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Bipolar disorder

Index Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood. [1]

296 relations: A Greek–English Lexicon, Abnormality (behavior), Académie Nationale de Médecine, Acute medicine, Adolf Meyer (psychiatrist), Adrenergic receptor, African Americans, Alcoholism, American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, American Broadcasting Company, American Psychiatric Association, Amygdala, Annales médico-psychologiques, Anterior cingulate cortex, Antibiotic, Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant, Antipsychotic, Anxiety disorder, Aripiprazole, Arthur Miller, Asian Americans, Assertive community treatment, ATPase, Attention, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Attention span, Atypical antipsychotic, BBC, Behavior, Behavioural genetics, Benzodiazepine, Bipolar disorder, Bipolar I disorder, Bipolar II disorder, Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale, Black Box (TV series), Blood test, Borderline personality disorder, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Brodmann area 25, Brookside, Caelius Aurelianus, Candidate gene, Cannabis (drug), Carbamazepine, Carrie Mathison, Catatonia, Cav1.2, Cerebral cortex, ..., Cerebrospinal fluid, Cesare Lombroso, Channel 4, Child abuse, Chris Joseph (autobiographer), Chromosome, Chronic condition, Circadian rhythm, Cocaine, Cognition, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Confirmation bias, Connective tissue disease, Coping (psychology), Coronary artery disease, Corticotropin-releasing hormone, Creativity, CT scan, Cure, Cushing's disease, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cyclothymia, D-amino acid oxidase, David L. Dunner, Death by natural causes, Death of a Salesman, Deinstitutionalisation, Delirium, Delusion, Dementia, Depression (mood), Diagnosis, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Dialectical behavior therapy, Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor D4, Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DSM-5, EastEnders, Eating disorder, Electroconvulsive therapy, Electroencephalography, Elliot S. Gershon, Emil Kraepelin, Emotional lability, Endocrine system, Endothelin 1, Environmental factor, Epilepsy, Euphoria, European Americans, Euthymia (medicine), Executive functions, Family therapy, Focal seizure, Folate deficiency, Food and Drug Administration, Frederick K. Goodwin, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, G protein–coupled receptor, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, General Behavior Inventory, Genetic disorder, Genetic linkage, Genetics, Genome-wide association study, Gi alpha subunit, Globus pallidus, Glutamate (neurotransmitter), Glutamic acid, GNG2, Goal orientation, Gq alpha subunit, Group psychotherapy, Gs alpha subunit, Hallucination, Harrison Ford, Heritability, Herpesviral encephalitis, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Homeland (TV series), Homogeneity and heterogeneity, Hormone, Humorism, Huntington's disease, Hyperintensity, Hypersexuality, Hyperthyroidism, Hypomania, Hypomania Checklist, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Hypothyroidism, ICD-10, Impulsivity, Influenza, Inositol, Insular cortex, International Review of Psychiatry, Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, Involuntary commitment, Involuntary treatment, ITPR2, Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol, Jean-Pierre Falret, Jimmy Corkhill, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Joseph L. 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Fieve, Schizophrenia, Self-harm, Self-help groups for mental health, Semi-structured interview, Seneca the Younger, Sensitivity and specificity, Serotonin, Showtime (TV network), Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Sleep disorder, Social anxiety disorder, Social stigma, Socrates, Spectrum disorder, Stacey Slater, Standardized mortality ratio, Stephen Fry: The Secret Life of the Manic Depressive, Stroke, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Substance abuse, Substance use disorder, Suicide, Suicide crisis, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Television special, Temporal lobe epilepsy, Teneurin, The CW, The Mosquito Coast, Therapeutic relationship, Thiamine deficiency, Topiramate, TPH1, Traumatic brain injury, Tristimania, True Life, Twin, Twin study, Tyrosine, Ultradian rhythm, Valproate, Very special episode, Vesicular monoamine transporter 2, Vitamin B12 deficiency, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, White matter, Willy Loman, Wilson's disease, Wnt signaling pathway, World Health Organization, Young Mania Rating Scale, 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 90210 (TV series). 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A Greek–English Lexicon

A Greek–English Lexicon, often referred to as Liddell & Scott, Liddell–Scott–Jones, or LSJ, is a standard lexicographical work of the Ancient Greek language.

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Abnormality (behavior)

Abnormality (or dysfunctional behavior) is a behavioral characteristic assigned to those with conditions regarded as rare or dysfunctional.

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Académie Nationale de Médecine

Situated at 16 rue Bonaparte in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, the Académie nationale de médecine (National Academy of Medicine) was created in 1820 by king Louis XVIII at the urging of baron Antoine Portal.

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Acute medicine

Acute medicine is that part of internal medicine concerned with the immediate and early specialist management of adult patients with a wide range of medical conditions who present in hospital as emergencies.

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Adolf Meyer (psychiatrist)

Adolf Meyer (September 13, 1866 – March 17, 1950) was a psychiatrist who rose to prominence as the first psychiatrist-in-chief of the Johns Hopkins Hospital (1910-1941).

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Adrenergic receptor

The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines, especially norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline).

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African Americans

African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.

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Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.

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American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit professional association in the United States dedicated to facilitating psychiatric care for children and adolescents.

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American Broadcasting Company

The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of Disney–ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.

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American Psychiatric Association

The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.

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The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.

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Annales médico-psychologiques

The Annales médico-psychologiques, revue psychiatrique is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering the field of psychiatry.

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Anterior cingulate cortex

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex that resembles a "collar" surrounding the frontal part of the corpus callosum.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.

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Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.

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Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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Anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.

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Aripiprazole, sold under the brand name Abilify among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is recommended and primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Other uses include as an add-on treatment in major depressive disorder, tic disorders, and irritability associated with autism. According to a Cochrane review, evidence for the oral form in schizophrenia is not sufficient to determine effects on general functioning. Additionally, because many people dropped out of the medication trials before they were completed, the overall strength of the conclusions is low. Side effects include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a movement disorder known as tardive dyskinesia, and high blood sugar in those with diabetes. In the elderly there is an increased risk of death. It is thus not recommended for use in those with psychosis due to dementia. It is pregnancy category C in the United States and category C in Australia, meaning there is possible evidence of harm to the fetus. It is not recommended for women who are breastfeeding. It is unclear whether it is safe or effective in people less than 18 years old. It is a partial dopamine agonist. Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan. In the United States, Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb. From April 2013 to March 2014, sales of Abilify amounted to almost $6.9 billion.

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Arthur Miller

Arthur Asher Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005) was an American playwright, essayist, and figure in twentieth-century American theater.

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Asian Americans

Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent.

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Assertive community treatment

Assertive community treatment (ACT) is an intensive and highly integrated approach for community mental health service delivery.

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ATPases (adenylpyrophosphatase, ATP monophosphatase, triphosphatase, SV40 T-antigen, adenosine 5'-triphosphatase, ATP hydrolase, complex V (mitochondrial electron transport), (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase, HCO3−-ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of ATP into ADP and a free phosphate ion.

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Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

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Attention span

Attention span is the amount of concentrated time a person can spend on a task without becoming distracted.

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Atypical antipsychotic

The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.

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Behavioural genetics

Behavioural genetics also referred to as behaviour genetics, is a field of scientific research that uses genetic methods to investigate the nature and origins of individual differences in behaviour.

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Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

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Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.

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Bipolar I disorder

Bipolar I disorder (BD-I; pronounced "type one bipolar disorder") is a bipolar spectrum disorder characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, with or without mixed or psychotic features.

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Bipolar II disorder

Bipolar II disorder (BP-II; pronounced "type two bipolar" or "bipolar type two" disorder) is a bipolar spectrum disorder (see also Bipolar disorder) characterized by at least one episode of hypomania and at least one episode of major depression.

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Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale

The Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS) is a psychiatric screening rating scale for bipolar disorder.

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Black Box (TV series)

Black Box is an American drama television series which ran for one season, from April 24 to July 24, 2014, and starred Kelly Reilly and Vanessa Redgrave, on ABC.

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Blood test

A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.

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Borderline personality disorder

Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.

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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.

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Brodmann area 25

Brodmann area 25 (BA25) is an area in the cerebral cortex of the brain and delineated based on its cytoarchitectonic characteristics.

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Brookside is a British soap opera set in Liverpool, England.

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Caelius Aurelianus

Caelius Aurelianus of Sicca in Numidia was a Roman physician and writer on medical topics.

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Candidate gene

The candidate gene approach to conducting genetic association studies focuses on associations between genetic variation within pre-specified genes of interest and phenotypes or disease states.

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Cannabis (drug)

Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.

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Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.

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Carrie Mathison

Carrie Anne Mathison, played by actress Claire Danes, is a fictional character and the protagonist of the American television drama/thriller series Homeland on Showtime, created by Alex Gansa and Howard Gordon.

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Catatonia is a state of psycho-motor immobility and behavioral abnormality manifested by stupor.

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Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNA1C gene.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

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Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.

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Cesare Lombroso

Cesare Lombroso (born Ezechia Marco Lombroso; 6 November 1835 – 19 October 1909), was an Italian criminologist and physician, founder of the Italian School of Positivist Criminology.

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Channel 4

Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.

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Child abuse

Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment or neglect of a child or children, especially by a parent or other caregiver.

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Chris Joseph (autobiographer)

Chris Joseph is a British advertising executive and sufferer of bipolar disorder and the author of his autobiography Bye-Bye Bipolar?: 63 Manicdotes.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Chronic condition

A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.

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Circadian rhythm

A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.

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Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

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Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".

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Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.

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Confirmation bias

Confirmation bias, also called confirmatory bias or myside bias,David Perkins, a professor and researcher at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, coined the term "myside bias" referring to a preference for "my" side of an issue.

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Connective tissue disease

A connective tissue disease is any disease that has the connective tissues of the body as a target of pathology.

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Coping (psychology)

Coping is the conscious effort to reduce stress.

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

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Corticotropin-releasing hormone

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin; corticotropin may also be spelled corticotrophin) is a peptide hormone involved in the stress response.

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Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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A cure is a substance or procedure that ends a medical condition, such as a medication, a surgical operation, a change in lifestyle or even a philosophical mindset that helps end a person's sufferings; or the state of being healed, or cured.

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Cushing's disease

Cushing's disease is a cause of Cushing's syndrome characterised by increased secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary (secondary hypercortisolism).

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Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.

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Cyclothymia, also known as cyclothymic disorder, is a mental disorder that involves periods of symptoms of depression and periods of symptoms of hypomania.

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D-amino acid oxidase

D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO; also DAO, OXDA, DAMOX) is an enzyme with the function on a molecular level to oxidize D-amino acids to the corresponding imino acids, producing ammonia and hydrogen peroxide.

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David L. Dunner

David L. Dunner (born Brooklyn, New York, May 27, 1940) is a psychiatrist in Washington, United States, who has conducted pioneering research into mood disorders, anxiety disorders and their treatment.

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Death by natural causes

A death by natural causes, as recorded by coroners and on death certificates and associated documents, is the end result of an illness or an internal malfunction of the body not directly caused by external forces, typically due to old age.

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Death of a Salesman

Death of a Salesman is a 1949 play written by American playwright Arthur Miller.

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Deinstitutionalisation (or deinstitutionalization) is the process of replacing long-stay psychiatric hospitals with less isolated community mental health services for those diagnosed with a mental disorder or developmental disability.

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Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.

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A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.

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Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

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Depression (mood)

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.

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Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.

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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.

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Dialectical behavior therapy

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based psychotherapy designed to help people suffering from borderline personality disorder.

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Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder

Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a mental disorder in children and adolescents characterized by a persistently irritable or angry mood and frequent temper outbursts that are disproportionate to the situation and significantly more severe than the typical reaction of same-aged peers.

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Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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Dopamine receptor D4

The dopamine receptor D4 is a dopamine D2-like G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the gene on chromosome 11 at 11p15.5.

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Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC or DL-PFC) is an area in the prefrontal cortex of the brain of humans and non-human primates.

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The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

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EastEnders is a British soap opera created by Julia Smith and Tony Holland which has been broadcast on BBC One since 1985.

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Eating disorder

An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.

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Electroconvulsive therapy

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), formerly known as electroshock therapy, and often referred to as shock treatment, is a psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in patients to provide relief from mental disorders.

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Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.

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Elliot S. Gershon

Elliot S. Gershon is a professor of psychiatry and human genetics at the University of Chicago in the United States.

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Emil Kraepelin

Emil Kraepelin (15 February 1856 – 7 October 1926) was a German psychiatrist.

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Emotional lability

In medicine and psychology, emotional lability is a sign or symptom typified by exaggerated changes in mood or affect in quick succession.

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Endocrine system

The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.

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Endothelin 1

Endothelin 1 (ET-1), also known as preproendothelin-1 (PPET1), is a potent vasoconstrictor that in humans is encoded by the EDN1 gene and produced by vascular endothelial cells.

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Environmental factor

Environmental factor or ecological factor or eco factor is any factor, abiotic or biotic, that influences living organisms.

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Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.

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Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.

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European Americans

European Americans (also referred to as Euro-Americans) are Americans of European ancestry.

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Euthymia (medicine)

Euthymia is defined as a normal, tranquil mental state or mood.

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Executive functions

Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.

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Family therapy

Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy, marriage and family therapy, family systems therapy, and family counseling, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development.

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Focal seizure

Focal seizures (also called partial seizures and localized seizures) are seizures which affect initially only one hemisphere of the brain.

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Folate deficiency

Folate deficiency is a low level of folic acid and derivatives in the body.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Frederick K. Goodwin

Frederick King Goodwin (born April 21, 1936) is an American psychiatrist and Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the George Washington University Medical Center, where he is also director of the Center on Neuroscience, Medical Progress, and Society.

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.

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G protein–coupled receptor

G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.

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Gamma-Aminobutyric acid

gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.

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General Behavior Inventory

The General Behavior Inventory (GBI) is a 73-question psychological self-report assessment tool designed by Richard Depue and colleagues to identify the presence and severity of manic and depressive moods in adults, as well as to assess for cyclothymia.

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Genetic disorder

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.

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Genetic linkage

Genetic linkage is the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Genome-wide association study

In genetics, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS), also known as whole genome association study (WGA study, or WGAS), is an observational study of a genome-wide set of genetic variants in different individuals to see if any variant is associated with a trait.

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Gi alpha subunit

Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ATP.

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Globus pallidus

The globus pallidus (Latin for "pale globe") also known as paleostriatum or dorsal pallidum, is a subcortical structure of the brain.

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Glutamate (neurotransmitter)

In neuroscience, glutamate refers to the anion of glutamic acid in its role as a neurotransmitter: a chemical that nerve cells use to send signals to other cells.

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Glutamic acid

Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.

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Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNG2 gene.

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Goal orientation

Goal orientation is an "individual disposition toward developing or validating one's ability in achievement settings".

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Gq alpha subunit

Gq protein (Gαq, or Gq/11) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates phospholipase C (PLC).

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Group psychotherapy

Group psychotherapy or group therapy is a form of psychotherapy in which one or more therapists treat a small group of clients together as a group.

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Gs alpha subunit

The Gs alpha subunit (Gαs, Gsα, or Gs protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase.

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A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.

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Harrison Ford

Harrison Ford (born July 13, 1942) is an American actor and film producer.

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Heritability is a statistic used in the fields of breeding and genetics that estimates the degree of variation in a phenotypic trait in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population.

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Herpesviral encephalitis

Herpesviral encephalitis is encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus.

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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Homeland (TV series)

Homeland is an American spy thriller television series developed by Howard Gordon and Alex Gansa based on the Israeli series Prisoners of War (Original title translit, literally "Abductees"), which was created by Gideon Raff.

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Homogeneity and heterogeneity

Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences and statistics relating to the uniformity in a substance or organism.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.

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Huntington's disease

Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.

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Hyperintensities refer to areas of high intensity on types of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the human brain or that of other mammals that reflect lesions produced largely by demyelination and axonal loss.

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Hypersexuality is a clinical diagnosis used by mental healthcare professionals to describe extremely frequent or suddenly increased libido.

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Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.

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Hypomania (literally "under mania" or "less than mania") is a mood state characterized by persistent disinhibition and elevation (euphoria).

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Hypomania Checklist

The Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32) is a questionnaire developed by Dr.

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Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis

The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).

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Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.

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ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).

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In psychology, impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences.

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Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.

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Myo-inositol, or simply inositol, is a carbocyclic sugar that is abundant in brain and other mammalian tissues, mediates cell signal transduction in response to a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors and participates in osmoregulation It is a sugar alcohol with half the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar).

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Insular cortex

In each hemisphere of the mammalian brain the insular cortex (also insula and insular lobe) is a portion of the cerebral cortex folded deep within the lateral sulcus (the fissure separating the temporal lobe from the parietal and frontal lobes).

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International Review of Psychiatry

The International Review of Psychiatry is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Institute of Psychiatry (King's College London).

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Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy

Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) or simply social rhythm therapy is a type of behavioral therapy used to treat the disruption in circadian rhythms that is related to bipolar disorder.

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Involuntary commitment

Involuntary commitment or civil commitment (also known informally as sectioning or being sectioned in some jurisdictions, such as the UK) is a legal process through which an individual who is deemed by a qualified agent to have symptoms of severe mental disorder is court-ordered into treatment in a psychiatric hospital (inpatient) or in the community (outpatient).

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Involuntary treatment

Involuntary treatment (also referred to by proponents as assisted treatment and by critics as forced drugging) refers to medical treatment undertaken without the consent of whomever is treated.

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Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 2, also known as ITPR2, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ITPR2 gene.

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Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol

Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol (3 February 1772 – 12 December 1840) was a French psychiatrist.

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Jean-Pierre Falret

Jean-Pierre Falret (26 April 1794 – 28 October 1870) was a French psychiatrist.

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Jimmy Corkhill

James Corkhill is a fictional character from the British Channel 4 soap opera Brookside, played by Dean Sullivan.

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Johns Hopkins School of Medicine

The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM), located in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. (founded in 1893) is the academic medical teaching and research arm of the Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876.

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Joseph L. Fleiss

Joseph L. Fleiss (November 13, 1937 – June 12, 2003) was a professor of biostatistics at the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, where he also served as head of the Division of Biostatistics from 1975 to 1992.

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Jules Baillarger

Jules Baillarger, full name Jules Gabriel François Baillarger (25 March 1809 – 31 December 1890), was a French neurologist and psychiatrist.

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Karl Kleist

Karl Kleist (born 31 January 1879 in Mulhouse, Alsace, died 26 December 1960) was a German neurologist and psychiatrist who made notable advances in descriptive psychopathology and neuropsychology.

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Karl Leonhard

Karl Leonhard (21 March 1904 – 23 April 1988) was a German psychiatrist who was a student and collaborator of Karl Kleist, who himself stood in the tradition of Carl Wernicke.

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Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum

Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum (28 December 1828 – 15 April 1899) was a German psychiatrist.

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Kay Redfield Jamison

Kay Redfield Jamison (born June 22, 1946) is an American clinical psychologist and writer.

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Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.

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Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia

The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) is a semi-structured interview aimed at early diagnosis of affective disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, and anxiety disorder.

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Lamotrigine, sold as the brand name Lamictal among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder.

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Lateral ventricles

The lateral ventricles are the two largest cavities of the ventricular system of the human brain and contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

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Levothyroxine, also known as -thyroxine, is a manufactured form of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4).

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Limbic system

The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.

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Lingual gyrus

The lingual gyrus is a brain structure that is linked to processing vision, especially related to letters.

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Lithium (medication)

Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are primarily used as a psychiatric medication.

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Liverpool Echo

The Liverpool Echo is a newspaper published by Trinity Mirror based in Old Hall Street, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Major depressive episode

A major depressive episode (MDE) is a period characterized by the symptoms of major depressive disorder.

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Mania, also known as manic syndrome, is a state of abnormally elevated arousal, affect, and energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although mania is often conceived as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable; indeed, as the mania intensifies, irritability can be more pronounced and result in violence, or anxiety.

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Medical imaging

Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).

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Medical test

A medical test is a medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment.

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Melancholia (from µέλαινα χολή),Burton, Bk.

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Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.

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Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.

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Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

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A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.

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Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.

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A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Mixed affective state

Traditionally, a mixed affective state, formerly known as a mixed-manic or mixed episode, has been defined as a state wherein features unique to both depression and mania—such as despair, fatigue, morbid or suicidal ideation, racing thoughts, pressure of activity, and heightened irritability—occur either simultaneously or in very short succession.

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In 19th-century psychiatry, monomania (from Greek monos, one, and mania, meaning "madness" or "frenzy") was a form of partial insanity conceived as single pathological preoccupation in an otherwise sound mind.

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Mood (psychology)

In psychology, a mood is an emotional state.

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Mood Disorder Questionnaire

The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) is a self-report questionnaire designed to help detect bipolar disorder.

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Mood stabilizer

A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric pharmaceutical drug used to treat mood disorders characterized by intense and sustained mood shifts, typically bipolar disorder type I or type II, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia.

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Mr. Jones (1993 film)


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MTV (originally an initialism of Music Television) is an American cable and satellite television channel owned by Viacom Media Networks (a division of Viacom) and headquartered in New York City.

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Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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National Comorbidity Survey

The National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1) was the first large-scale field survey of mental health in the United States.

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.

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National Institute of Mental Health

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is one of 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

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Neurocan core protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCAN gene.

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Neurological disorder

A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.

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Neurosyphilis is an infection of the brain or spinal cord caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum.

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Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.

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Notch signaling pathway

The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved cell signaling system present in most multicellular organisms.

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Nova Science Publishers

Nova Science Publishers is an academic publisher of books, encyclopedias, handbooks, e-books and journals, based in Hauppauge, New York.

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Obsessive–compulsive disorder

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").

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Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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Omega-3 fatty acid

Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).

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Orbitofrontal cortex

The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes in the brain which is involved in the cognitive processing of decision-making.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Panic disorder

Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks.

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Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

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Paternal age effect

The paternal age effect is the statistical relationship between paternal age at conception and biological effects on the child.

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A patient is any recipient of health care services.

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Pellagra is a disease caused by a lack of the vitamin niacin (vitamin B3).

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Personality disorder

Personality disorders (PD) are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by the individual's culture.

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Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).

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Phospholipase C

Phospholipase C (PLC) is a class of membrane-associated enzymes that cleave phospholipids just before the phosphate group (see figure).

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Political thriller

A political thriller is a thriller that is set against the backdrop of a political power struggle.

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Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.

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Posttraumatic stress disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.

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Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug that is mostly used to suppress the immune system.

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Prefrontal cortex

In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.

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Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe and disabling form of premenstrual syndrome affecting 3–8% of menstruating women.

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Premenstrual syndrome

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) refers to physical and emotional symptoms that occur in the one to two weeks before a woman's period.

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Pressure of speech

Pressure of speech is a tendency to speak rapidly and frenziedly, as if motivated by an urgency not apparent to the listener.

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In medicine, a prodrome is an early sign or symptom (or set of signs and symptoms), which often indicate the onset of a disease before more diagnostically specific signs and symptoms develop.

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Protein kinase A

In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).

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Psychiatric hospital

Psychiatric hospitals, also known as mental hospitals, mental health units, mental asylums or simply asylums, are hospitals or wards specializing in the treatment of serious mental disorders, such as clinical depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder.

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Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

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Psychoeducation is an evidence-based therapeutic intervention for patients and their loved ones that provides information and support to better understand and cope with illness.

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Psychological stress

In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.

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Psychomotor agitation

Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.

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Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.

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The psychosocial approach looks at individuals in the context of the combined influence that psychological factors and the surrounding social environment have on their physical and mental wellness and their ability to function.

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Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.

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Racing thoughts

Racing thoughts refers to the rapid thought patterns that often occur in manic, hypomanic, or mixed episodes.

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Rating scale

A rating scale is a set of categories designed to elicit information about a quantitative or a qualitative attribute.

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Recovery approach

Psychological recovery or recovery model or the recovery approach to mental disorder or substance dependence emphasizes and supports a person's potential for recovery.

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Richard Gere

Richard Tiffany Gere (born August 31, 1949) is an American actor and humanitarian activist.

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Ronald R. Fieve

Ronald Robert Fieve (March 5, 1930, Stevens Point – January 2, 2018, Palm Beach) was an American psychiatrist known for his work on the use of lithium in treatment of mood disorders.

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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.

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Self-harm, also known as self-injury, is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue, done without suicidal intentions.

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Self-help groups for mental health

Self-help groups for mental health are voluntary associations of people who share a common desire to overcome mental illness or otherwise increase their level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing.

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Semi-structured interview

A semi-structured interview is a method of research used most often in the social sciences.

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Seneca the Younger

Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.

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Sensitivity and specificity

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.

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Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.

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Showtime (TV network)

Showtime is an American premium cable and satellite television network that serves as the flagship service of the Showtime Networks subsidiary of CBS Corporation, which also owns sister services The Movie Channel and Flix.

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Single-nucleotide polymorphism

A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).

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Sleep disorder

A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.

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Social anxiety disorder

Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.

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Social stigma

Social stigma is disapproval of (or discontent with) a person based on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived.

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Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.

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Spectrum disorder

A spectrum disorder is a mental disorder that includes a range of linked conditions, sometimes also extending to include singular symptoms and traits.

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Stacey Slater

Stacey Fowler (also Slater and Branning) is a fictional character from the BBC soap opera EastEnders, played by Lacey Turner.

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Standardized mortality ratio

In epidemiology, the standardized mortality ratio or SMR, is a quantity, expressed as either a ratio or percentage quantifying the increase or decrease in mortality of a study cohort with respect to the general population.

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Stephen Fry: The Secret Life of the Manic Depressive

Stephen Fry: The Secret Life of the Manic Depressive is a 2006 two-part television documentary directed by Ross Wilson and featuring British actor and comedian Stephen Fry.

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV

The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) is a diagnostic exam used to determine DSM-IV Axis I disorders (major mental disorders).

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Substance abuse

Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.

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Substance use disorder

A substance use disorder (SUD), also known as a drug use disorder, is a condition in which the use of one or more substances leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.

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Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.

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Suicide crisis

A suicide crisis, suicidal crisis, attempted suicide or potential suicide, is a situation in which a person is attempting to kill themselves or is seriously contemplating or planning to do so.

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Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.

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Television special

A television special (often TV special, or rarely "television spectacular") is a stand-alone television show which temporarily interrupts episodic programming normally scheduled for a given time slot.

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Temporal lobe epilepsy

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic disorder of the nervous system characterized by recurrent, unprovoked focal seizures that originate in the temporal lobe of the brain and last about one or two minutes.

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Teneurins are transmembrane proteins.

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The CW

The CW Television Network (commonly referred to as just The CW) is an American English-language broadcast television network that is operated by the CW Network, LLC, a limited liability joint venture between CBS Corporation, the former owners of United Paramount Network (UPN), and Warner Bros. Entertainment, former majority owner of The WB.

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The Mosquito Coast

The Mosquito Coast is a 1986 American drama film directed by Peter Weir and starring Harrison Ford, Helen Mirren, Andre Gregory, and River Phoenix.

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Therapeutic relationship

The therapeutic relationship (also therapeutic alliance, the helping alliance, or the working alliance) refers to the relationship between a healthcare professional and a client (or patient).

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Thiamine deficiency

Thiamine deficiency is a medical condition of low levels of thiamine (vitamin B1).

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Topiramate (brand name Topamax) is an anticonvulsant (antiepilepsy) drug.

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Tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) is an isoenzyme of tryptophan hydroxylase which in humans is encoded by the TPH1 gene.

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Traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.

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Tristimania is a 2016 book by Jay Griffiths describing her experience of an episode of manic depression that lasted a year.

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True Life

True Life is an American documentary television series that has been airing on MTV since March 31, 1998.

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Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.

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Twin study

Twin studies are studies conducted on identical or fraternal twins.

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Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.

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Ultradian rhythm

In chronobiology, an ultradian rhythm is a recurrent period or cycle repeated throughout a 24-hour day.

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Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.

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Very special episode

"Very special episode" is an advertising term originally used in American television promos to refer to an episode of a sitcom or drama series which deals with a difficult or controversial social issue.

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Vesicular monoamine transporter 2

The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) also known as solute carrier family 18 member 2 (SLC18A2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC18A2 gene.

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Vitamin B12 deficiency

Vitamin B12 deficiency, also known as cobalamin deficiency, is the medical condition of low blood levels of vitamin B12.

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Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome

Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is the combined presence of Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) and alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome.

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White matter

White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.

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Willy Loman

William "Willy" Loman is a fictional character and the protagonist of Arthur Miller's classic play Death of a Salesman, which debuted on Broadway with Lee J. Cobb playing Loman at the Morosco Theatre on February 10, 1949.

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Wilson's disease

Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder in which copper builds up in the body.

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Wnt signaling pathway

The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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Young Mania Rating Scale

The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), developed by Vincent E Ziegler and popularized by Robert Young, is an eleven-item multiple choice diagnostic questionnaire which psychiatrists use to measure the severity of manic episodes in children and young adults.

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5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid

5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is the main metabolite of serotonin.

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90210 (TV series)

90210 is an American teen drama television series, developed by Rob Thomas, Gabe Sachs, and Jeff Judah, that aired from September 2008 to May 2013.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bipolar_disorder

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