180 relations: Acetone, Adverse effect, Agriculture, Alexander Fleming, American Chemical Society, American Medical Association, Ancestor, Antibiotic, Bacteria, Beer, Biobased economy, Biochemical engineering, Biochemistry, Bioculture, Biodegradable plastic, Biofuel, Bioinformatics, Bioleaching, Biological engineering, Biological warfare, Biology, Biomanufacturing, Biomass, Biomedical engineering, Biomimetics, Bionic architecture, Biopharmaceutical, Bioprocess engineering, Bioremediation, Biorobotics, Biosynthesis, Bread, Brewing, British Medical Association, Canola, Carbohydrate, Cash crop, Catalysis, Cell (biology), Cell biology, Cell culture, Chaim Weizmann, Charles Darwin, Chemical engineering, China, Chromosome, Clostridium acetobutylicum, Colors of biotechnology, Competitions and prizes in biotechnology, Computer science, ..., Convention on Biological Diversity, Corn starch, Cottonseed oil, Cyborg art, Daniel A. Vallero, Diamond v. Chakrabarty, Disease, DNA, Doctor of Philosophy, Domestication, Efficacy, Egypt, EHA101, Embryology, Engineer, Enzyme, Escherichia coli, Ethanol, European Federation of Biotechnology, Explosive material, Fermentation, Fertilisation, Flavr Savr, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food and Drug Administration, Food industry, Functional genomics, Gene expression, Gene therapy, Genentech, General Electric, Genetic counseling, Genetic disorder, Genetic engineering, Genetic testing, Genetically modified crops, Genetically modified fish, Genetically modified food, Genetically modified maize, Genetically modified soybean, Genetics, Genomics, Genotype, Graduate school, Green Revolution, Herbicide, History of biotechnology, Human Genome Project, Hybrid (biology), Immunology, Index of biotechnology articles, India, Industrial fermentation, Industrial park, Industry, Insulin, Intensive farming, International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications, Károly Ereky, Laboratory, Lactic acid fermentation, List of largest biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies, List of life sciences, Louis Pasteur, Medical diagnosis, Medical test, Medication, Medicinal chemistry, Medicine, Mesopotamia, Metabolic engineering, Microbiology, Microorganism, Micropropagation, Milk, Molecular biology, Molecular ecology, Molecular engineering, Monsanto, Mutation breeding, NASDAQ Biotechnology Index, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Neolithic Revolution, Nitrogen fixation, Organism, Outline of biotechnology, Patent, Penicillin, Penicillium, Personalized medicine, Pesticide, Pharmaceutical engineering, Pharmaceutical industry, Pharmacogenomics, Pharmacology, Phenotypic trait, Plant breeding, Plant manufactured pharmaceuticals, Plasmid, Precautionary principle, Proteomics, Pseudomonas, Recombinant DNA, Research and development, Rome, Science, Scientific consensus, Selective breeding, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Slaughterhouse, Small molecule, Soy sauce, Structural genomics, Supreme Court of the United States, SWORD-financing, Thermoeconomics, Timeline of biotechnology, Tissue culture, Tissue engineering, Toxicity, Unintended consequences, United Kingdom, United States Congress, United States Department of Energy, Vegetable oil, Virotherapy, World War I, Yale University, Yeast. Expand index (130 more) » « Shrink index
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish physician, microbiologist, and pharmacologist.
The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry.
The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.
An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.
Biobased economy, bioeconomy or biotechonomy refers to all economic activity derived from scientific and research activity focused on biotechnology.
Biochemical engineering also bioprocess engineering, is a branch of chemical engineering or biological engineering that mainly deals with the design and construction of unit processes that involve biological organisms or molecules, such as bioreactors.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Bioculture is the combination of biological and cultural factors that affect human behavior.
Biodegradable plastics are plastics that are decomposed by the action of living organisms, usually bacteria.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.
Bioleaching is the extraction of metals from their ores through the use of living organisms.
Biological engineering or bio-engineering is the application of principles of biology and the tools of engineering to create usable, tangible, economically viable products.
Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biomanufacturing is a type of manufacturing or biotechnology that utilizes biological systems to produce commercially important biomaterials and biomolecules for use in medicines, food and beverage processing, and industrial applications.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
Biomedical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes (e.g. diagnostic or therapeutic).
Biomimetics or biomimicry is the imitation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems.
Bionic architecture is a movement for the design and construction of expressive buildings whose layout and lines borrow from natural (i.e. biological) forms.
A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.
Bioprocess engineering, also biochemical engineering, is a specialization of chemical engineering or Biological engineering, It deals with the design and development of equipment and processes for the manufacturing of products such as agriculture, food, feed, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, chemicals, and polymers and paper from biological materials & treatment of waste water.
Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.
Biorobotics is a term that loosely covers the fields of cybernetics, bionics and even genetic engineering as a collective study.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source (commonly cereal grains, the most popular of which is barley) in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast.
The British Medical Association (BMA) is the professional association and registered trade union for doctors in the United Kingdom.
Canola oil, or canola for short, is a vegetable oil derived from rapeseed that is low in erucic acid, as opposed to colza oil.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
A cash crop or profit crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment.
Chaim Azriel Weizmann (חיים עזריאל ויצמן, Хаим Вейцман Khaim Veytsman; 27 November 1874 – 9 November 1952) was a Zionist leader and Israeli statesman who served as President of the Zionist Organization and later as the first President of Israel.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that uses principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics and economics to efficiently use, produce, transform, and transport chemicals, materials and energy.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Clostridium acetobutylicum, ATCC 824, is a commercially valuable bacterium sometimes called the "Weizmann Organism", after Jewish-Russian-born Chaim Weizmann.
The colors of biotechnology is a classification system used to organize the different subspecialities that comprise biotechnology.
There exist a number of competitions and prizes to reward distinguished contributions and to encourage developments in biotechnology.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treaty.
Corn starch, cornstarch, cornflour or maize starch or maize is the starch derived from the corn (maize) grain.
Cottonseed oil is a cooking oil extracted from the seeds of cotton plants of various species, mainly Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium herbaceum, that are grown for cotton fiber, animal feed, and oil.
Cyborg art, also known as cyborgism, is an art movement that began in the mid-2000s in Britain.
Daniel A. Vallero is an American environmental author and scientist.
Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 U.S. 303 (1980), was a United States Supreme Court case dealing with whether genetically modified organisms can be patented.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
Efficacy is the ability to get a job done satisfactorily.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
EHA101 was one of the first and most widely used Agrobacterium helper plasmid for plant gene transfer.
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are people who invent, design, analyze, build, and test machines, systems, structures and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
The European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) was established by European scientists in 1978.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
Flavr Savr (also known as CGN-89564-2; pronounced "flavor saver"), a genetically modified tomato, was the first commercially grown genetically engineered food to be granted a license for human consumption.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world population.
Functional genomics is a field of molecular biology that attempts to make use of the vast wealth of data given by genomic and transcriptomic projects (such as genome sequencing projects and RNA sequencing) to describe gene (and protein) functions and interactions.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
Genentech, Inc., is a biotechnology corporation which became a subsidiary of Roche in 2009.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
Genetic counseling is the process by which the patients or relatives at risk of an inherited disorder (or may be carrying a child at risk) are advised of the consequences and nature of the disorder, the probability of developing or transmitting it, and the options open to them in management and family planning.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Genetic testing, also known as DNA testing, allows the determination of bloodlines and the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases.
Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.
Genetically modified fish (GM fish) are organisms from the taxonomic clade which includes the classes Agnatha (jawless fish), Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) and Osteichthyes (bony fish) whose genetic material (DNA) has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.
Genetically modified foods or GM foods, also known as genetically engineered foods, bioengineered foods, genetically modified organisms, or GMOs, are foods produced from organisms that have had changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering.
Genetically modified maize (corn) is a genetically modified crop.
A genetically modified soybean is a soybean (Glycine max) that has had DNA introduced into it using genetic engineering techniques.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
A graduate school (sometimes shortened as grad school) is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (i.e. master's and doctoral degrees) with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate (bachelor's) degree with a high grade point average.
The Green Revolution, or Third Agricultural Revolution, refers to a set of research and the development of technology transfer initiatives occurring between the 1930s and the late 1960s (with prequels in the work of the agrarian geneticist Nazareno Strampelli in the 1920s and 1930s), that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
Biotechnology is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents to provide goods and services.
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
Biotechnology is a technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Industrial fermentation is the intentional use of fermentation by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi as well as eukaryotic cells like CHO cells and insect cells, to make products useful to humans.
An industrial park (also known as industrial estate, trading estate) is an area zoned and planned for the purpose of industrial development.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Intensive farming involves various types of agriculture with higher levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area.
The International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) is a non-profit international organization that shares agricultural biotechnology, focusing on genetic engineering.
Károly Ereky (Karl Ereky; October 20, 1878 – June 17, 1952) was a Hungarian agricultural engineer.
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
Lactic acid fermentation is a metabolic process by which glucose and other six-carbon sugars (also, disaccharides of six-carbon sugars, e.g. sucrose or lactose) are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate, which is lactic acid in solution.
The following is a list of the top 25 independent biotechnology companies listed on a stock exchange (as indicated) ranked by market capitalization.
The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.
Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.
A medical test is a medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Metabolic engineering is the practice of optimizing genetic and regulatory processes within cells to increase the cells' production of a certain substance.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Micropropagation is the practice of rapidly multiplying stock plant material to produce a large number of progeny plants, using modern plant tissue culture methods.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Molecular ecology is a field of evolutionary biology that is concerned with applying molecular population genetics, molecular phylogenetics, and more recently genomics to traditional ecological questions (e.g., species diagnosis, conservation and assessment of biodiversity, species-area relationships, and many questions in behavioral ecology).
Molecular engineering is an emerging field of study concerned with the design and testing of molecular properties, behavior and interactions in order to assemble better materials, systems, and processes for specific functions.
Monsanto Company was an agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation.
Mutation breeding, sometimes referred to as "variation breeding", is the process of exposing seeds to chemicals or radiation in order to generate mutants with desirable traits to be bred with other cultivars.
The NASDAQ Biotechnology Index is a stock market index made up of securities of NASDAQ-listed companies classified according to the Industry Classification Benchmark as either Biotechnology or Pharmaceuticals.
The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) supports basic research that increases understanding of biological processes and lays the foundation for advances in disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biotechnology: Biotechnology – field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields requiring bioproducts.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
Penicillium ascomycetous fungi are of major importance in the natural environment as well as food and drug production.
Personalized medicine, also termed precision medicine, is a medical procedure that separates patients into different groups—with medical decisions, practices, interventions and/or products being tailored to the individual patient based on their predicted response or risk of disease.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Pharmaceutical engineering is a branch of pharmaceutical science and technology that involves development and manufacturing of products, processes, and components in the pharmaceuticals industry (i.e. drugs & biologics).
The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.
Pharmacogenomics is the study of the role of the genome in drug response.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.
Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics.
Plant Manufactured Pharmaceuticals are pharmaceuticals derived from genetically modified plants used as therapeutic compounds.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
The precautionary principle (or precautionary approach) generally defines actions on issues considered to be uncertain, for instance applied in assessing risk management.
Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins.
Pseudomonas is a genus of Gram-negative, Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the family Pseudomonadaceae and containing 191 validly described species.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of study.
Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).
A slaughterhouse or abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered for consumption as food.
Within the fields of molecular biology and pharmacology, a small molecule is a low molecular weight (< 900 daltons) organic compound that may regulate a biological process, with a size on the order of 1 nm.
Soy sauce (also called soya sauce in British English) is a liquid condiment of Chinese origin, made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain, brine, and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds.
Structural genomics seeks to describe the 3-dimensional structure of every protein encoded by a given genome.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
SWORD-financing (stock and warrant off-balance sheet research & development) is a special form of financing invented to help junior biotech companies access institutional capital markets to finance their R&D via establishing a special purpose entity and giving the investors partial rights to the outcomes of the R&D projects that they are funding.
Thermoeconomics, also referred to as biophysical economics, is a school of heterodox economics that applies the laws of statistical mechanics to economic theory.
The historical application of biotechnology throughout time is provided below in order.
Tissue culture is the growth of tissues or cells separate from the organism.
Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physicochemical factors to improve or replace biological tissues.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
In the social sciences, unintended consequences (sometimes unanticipated consequences or unforeseen consequences) are outcomes that are not the ones foreseen and intended by a purposeful action.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
Virotherapy is a treatment using biotechnology to convert viruses into therapeutic agents by reprogramming viruses to treat diseases.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
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