259 relations: Acetate, Acetyl group, Acetyl-CoA, Acetylation, Acetylglutamate kinase, Acetylornithine deacetylase, Acetylornithine transaminase, Activation energy, Acyl-CoA, Acylation, Acyltransferase, Adenosine, Adenosine deaminase, Adenosine triphosphate, Adenylosuccinate lyase, AICA ribonucleotide, AIR synthetase (FGAM cyclase), Aldehyde, Alpha and beta carbon, Alpha-aminoadipate pathway, Alpha-Ketoglutaric acid, Amide, Amidophosphoribosyltransferase, Amine, Amino acid, Amino acid synthesis, Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, Aminoacyl-tRNA, Ammonia, Amphiphile, Arginine, Argininosuccinic acid, Asparagine synthetase, Aspartate carbamoyltransferase, Aspartate kinase, Aspartate transaminase, Aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, Aspartic acid, Atherosclerosis, Bilayer, Carbamoyl phosphate, Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, Carbon dioxide, Carboxyglutamic acid, Carboxylic acid, Catalysis, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Central nervous system, Ceramide, ..., Chemical compound, Chemical energy, Cholesterol, Citrulline, Codon degeneracy, Cofactor (biochemistry), Cognition, Condensation reaction, Cortisol, Covalent bond, CTP synthetase, Cyclic compound, Cysteine, Cysteine synthase, Cytidine triphosphate, Cytoplasm, Cytosine, Cytosol, Deoxyadenosine, Deoxyadenosine triphosphate, Deoxygenation, Deoxyguanosine, Deoxyribonucleotide, Deoxyribose, Deoxyuridine monophosphate, Dephosphorylation, Diaminopimelate decarboxylase, Diaminopimelate epimerase, Diaminopimelic acid, Dihydrodipicolinate synthase, Dihydroorotase, Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, DNA, DNA ligase, DNA polymerase, DNA replication, DNA supercoil, Endocytosis, Endoplasmic reticulum, Enzyme, Estrogen, Ethanol, Eukaryote, Eukaryotic translation, Familial hypercholesterolemia, Fatty acid, Flavin adenine dinucleotide, Functional group, Genetic code, Gliosis, Gluconeogenesis, Glutamate 5-kinase, Glutamate dehydrogenase, Glutamate N-acetyltransferase, Glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase, Glutamine synthetase, Glycine, Glycineamide ribonucleotide, Glycolysis, Glycosidic bond, Gout, Guanosine, Helicase, Histidine, Huntingtin, Huntington's disease, Hydrocarbon, Hydrolysis, Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, Hydroxy group, Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, Imidazole, Immunological memory, Inner mitochondrial membrane, Inosine monophosphate synthase, Inosinic acid, Isoleucine, Isopentenyl pyrophosphate, Kinase, Lesch–Nyhan syndrome, Leucine, Lipid, Lipid bilayer, Low-density lipoprotein, Lysine, Macromolecule, Mammal, Meso compound, Messenger RNA, Metabolic pathway, Metal, Methionine, Methyl group, Microorganism, Mitochondrion, Monomer, Myelin, N-acetyl-gamma-glutamyl-phosphate reductase, N-Acetylglutamate synthase, Neurology, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, Nitrogen assimilation, Non-covalent interactions, Nucleic acid, Nucleophile, Nucleoside triphosphate, Nucleotide, O-Acetylserine, Okazaki fragments, Organelle, Ornithine, Orotidine 5'-monophosphate, Orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase, Oxaloacetic acid, Peptide, Peptide bond, Phenylalanine, Phosphate, Phosphatidic acid, Phosphine oxide, Phosphodiester bond, Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid, Phospholipid, Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, Phosphoribosylamine, Phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide formyltransferase, Phosphoribosylaminoimidazolesuccinocarboxamide, Phosphoribosylaminoimidazolesuccinocarboxamide synthase, Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase, Phosphoserine, Phosphoserine phosphatase, Phosphoserine transaminase, Precursor (chemistry), Primase, Primer (molecular biology), Product (chemistry), Prokaryote, Prokaryotic translation, Proline, Prostaglandin, Protein, Proteinogenic amino acid, Purine, Pyrimidine, Pyrophosphate, Pyruvic acid, Reaction intermediate, Reaction mechanism, Reaction rate, Reagent, Receptor (biochemistry), Redox, Release factor, Ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase, Ribonucleotide, Ribose, Ribosome, RNA, RNA polymerase, Self-harm, Semiconservative replication, Serine, Serine hydroxymethyltransferase, Serine O-acetyltransferase, Severe combined immunodeficiency, Single-strand DNA-binding protein, Sphingolipid, Sphingosine, Squalene, Stereocenter, Steroid, Sterol, Stop codon, Substrate (chemistry), Succinyl-diaminopimelate desuccinylase, Succinyldiaminopimelate transaminase, Sulfur, T cell, Testosterone, Tetrahydrodipicolinate N-acetyltransferase, Tetrahydrofolic acid, Threonine, Thymidine monophosphate, Thymidylate synthase, Thymine, Topoisomerase, Transfer RNA, Translation (biology), Tryptophan, Uracil, Uridine monophosphate, Uridine triphosphate, Valine, Viridiplantae, 2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate N-succinyltransferase, 3-Phosphoglyceric acid, 4,5-Dihydroorotic acid, 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate reductase, 5'-Phosphoribosyl-4-carboxy-5-aminoimidazole, 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate, 5-(carboxyamino)imidazole ribonucleotide mutase, 5-Aminoimidazole ribotide, 5-Formamidoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide. 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An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
In organic chemistry, acetyl is a moiety, the acyl with chemical formula CH3CO.
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Acetylation (or in IUPAC nomenclature ethanoylation) describes a reaction that introduces an acetyl functional group into a chemical compound.
In enzymology, an acetylglutamate kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and N-acetyl-L-glutamate, whereas its two products are ADP and N-acetyl-L-glutamyl 5-phosphate.
In enzymology, an acetylornithine deacetylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are N2-acetyl-L-ornithine and H2O, whereas its two products are acetate and L-ornithine.
In enzymology, an acetylornithine transaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are N2-acetyl-L-ornithine and 2-oxoglutarate, whereas its two products are N-acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde and L-glutamate.
In chemistry and physics, activation energy is the energy which must be available to a chemical or nuclear system with potential reactants to result in: a chemical reaction, nuclear reaction, or other various other physical phenomena.
Acyl-CoA is a group of coenzymes involved in the metabolism of fatty acids.
In chemistry, acylation (rarely, but more formally: alkanoylation) is the process of adding an acyl group to a compound.
Acyltransferase is a type of transferase enzyme that acts upon acyl groups.
Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.
Adenosine deaminase (also known as adenosine aminohydrolase, or ADA) is an enzyme involved in purine metabolism.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adenylosuccinate lyase (or adenylosuccinase) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADSL gene.
5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) is an intermediate in the generation of inosine monophosphate.
AIR synthetase is the fifth enzyme in the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
The alpha carbon (Cα) in organic molecules refers to the first carbon atom that attaches to a functional group, such as a carbonyl.
The amino acid L-lysine The α-aminoadipate pathway is a biochemical pathway for the synthesis of the amino acid L-lysine.
α-Ketoglutaric acid (2-oxoglutaric acid) is one of two ketone derivatives of glutaric acid.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
Amidophosphoribosyltransferase (ATase), also known as glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase (GPAT), is an enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) into 5-phosphoribosyl-1-amine (PRA), using the ammonia group from a glutamine side-chain.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amino acid synthesis is the set of biochemical processes (metabolic pathways) by which the various amino acids are produced from other compounds.
An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase, is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA.
Aminoacyl-tRNA (also aa-tRNA or charged tRNA) is tRNA to which its cognated amino acid is chemically bonded (charged).
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
An amphiphile (from the Greek αμφις, amphis: both and φιλíα, philia: love, friendship) is a chemical compound possessing both hydrophilic (water-loving, polar) and lipophilic (fat-loving) properties.
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Argininosuccinic acid is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that is an important intermediate in the urea cycle.
Asparagine synthetase (or aspartate-ammonia ligase) is a chiefly cytoplasmic enzyme that generates asparagine from aspartate.
Aspartate carbamoyltransferase (also known as aspartate transcarbamoylase or ATCase) catalyzes the first step in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway.
Aspartate kinase (aspartokinase, aspartic kinase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the amino acid aspartate.
Aspartate transaminase (AST) or aspartate aminotransferase, also known as AspAT/ASAT/AAT or serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), is a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent transaminase enzyme that was first described by Arthur Karmen and colleagues in 1954.
In enzymology, an aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase is an enzyme that is very important in the biosynthesis of amino acids in prokaryotes, fungi, and some higher plants.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.
A bilayer is a double layer of closely packed atoms or molecules.
Carbamoyl phosphate is an anion of biochemical significance.
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate from glutamine or ammonia and bicarbonate.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carboxyglutamic acid (or the conjugate base, carboxyglutamate), is an uncommon amino acid introduced into proteins by a post-translational carboxylation of glutamic acid residues.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Ceramides are a family of waxy lipid molecules.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
In chemistry, chemical energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction to transform other chemical substances.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
The organic compound citrulline is an α-amino acid.
Degeneracy of codons is the redundancy of the genetic code, exhibited as the multiplicity of three-base pair codon combinations that specify an amino acid.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
A condensation reaction is a class of an organic addition reaction that proceeds in a step-wise fashion to produce the addition product, usually in equilibrium, and a water molecule (hence named condensation).
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
CTP synthetase is an enzyme involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis that interconverts UTP and CTP.
A cyclic compound (ring compound) is a term for a compound in the field of chemistry in which one or more series of atoms in the compound is connected to form a ring.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
In enzymology, a cysteine synthase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are O3-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide, whereas its two products are L-cysteine and acetate.
Cytidine triphosphate is a pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphate.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
Deoxyadenosine (symbol dA or dAdo) is a deoxyribonucleoside.
Deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP) is a nucleotide used in cells for DNA synthesis (or replication), as a substrate of DNA Polymerase.
Deoxygenation is a chemical reaction involving the removal of oxygen atoms from a molecule.
Deoxyguanosine is composed of the purine nucleobase guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of deoxyribose.
A deoxyribonucleotide is the monomer, or single unit, of DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid.
Deoxyribose, or more precisely 2-deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide with idealized formula H−(C.
Deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP), also known as deoxyuridylic acid or deoxyuridylate in its conjugate acid and conjugate base forms, respectively, is a deoxynucleotide.
Dephosphorylation is the removal of a phosphate (PO43−) group from an organic compound by hydrolysis.
In enzymology, diaminopimelate decarboxylase, also known as diaminopimelic acid decarboxylase, DAPDC, meso-diaminopimelate decarboxylase, DAP-decarboxylase, and meso-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate carboxy-lyase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of carbon-carbon bonds in meso 2,6 diaminoheptanedioate to produce CO2 and L-lysine, the essential amino acid.
In enzymology, a diaminopimelate epimerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate, and one product, meso-diaminoheptanedioate.
Diaminopimelic acid (DAP) is an amino acid, representing an epsilon-carboxy derivative of lysine.
4-Hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate synthase (dihydrodipicolinate synthase, dihydropicolinate synthetase, dihydrodipicolinic acid synthase, L-aspartate-4-semialdehyde hydro-lyase (adding pyruvate and cyclizing), dapA (gene)) is an enzyme with the systematic name L-aspartate-4-semialdehyde hydro-lyase (adding pyruvate and cyclizing; (4S)-4-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-(2S)-dipicolinate-forming).
Dihydroorotase (carbamoylaspartic dehydrase, dihydroorotate hydrolase) is an enzyme which converts carbamoyl aspartic acid into 4,5-dihydroorotic acid in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines.
Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DHODH gene on chromosome 16.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA ligase is a specific type of enzyme, a ligase, that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond.
DNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
DNA supercoiling refers to the over- or under-winding of a DNA strand, and is an expression of the strain on that strand.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Eukaryotic translation is the biological process by which messenger RNA is translated into proteins in eukaryotes.
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by high cholesterol levels, specifically very high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, "bad cholesterol"), in the blood and early cardiovascular disease.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group of a protein, involved in several important enzymatic reactions in metabolism.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
Gliosis is a nonspecific reactive change of glial cells in response to damage to the central nervous system (CNS).
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
In enzymology, a glutamate 5-kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and L-glutamate, whereas its two products are ADP and L-glutamate 5-phosphate.
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH, GDH) is an enzyme, present in most microbes and the mitochondria of eukaryotes, as are some of the other enzymes required for urea synthesis, that converts glutamate to α-ketoglutarate, and vice versa.
In enzymology, a glutamate N-acetyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are N2-acetyl-L-ornithine and L-glutamate, whereas its two products are L-ornithine and N-acetyl-L-glutamate.
In enzymology, a glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde, phosphate, and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are L-glutamyl 5-phosphate, NADPH, and H+.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase (also known as Glutamate synthase) is an enzyme and frequently abbreviated as GOGAT.
Glutamine synthetase (GS) is an enzyme that plays an essential role in the metabolism of nitrogen by catalyzing the condensation of glutamate and ammonia to form glutamine: Glutamate + ATP + NH3 → Glutamine + ADP + phosphate Glutamine Synthetase uses ammonia produced by nitrate reduction, amino acid degradation, and photorespiration.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
Glycineamide ribonucleotide (or GAR) is an intermediate in de novo purine biosynthesis.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
In chemistry, a glycosidic bond or glycosidic linkage is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.
Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.
Guanosine is a purine nucleoside comprising guanine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) ring via a β-N9-glycosidic bond.
Helicases are a class of enzymes vital to all living organisms.
Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The huntingtin gene, also called the HTT or HD (Huntington disease) gene, is the IT15 ("interesting transcript 15") gene, which codes for a protein called the huntingtin protein.
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) is an enzyme encoded in humans by the HPRT1 gene.
Imidazole is an organic compound with the formula C3N2H4.
Immunological memory is the ability of the immune system to quickly and specifically recognize an antigen that the body has previously encountered and initiate a corresponding immune response.
The inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) is the mitochondrial membrane which separates the mitochondrial matrix from the intermembrane space.
Bifunctional purine biosynthesis protein PURH is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATIC gene.
Inosinic acid or inosine monophosphate (IMP) is a nucleoside monophosphate.
Isoleucine (symbol Ile or I) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP, isopentenyl diphosphate, or IDP) is an isoprenoid precursor.
In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.
Lesch–Nyhan syndrome (LNS), also known as juvenile gout, is a rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT), produced by mutations in the HPRT gene located on the X chromosome.
Leucine (symbol Leu or L) is an essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
A meso compound or meso isomer is a stereoisomer with an identical or superimposable mirror image i.e., a non-optically active member of a set of stereoisomers, at least two of which are optically active.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.
In enzymology, a N-acetyl-gamma-glutamyl-phosphate reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are N-acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde, NADP+, and phosphate, whereas its 3 products are N-acetyl-L-glutamyl 5-phosphate, NADPH, and H+.
N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) is an enzyme that catalyses the production of ''N''-Acetylglutamate (NAG) from glutamate and acetyl-CoA.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, abbreviated NADP or, in older notation, TPN (triphosphopyridine nucleotide), is a cofactor used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.
Nitrogen assimilation is the formation of organic nitrogen compounds like amino acids from inorganic nitrogen compounds present in the environment.
A non-covalent interaction differs from a covalent bond in that it does not involve the sharing of electrons, but rather involves more dispersed variations of electromagnetic interactions between molecules or within a molecule.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
A nucleoside triphosphate is a molecule containing a nitrogenous base bound to a 5-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), with three phosphate groups bound to the sugar.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
O-Acetylserine is the α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2OC(O)CH3.
Okazaki fragments are short, newly synthesized DNA fragments that are formed on the lagging template strand during DNA replication.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
Ornithine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that plays a role in the urea cycle.
Orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP), also known as orotidylic acid, is a pyrimidine nucleotide which is the last intermediate in the biosynthesis of uridine monophosphate.
Orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase (OMP decarboxylase) or orotidylate decarboxylase is an enzyme involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis.
Oxaloacetic acid (also known as oxalacetic acid) is a crystalline organic compound with the chemical formula HO2CC(O)CH2CO2H.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
A peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phosphatidic acids are phospholipids which on hydrolysis give rise to one molecule of glycerol and phosphoric acid and two molecules of fatty acids.
Phosphine oxides are phosphorus compounds with the formula OPX3.
A phosphodiester bond occurs when exactly two of the hydroxyl groups in phosphoric acid react with hydroxyl groups on other molecules to form two ester bonds.
In enzymology, D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) is an enzyme that primarily catalyzes the chemical reactions Thus, in the first case, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3-phospho-D-glycerate and NAD+, whereas its 3 products are 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate, NADH, and H+; in the second case, the two substrates of this enzyme are 2-hydroxyglutarate and NAD+, whereas its 3 products are 2-oxoglutarate, NADH, and H+.
Phosphohydroxypyruvic acid is an intermediate in the synthesis of serine.
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) is a pentosephosphate.
Phosphoribosylamine (5PRA) is an intermediate in purine metabolism.
In enzymology, a phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide formyltransferase, also known by the shorter name AICAR transformylase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 10-formyltetrahydrofolate and AICAR, whereas its two products are tetrahydrofolate and FAICAR.
Phosphoribosylaminoimidazolesuccinocarboxamide (SAICAR) is an intermediate in the formation of purines.
In molecular biology, the protein domain SAICAR synthase is an enzyme which catalyses a reaction to create SAICAR.
Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase (2-amino-N-ribosylacetamide 5'-phosphate transformylase, GAR formyltransferase, GAR transformylase, glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase, GAR TFase, 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate:2-amino-N-ribosylacetamide ribonucleotide transformylase) is an enzyme with systematic name 10-formyltetrahydrofolate:5'-phosphoribosylglycinamide N-formyltransferase.
Phosphoserine (abbreviated as SEP or J) is an ester of serine and phosphoric acid.
In enzymology, a phosphoserine phosphatase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are O-phospho-L-serine, O-phospho-D-serine, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are L-serine, D-serine, and phosphate.
Phosphoserine transaminase (PSAT, phosphoserine aminotransferase, 3-phosphoserine aminotransferase, hydroxypyruvic phosphate-glutamic transaminase, L-phosphoserine aminotransferase, phosphohydroxypyruvate transaminase, phosphohydroxypyruvic-glutamic transaminase, 3-O-phospho-L-serine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, SerC, PdxC, 3PHP transaminase) is an enzyme with systematic name O-phospho-L-serine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase.
In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.
DNA primase is an enzyme involved in the replication of DNA and is a type of RNA polymerase.
A primer is a short strand of RNA or DNA (generally about 18-22 bases) that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis.
Products are the species formed from chemical reactions.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Prokaryotic translation is the process by which messenger RNA is translated into proteins in prokaryotes.
Proline (symbol Pro or P) is a proteinogenic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds having diverse hormone-like effects in animals.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation.
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.
In chemistry, a pyrophosphate is a phosphorus oxyanion.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
A reaction intermediate or an intermediate is a molecular entity that is formed from the reactants (or preceding intermediates) and reacts further to give the directly observed products of a chemical reaction.
In chemistry, a reaction mechanism is the step by step sequence of elementary reactions by which overall chemical change occurs.
The reaction rate or rate of reaction is the speed at which reactants are converted into products.
A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A release factor is a protein that allows for the termination of translation by recognizing the termination codon or stop codon in an mRNA sequence.
Ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase (ribonucleotide reductase, 2'-deoxyribonucleoside-triphosphate:oxidized-thioredoxin 2'-oxidoreductase) is an enzyme with systematic name 2'-deoxyribonucleoside-triphosphate:thioredoxin-disulfide 2'-oxidoreductase.
In biochemistry, a ribonucleotide or ribotide is a nucleotide containing ribose as its pentose component.
Ribose is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.
Self-harm, also known as self-injury, is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue, done without suicidal intentions.
Semiconservative replication describes the mechanism by which DNA is replicated in all known cells.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) is a Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) (Vitamin B6) dependent enzyme which plays an important role in cellular one-carbon pathways by catalyzing the reversible, simultaneous conversions of L-serine to glycine and tetrahydrofolate (THF) to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (5,10-CH2-THF).
In enzymology, a serine O-acetyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA and L-serine, whereas its two products are CoA and O-acetyl-L-serine.
Severe combined immunodeficiency, SCID, also known as alymphocytosis, Glanzmann–Riniker syndrome, severe mixed immunodeficiency syndrome, and thymic alymphoplasia, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the disturbed development of functional T cells and B cells caused by numerous genetic mutations that result in heterogeneous clinical presentations.
Single-strand DNA-binding protein (SSB) is a protein found in Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, that binds to single-stranded regions of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Sphingolipids are a class of lipids containing a backbone of sphingoid bases, a set of aliphatic amino alcohols that includes sphingosine.
Sphingosine (2-amino-4-octadecene-1,3-diol) is an 18-carbon amino alcohol with an unsaturated hydrocarbon chain, which forms a primary part of sphingolipids, a class of cell membrane lipids that include sphingomyelin, an important phospholipid.
Squalene is a natural 30-carbon organic compound originally obtained for commercial purposes primarily from shark liver oil (hence its name, as Squalus is a genus of sharks), although plant sources (primarily vegetable oils) are now used as well, including amaranth seed, rice bran, wheat germ, and olives.
In a molecule, a stereocenter is a particular instance of a stereogenic element that is geometrically a point.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Sterols, also known as steroid alcohols, are a subgroup of the steroids and an important class of organic molecules.
In the genetic code, a stop codon (or termination codon) is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation into proteins.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
In enzymology, a succinyl-diaminopimelate desuccinylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are N-succinyl-LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate and H2O, whereas its two products are succinate and LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate.
In enzymology, a succinyldiaminopimelate transaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are N-succinyl-L-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate and 2-oxoglutarate, whereas its two products are N-succinyl-L-2-amino-6-oxoheptanedioate and L-glutamate.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
In enzymology, a tetrahydrodipicolinate N-acetyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA, (S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate, and H2O, whereas its two products are CoA and L-2-acetamido-6-oxoheptanedioate.
Tetrahydrofolic acid, or tetrahydrofolate, is a folic acid derivative.
Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Thymidine monophosphate (TMP), also known as thymidylic acid (conjugate base thymidylate), deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP), or deoxythymidylic acid (conjugate base deoxythymidylate), is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in DNA.
Thymidylate synthetase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP).
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
Topoisomerases are enzymes that participate in the overwinding or underwinding of DNA.
A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
Uridine monophosphate (UMP), also known as 5′-uridylic acid (conjugate base uridylate), is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in RNA.
Uridine-5'-triphosphate (UTP) is a pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphate, consisting of the organic base uracil linked to the 1' carbon of the ribose sugar, and esterified with tri-phosphoric acid at the 5' position.
Valine (symbol Val or V) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Viridiplantae (literally "green plants") are a clade of eukaryotic organisms made up of the green algae, which are primarily aquatic, and the land plants (embryophytes), which emerged within them.
In enzymology, a 2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate N-succinyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are succinyl-CoA, (S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate, and H2O, whereas its two products are CoA and N-succinyl-L-2-amino-6-oxoheptanedioate.
3-Phosphoglyceric acid (3PG) is the conjugate acid of glycerate 3-phosphate (GP).
4,5-Dihydroorotic acid is a derivative of orotic acid which serves as an intermediate in pyrimidine biosynthesis.
In enzymology, a 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are (S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate, NAD+ or NADP+, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are (2S,4S)-4-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinate, NADH or NADPH, and H+.
5'-Phosphoribosyl-4-carboxy-5-aminoimidazole (or CAIR) is an intermediate in the formation of purines.
5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate (N5,N10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate; 5,10-CH2-THF) is the substrate used by the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) to generate 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF, or levomefolic acid).
In enzymology, a 5-(carboxyamino)imidazole ribonucleotide mutase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, 5-carboxyamino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole, and one product, 5-amino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole-4-carboxylate.
5'-Phosphoribosyl-5-aminoimidazole (or aminoimidazole ribotide) is an intermediate in the formation of purines.
5-Formamidoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide (or FAICAR) is an intermediate in the formation of purines.