer.

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Tumor necrosis factor alpha

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.

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Tumor necrosis factor superfamily

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily is a protein superfamily of type II transmembrane proteins containing TNF homology domain and forming trimers.

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Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Adopted Name

United States Adopted Names are unique nonproprietary names assigned to pharmaceuticals marketed in the United States.

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United States patent law

Under United States law, a patent is a right granted to the inventor of a (1) process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter, (2) that is new, useful, and non-obvious.

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Ustekinumab

Ustekinumab, sold under the brand name Stelara, is a human monoclonal antibody used to treat psoriasis.

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Vaccine

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.

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Virus

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Whole blood

Whole blood (WB) is human blood from a standard blood donation.

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Bio-pharmaceuticals, Biologic medical product, Biologic therapy, Biological, Biological drug, Biological medicinal product, Biologics, Biopharmaceutical drug, Biopharmaceuticals, Biopharmaceutics, Biopharmacology, Biopharmacy, Biotherapeutic, Biotherapy, Therapeutic biological product, Therapeutic protein.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biopharmaceutical

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