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Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
The Accipitriformes are an order that includes most of the diurnal birds of prey: hawks, eagles, vultures, and many others, about 225 species in all.
Accipitrimorphae is a clade of birds of prey that include the orders Cathartiformes (New World vultures) and Accipitriformes (diurnal birds of prey such as eagles, hawks, osprey and secretarybird).
Actophilornis is a genus of jacana.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Aequorlitornithes is a clade of waterbirds recovered in a compressive genomic systematic study using nearly 200 species in 2015.
Aequornithes (from Latin aequor, expanse of water + Greek ornithes, birds), or core water birds are defined as "the least inclusive clade containing Gaviidae and Phalacrocoracidae".
Afroaves is a clade of birds, consisting of the kingfishers and kin (Coraciiformes), woodpeckers and kin (Piciformes), hornbills and kin (Bucerotiformes), trogons (Trogoniformes), cuckoo roller (Leptosomatiformes), mousebirds (Coliiformes), owls (Strigiformes), raptors (Accipitriformes) and New World vultures (Cathartiformes).
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
An airfoil (American English) or aerofoil (British English) is the shape of a wing, blade (of a propeller, rotor, or turbine), or sail (as seen in cross-section).
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds related to the procellariids, storm petrels and diving petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses).
The word albatross is sometimes used metaphorically to mean a psychological burden that feels like a curse.
Altitudinal migration is a short-distance animal migration from lower altitudes to higher altitudes and back.
In biology, altricial species are those in which the young are incapable of moving around on their own soon after hatching or being born.
The alula, or bastard wing, (plural alulae) is a small projection on the anterior edge of the wing of modern birds and a few non-avian dinosaurs.
Ambush predators or sit-and-wait predators are carnivorous animals or other organisms, such as some nematophagous fungi and carnivorous plants, that capture or trap prey by stealth or by strategy (typically not conscious strategy), rather than by speed or by strength.
The American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) is a large species of flamingo closely related to the greater flamingo and Chilean flamingo.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.
The Anatidae are the biological family of birds that includes ducks, geese, and swans.
The Anatinae are a subfamily of the family Anatidae (swans, geese and ducks).
Anchiornis is a type of small, four-winged paravian dinosaur.
Canaanite religion refers to the group of ancient Semitic religions practiced by the Canaanites living in the ancient Levant from at least the early Bronze Age through the first centuries of the Common Era.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The ancient murrelet (Synthliboramphus antiquus) is a bird in the auk family.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Animal cognition describes the mental capacities of non-human animals and the study of those capacities.
Animal communication is the transfer of information from one or a group of animals (sender or senders) to one or more other animals (receiver or receivers) that affects the current or future behavior of the receivers.
Animal lead poisoning (also known as avian plumbism, or avian saturnism for birds) is a veterinary condition and pathology caused by increased levels of the heavy metal lead in animal's body.
An animal track is an imprint left behind in soil, snow, or mud, or on some other ground surface, by an animal walking across it.
Anna's hummingbird (Calypte anna), a medium-sized hummingbird native to the west coast of North America, was named after Anna Masséna, Duchess of Rivoli.
The Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics is an annual scientific journal published by Annual Reviews.
Anseriformes is an order of birds that comprise about 180 living species in three families: Anhimidae (the screamers), Anseranatidae (the magpie goose), and Anatidae, the largest family, which includes over 170 species of waterfowl, among them the ducks, geese, and swans.
The Anserinae are a subfamily in the waterfowl family Anatidae.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.
Anting is a self-anointing behavior during which birds rub insects, usually ants, on their feathers and skin.
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi (4 March 1678 – 28 July 1741) was an Italian Baroque musical composer, virtuoso violinist, teacher and cleric.
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).
The aortic arches or pharyngeal arch arteries (previously referred to as branchial arches in human embryos) are a series of six paired embryological vascular structures which give rise to the great arteries of the neck and head.
Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.
Traditionally, the bird order Apodiformes contained three living families: the swifts (Apodidae), the treeswifts (Hemiprocnidae), and the hummingbirds (Trochilidae).
Apsaravis is a Mesozoic bird genus from the Late Cretaceous.
Aquatic locomotion is biologically propelled motion through a liquid medium.
Arboreal locomotion is the locomotion of animals in trees.
Archaeopteryx, meaning "old wing" (sometimes referred to by its German name Urvogel ("original bird" or "first bird")), is a genus of bird-like dinosaurs that is transitional between non-avian feathered dinosaurs and modern birds.
Archaeorhynchus is a genus of beaked avialans (proto-birds) from the early Cretaceous period.
Archosaurs are a group of diapsid amniotes whose living representatives consist of birds and crocodilians.
Ardeae is a clade that of birds that contains Eurypygimorphae and Aequornithes, named in 2014 by genome analysis.
Asherah in ancient Semitic religion, is a mother goddess who appears in a number of ancient sources.
Asio is a genus of typical owls, or true owls, in the family Strigidae.
Athena; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā or Athene,; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē often given the epithet Pallas,; Παλλὰς is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
The Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica), also known as the common puffin, is a species of seabird in the auk family.
The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.
An augur was a priest and official in the classical Roman world.
An auk or alcid is a bird of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes.
The auricle or auricula is the visible part of the ear that resides outside the head.
Aurornis is an extinct genus of anchiornithid theropod dinosaurs from the Jurassic period of China.
The austral snipes, also known as the New Zealand snipes or tutukiwi, are a genus, Coenocorypha, of tiny birds in the sandpiper family, which are now only found on New Zealand's outlying islands.
The Australasian wrens are a family, Maluridae, of small, insectivorous passerine birds endemic to Australia and New Guinea.
Australaves is a recently defined clade of birds, consisting of the Eufalconimorphae (passerines, parrots and falcons) as well as the Cariamiformes (including seriamas and the extinct "terror birds").
The Australian brushturkey or Australian brush-turkey (Alectura lathami), also frequently called the scrub turkey or bush turkey, is a common, widespread species of mound-building bird from the family Megapodiidae found in eastern Australia from Far North Queensland to Eurobodalla on the south coast of New South Wales.
The Australian magpie (Gymnorhina tibicen) is a medium-sized black and white passerine bird native to Australia and southern New Guinea.
Austrodyptornithes is a clade of birds that include the orders Sphenisciformes (penguins) and Procellariiformes (tube-nosed seabirds).
Avebrevicauda (meaning "birds with short tails") is a group which includes all avialan species with ten or fewer free vertebrae in the tail.
Avemetatarsalia (meaning "bird metatarsals") is a clade name established by British palaeontologist Michael Benton in 1999 for all crown group archosaurs that are closer to birds than to crocodiles.
Avialae ("bird wings") is a clade of flying dinosaurs containing their only living representatives, the birds.
There are many field methods available for conducting avian ecological research.
Avian influenza—known informally as avian flu or bird flu is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds.
Avian range expansion describes how birds expand their habitat.
Aviculture is the practice of keeping and breeding birds and the culture that forms around it.
Avifilopluma ("bird filoplumes") is a clade containing all animals with feathers.
An avivore is a specialized predator of birds, with birds making up a large proportion of its diet.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Balaur bondoc is a species of theropod dinosaur which lived in what is now Romania during the late Cretaceous period.
The bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica) is a large wader in the family Scolopacidae.
The bar-throated minla or chestnut-tailed minla (Minla strigula), or even bar-throated siva, is a species of bird in the laughingthrush and babbler family Leiothrichidae.
The barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) is the most widespread species of swallow in the world.
In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
The beak, bill, or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds that is used for eating and for preening, manipulating objects, killing prey, fighting, probing for food, courtship and feeding young.
Beatrice Harrison (9 December 1892 – 10 March 1965) was a British cellist active in the first half of the 20th century.
The bee hummingbird, zunzuncito or Helena hummingbird (Mellisuga helenae) is a species of hummingbird which is the world's smallest bird.
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering quantitative, empirical, and theoretical studies in the field of analysis of animal behavior at the levels of the individual, population, and community.
In biology, binocular vision is a type of vision in which an animal having two eyes is able to perceive a single three-dimensional image of its surroundings.
The Biochemical Journal is a peer-reviewed scientific journal which covers all aspects of biochemistry, as well as cell and molecular biology.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Biological control or biocontrol is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms.
In biology, biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species.
Biology Letters is a peer-reviewed, biological, scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
Bird anatomy, or the physiological structure of birds' bodies, shows many unique adaptations, mostly aiding flight.
A bird colony is a large congregation of individuals of one or more species of bird that nest or roost in proximity at a particular location.
Bird conservation is a field in the science of conservation biology related to threatened birds.
A birdfeeder, bird feeder, bird table, or tray feeder are devices placed outdoors to supply bird food to birds (bird feeding).
Bird feeding is the activity of feeding wild birds, often by means of a bird feeder.
Bird flight is the primary mode of locomotion used by most bird species.
A bird louse is any chewing louse (small, biting insects) of order Phthiraptera which parasitizes warm-blooded animals, especially birds.
Bird migration is the regular seasonal movement, often north and south along a flyway, between breeding and wintering grounds.
A bird nest is the spot in which a bird lays and incubates its eggs and raises its young.
A bird of prey, predatory bird, or raptor is any of several species of bird that hunts and feeds on rodents and other animals.
A bird strike—sometimes called birdstrike, bird ingestion (for an engine), bird hit, or bird aircraft strike hazard (BASH)—is a collision between an airborne animal (usually a bird or bat) and a manmade vehicle, especially an aircraft.
Bird vocalization includes both bird calls and bird songs.
Bird–skyscraper collisions are a problem in urban areas.
BirdLife International (formerly the International Council for Bird Preservation) is a global partnership of conservation organisations that strives to conserve birds, their habitats, and global biodiversity, working with people towards sustainability in the use of natural resources.
Birds have played a role in Western Classical music since at least the 14th century, when composers such as Jean Vaillant quoted birdsong in some of their compositions.
Birdwatching, or birding, is a form of wildlife observation in which the observation of birds is a recreational activity or citizen science.
The black-headed duck (Heteronetta atricapilla) is a South American duck allied to the stiff-tailed ducks in the tribe Oxyurini of the family Anatidae.
The blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) is a marine bird native to subtropical and tropical regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean.
A body plan, Bauplan (German plural Baupläne), or ground plan is a set of morphological features common to many members of a phylum of animals.
The Borana Oromo people, also called the Boran, are a subethnic section of the Oromo people who live in southern Ethiopia (Oromia) and northern Kenya.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Bradley Curtis Livezey (June 15, 1954 – February 8, 2011) was an American ornithologist with scores of publications.
Breeding pair is a pair of animals which cooperate over time to produce offspring with some form of a bond between the individuals.
Brood parasites are organisms that rely on others to raise their young.
Brood patch of a sand martinA brood patch is a patch of featherless skin that is visible on the underside of birds during the nesting season.
Bucerotiformes is an order that contains the hornbills, hoopoe and wood hoopoes.
Burhinus is a genus of bird in the Burhinidae family.
Bustards, including floricans and korhaans, are large, terrestrial birds living mainly in dry grassland areas and on the steppes of the Old World.
Buttonquail or hemipodes are members of a small family of birds, Turnicidae, which resemble, but are unrelated to, the quails of Phasianidae.
Bycatch, in the fishing industry, is a fish or other marine species that is caught unintentionally while catching certain target species and target sizes of fish, crabs etc.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) is a New World vulture, the largest North American land bird.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
Campylobacteriosis is an infection by the Campylobacter bacterium, most commonly C. jejuni.
In biology, the canopy is the aboveground portion of a plant community or crop, formed by the collection of individual plant crowns.
The Caprimulgiformes is an order of birds that includes a number of birds with global distribution (except Antarctica).
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
Cariamiformes (or Cariamae) is an order of primarily flightless birds that has existed for over 60 million years.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Carrion (from Latin caro, meaning "meat") is the decaying flesh of a dead animal.
Cassowaries, genus Casuarius, are ratites (flightless birds without a keel on their sternum bone) that are native to the tropical forests of New Guinea (Papua New Guinea and Indonesia), nearby islands, and northeastern Australia.
The Casuariiformes is an order of large flightless bird that has four surviving members: the three species of cassowary, and the only remaining species of emu.
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.
The order Cathartiformes of raptors or birds of prey included the New World vultures and the now extinct Teratornithidae.
The cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) is a cosmopolitan species of heron (family Ardeidae) found in the tropics, subtropics and warm temperate zones.
Gaius Valerius Catullus (c. 84 – c. 54 BC) was a Latin poet of the late Roman Republic who wrote chiefly in the neoteric style of poetry, which is about personal life rather than classical heroes.
Catullus 2 is a poem by Roman poet Gaius Valerius Catullus (c. 84 – c. 54 BCE) that describes the affectionate relationship between an unnamed "puella" (possibly Catullus' lover, Lesbia), and her pet sparrow.
Cave paintings, also known as parietal art, are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, beginning roughly 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia.
Cavitaves is a clade that contain the order Leptosomatiformes (trogons) and the clade Eucavitaves (a large assemblage of birds that includes woodpeckers, kingfishers and trogons).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates.
The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the longitudinal fissure.
The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb.
Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds.
Charles Gald Sibley (August 7, 1917 – April 12, 1998) was an American ornithologist and molecular biologist.
Chewing or mastication is the process by which food is crushed and ground by teeth.
The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines periodic (cyclic) phenomena in living organisms and their adaptation to solar- and lunar-related rhythms.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.
A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.
In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.
In animal anatomy, a cloaca (plural cloacae or) is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts (if present) of many vertebrate animals, opening at the vent.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
The cochlea is the part of the inner ear involved in hearing.
In biology, coevolution occurs when two or more species reciprocally affect each other's evolution.
Columbaves is a clade that contains Columbimorphae (pigeons, mesites, and sandgrouse) and Otidimorphae (bustards, cuckoos, and turacos) discovered by genomic analysis.
Pigeons and doves constitute the animal family Columbidae and the order Columbiformes, which includes about 42 genera and 310 species.
Columbimorphae is a clade discovered by genome analysis that includes birds of the orders Columbiformes (pigeons and doves), Pteroclidiformes (sandgrouses), and Mesitornithiformes (mesites).
The comb-crested jacana (Irediparra gallinacea), also known as the lotusbird or lilytrotter, is the only species of jacana in the genus Irediparra.
Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.
The common dwarf mongoose (Helogale parvula), sometimes just called the dwarf mongoose, is a small African carnivore belonging to the mongoose family (Herpestidae).
The common murre or common guillemot (Uria aalge) is a large auk.
The common nightingale or simply nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos), also known as rufous nightingale, is a small passerine bird best known for its powerful and beautiful song.
The ostrich or common ostrich (Struthio camelus) is either of two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member(s) of the genus Struthio, which is in the ratite family.
The common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) is a bird in the pheasant family (Phasianidae).
The common poorwill (Phalaenoptilus nuttallii) is a nocturnal bird of the family Caprimulgidae, the nightjars.
The common raven (Corvus corax), also known as the northern raven, is a large all-black passerine bird.
The common starling (Sturnus vulgaris), also known as the European starling, or in the British Isles just the starling, is a medium-sized passerine bird in the starling family, Sturnidae.
Communal roosting is an animal behavior where a group of individuals, typically of the same species, congregate in an area for a few hours based on an external signal and will return to the same site with the reappearance of the signal.
Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).
Confuciusornithiformes is a group of beaked, long-winged avialans from the early Cretaceous Period of China.
Conservation biology is the management of nature and of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions.
A constellation is a group of stars that are considered to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices.
A contact lens, or simply contact, is a thin lens placed directly on the surface of the eye.
Cooperative breeding is a social system characterized by alloparental care: offspring receive care not only from their parents, but also from additional group members, often called helpers.
The Coraciiformes are a group of usually colorful birds including the kingfishers, the bee-eaters, the rollers, the motmots, and the todies.
Coraciimorphae is a clade of birds that contains the order Coliiformes (mousebirds) and the clade Cavitaves (a large assemblage of birds that includes woodpeckers, kingfishers and trogons).
Phalacrocoracidae is a family of approximately 40 species of aquatic birds commonly known as cormorants and shags.
Cormorant fishing is a traditional fishing method in which fishermen use trained cormorants to fish in rivers.
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.
The "Corvida" were one of two "parvorders" contained within the suborder Passeri, as proposed in the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy, the other being Passerida.
Corvidae is a cosmopolitan family of oscine passerine birds that contains the crows, ravens, rooks, jackdaws, jays, magpies, treepies, choughs, and nutcrackers.
A courtship display is a set of display behaviors in which an animal attempts to attract a mate and exhibit their desire to copulate.
The chachalacas, guans and curassows are birds in the family Cracidae.
Crax is a genus of curassows in the order Galliformes, a clade of large, heavy-bodied, ground-feeding birds.
Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid that occurs naturally in vertebrates.
Creatinine (or; from flesh) is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass).
Crepuscular animals are those that are active primarily during twilight (that is, the periods of dawn and dusk).
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
Crocodilia (or Crocodylia) is an order of mostly large, predatory, semiaquatic archosaurian reptiles, known as crocodilians.
A crop (sometimes also called a croup or a craw, or ingluvies) is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to digestion.
Crop milk is a secretion from the lining of the crop of parent birds that is regurgitated to young birds.
In phylogenetics, the crown group of a collection of species consists of the living representatives of the collection together with their ancestors back to their most recent common ancestor as well as all of that ancestor's descendants.
Cryptosporidiosis, also known as crypto, is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium, a genus of protozoan parasites in the phylum Apicomplexa.
The cuckoos are a family of birds, Cuculidae, the sole taxon in the order Cuculiformes.
The cuckoo roller or courol (Leptosomus discolor)del Hoyo, J. Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. (2001) is the only bird in the family Leptosomidae, which was previously often placed in the order Coraciiformes but is now placed in its own order Leptosomiformes.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
Darwin's finches (also known as the Galápagos finches) are a group of about fifteen species of passerine birds.
David Rothenberg (born 1962) is a professor of philosophy and music at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, with a special interest in animal sounds as music.
Deinonychus (δεινός, 'terrible' and ὄνυξ, genitive ὄνυχος 'claw') is a genus of carnivorous dromaeosaurid coelurosaurian theropod dinosaur with one described species, Deinonychus antirrhopus.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
In optics, particularly as it relates to film and photography, the optical phenomenon known as depth of field (DOF), is the distance about the Plane of Focus (POF) where objects appear acceptably sharp in an image.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.
Dippers are members of the genus Cinclus in the bird family Cinclidae, named for their bobbing or dipping movements.
Diurnality is a form of plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day, with a period of sleeping, or other inactivity, at night.
The diving ducks, commonly called pochards or scaups, are a category of duck which feed by diving beneath the surface of the water.
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
Domestic ducks are ducks that are raised for meat, eggs and down.
Domestic geese (Anser anser domesticus or Anser cygnoides domesticus) are domesticated grey geese (either greylag geese or swan geese) that are kept by humans as poultry for their meat, eggs, and down feathers since ancient times.
The domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo domesticus) is a large fowl, one of the two species in the genus Meleagris and the same as the wild turkey.
The down of birds is a layer of fine feathers found under the tougher exterior feathers.
Dravidians are native speakers of any of the Dravidian languages.
Dromaeosauridae is a family of feathered theropod dinosaurs.
The eagle is used in heraldry as a charge, as a supporter, and as a crest.
The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance.
The Early Cretaceous/Middle Cretaceous (geochronological name) or the Lower Cretaceous (chronostratigraphic name), is the earlier or lower of the two major divisions of the Cretaceous.
Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
Easter Island (Rapa Nui, Isla de Pascua) is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial mass tourism.
An ectoparasitic infestation is a parasitic disease caused by organisms that live primarily on the surface of the host.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
Incubation refers to the process by which certain oviparous (egg-laying) animals hatch their eggs; it also refers to the development of the embryo within the egg.
An eggshell is the outer covering of a hard-shelled egg and of some forms of eggs with soft outer coats.
An egret is any of several herons, most of which are white or buff, and several of which develop fine plumes (usually milky white) during the breeding season.
Elephant birds are members of the extinct family Aepyornithidae.
The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species and is endemic to Antarctica.
The emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) is the second-largest living bird by height, after its ratite relative, the ostrich.
Emu, subtitled Austral Ornithology, is the peer-reviewed scientific journal of BirdLife Australia (formerly the Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union).
Enantiornithes is a group of extinct avialans ("birds" in the broad sense), the most abundant and diverse group known from the Mesozoic era.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
The endocardium is the innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart.
An endotherm (from Greek ἔνδον endon "within" and θέρμη thermē "heat") is an organism that maintains its body at a metabolically favorable temperature, largely by the use of heat set free by its internal bodily functions instead of relying almost purely on ambient heat.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Eosinopteryx is an extinct genus of theropod dinosaurs known the late Jurassic period of China.
The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia.
Etruscan mythology comprises a set of stories, beliefs, and religious practices of the Etruscan civilization, originating in the 7th century BC from the preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture, with its influences in the mythology of ancient Greece and Phoenicia, and sharing similarities with concurrent Roman mythology.
Euavialae (meaning "true winged birds") is a group of birds which includes all avialan species more closely related to modern birds, than to the primitive, long-tailed birds Archaeopteryx and Jeholornis.
Eucavitaves is a clade that contain the order Trogoniformes (trogons) and the clade Picocoraciae (a large assemblage of birds that includes woodpeckers, kingfishers, hornbills and hoopoes).
Eufalconimorphae is a proposed clade of birds, consisting of passerines, parrots, falcons, caracaras and forest falcons (but not other raptors).
Euornithes (from Greek ευόρνιθες meaning "true birds") is a natural group which includes the most recent common ancestor of all avialans closer to modern birds than to Sinornis.
The Eurasian blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) is a small passerine bird in the tit family, Paridae.
The Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) is a species of eagle-owl that resides in much of Eurasia.
The Eurasian golden oriole (Oriolus oriolus) or simply golden oriole, is the only member of the oriole family of passerine birds breeding in Northern Hemisphere temperate regions.
Eurypygiformes is an order formed by the kagus, comprising two species in the family Rhynochetidae endemic to New Caledonia, and the sunbittern (Eurypyga helias) from the tropical regions of the Americas.
Eurypygimorphae is a clade of birds that contains the orders Phaethontiformes (tropicbirds) and Eurypygiformes (kagu and sunbittern) recovered by genome analysis The relationship was first identified in 2013 based on their nuclear genes.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Evolution, the International Journal of Organic Evolution, is a monthly scientific journal that publishes significant new results of empirical or theoretical investigations concerning facts, processes, mechanics, or concepts of evolutionary phenomena and events.
Ex situ conservation literally means, "off-site conservation".
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
Falcons are birds of prey in the genus Falco, which includes about 40 species.
The falcons and caracaras are around 60 species of diurnal birds of prey that make up the family Falconidae.
Falconry is the hunting of wild animals in their natural state and habitat by means of a trained bird of prey.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and other, extinct species' of dinosaurs.
For over 150 years, since scientific research began on dinosaurs in the early 1800s, dinosaurs were generally believed to be most closely related to squamata ("scaled reptiles"); the word "dinosaur", coined in 1842 by paleontologist Richard Owen, comes from the Greek for "fearsome lizard".
Female (♀) is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells).
Female sperm storage is a biological process and often a type of sexual selection in which sperm cells transferred to a female during mating are temporarily retained within a specific part of the reproductive tract before the oocyte, or egg, is fertilized.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Fibrous joints are connected by dense connective tissue, consisting mainly of collagen.
Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.
The true finches are small to medium-sized passerine birds in the family Fringillidae.
Fisherian runaway or runaway selection is a sexual selection mechanism proposed by the mathematical biologist Ronald Fisher in the early 20th century, to account for the evolution of exaggerated male ornamentation by persistent, directional female choice.
Flamingos or flamingoes are a type of wading bird in the family Phoenicopteridae, the only bird family in the order Phoenicopteriformes.
Fledging is the stage in a volant animal's life between hatching or parturition and flight.
Flight feathers (Pennae volatus) are the long, stiff, asymmetrically shaped, but symmetrically paired pennaceous feathers on the wings or tail of a bird; those on the wings are called remiges, singular remex, while those on the tail are called rectrices, singular rectrix.
Flightless birds are birds that through evolution lost the ability to fly.
A flock is a gathering of a group of same species animals in order to forage or travel with one another.
Flocking behavior is the behavior exhibited when a group of birds, called a flock, are foraging or in flight.
A number of animals have evolved aerial locomotion, either by powered flight or by gliding.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
A forelimb is an anterior limb (arm, leg, or similar appendage) on a terrestrial vertebrate's body.
Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
The fovea centralis is a small, central pit composed of closely packed cones in the eye.
Fowl are birds belonging to one of two biological orders, namely the gamefowl or landfowl (Galliformes) and the waterfowl (Anseriformes).
Francis Willughby (sometimes spelt Willoughby) (22 November 1635 – 3 July 1672) was an English ornithologist and ichthyologist.
Frigatebirds (also listed as "frigate bird", "frigate-bird", "frigate", frigate-petrel") are a family of seabirds called Fregatidae which are found across all tropical and subtropical oceans.
The frogmouths are a group of nocturnal birds related to the nightjars.
A frugivore is a fruit eater.
The galah (Eolophus roseicapilla), also known as the rose-breasted cockatoo, galah cockatoo, pink and grey cockatoo or roseate cockatoo, is one of the most common and widespread cockatoos, and it can be found in open country in almost all parts of mainland Australia.
Galliformes is an order of heavy-bodied ground-feeding birds that includes turkey, grouse, chicken, New World quail and Old World quail, ptarmigan, partridge, pheasant, junglefowl and the Cracidae.
Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food.
Gansus is a genus of aquatic birds that lived during the Aptian age of the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) period in what are now Gansu and Liaoning provinces, western China.
Gaviiformes is an order of aquatic birds containing the loons or divers and their closest extinct relatives.
The long-tailed gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) is a penguin species in the genus Pygoscelis, most closely related to the Adélie penguin (P. adeliae) and the chinstrap penguin (P. antarcticus).
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giardiasis, popularly known as beaver fever, is a parasitic disease caused by Giardia lamblia.
The gizzard, also referred to as the ventriculus, gastric mill, and gigerium, is an organ found in the digestive tract of some animals, including archosaurs (pterosaurs, crocodiles, alligators, and dinosaurs, including birds), earthworms, some gastropods, some fish, and some crustaceans.
Gleaning is a feeding strategy by birds in which they catch invertebrate prey, mainly arthropods, by plucking them from foliage or the ground, from crevices such as rock faces and under the eaves of houses, or even, as in the case of ticks and lice, from living animals.
The following is a glossary of common English language terms used in the description of birds—warm-blooded vertebrates of the class Aves, characterized by, the ability to in all but the approximately 60 extant species of flightless birds, toothless,, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere.
Geese are waterfowl of the family Anatidae.
The great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), known as the great black cormorant across the Northern Hemisphere, the black cormorant in Australia, the large cormorant in India and the black shag further south in New Zealand, is a widespread member of the cormorant family of seabirds.
The great frigatebird (Fregata minor) is a large seabird in the frigatebird family.
The great hornbill (Buceros bicornis) also known as the great Indian hornbill or great pied hornbill, is one of the larger members of the hornbill family.
The great tit (Parus major) is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae.
The greater roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus) is a long-legged bird in the cuckoo family, Cuculidae, from Southwestern United States and Mexico.
A grebe is a member of the order Podicipediformes and the only type of bird associated with this order.
The grey crowned crane (Balearica regulorum) is a bird in the crane family, Gruidae.
The grey heron (Ardea cinerea) is a long-legged predatory wading bird of the heron family, Ardeidae, native throughout temperate Europe and Asia and also parts of Africa.
Grouse are a group of birds from the order Galliformes, in the family Phasianidae.
The Gruiformes are an order containing a considerable number of living and extinct bird families, with a widespread geographical diversity.
Guano (from Quechua wanu via Spanish) is the accumulated excrement of seabirds and bats.
Gulls or seagulls are seabirds of the family Laridae in the suborder Lari.
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.
The Handbook of the Birds of the World (HBW) is a multi-volume series produced by the Spanish publishing house Lynx Edicions in partnership with BirdLife International.
The hanging parrots are birds in the parrot genus Loriculus.
Hawks are a group of medium-sized diurnal birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
A heart valve normally allows blood to flow in only one direction through the heart.
The Helm Identification Guides are a series of books that identify groups of birds.
Helpers at the nest is a term used in behavioural ecology and evolutionary biology to describe a social structure in which juveniles and sexually mature adolescents of either one or both sexes, remain in association with their parents and help them raise subsequent broods or litters, instead of dispersing and beginning to reproduce themselves.
Hematophagy (sometimes spelled haematophagy or hematophagia) is the practice by certain animals of feeding on blood (from the Greek words αἷμα haima "blood" and φάγειν phagein "to eat").
Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.
The herons are the long-legged freshwater and coastal birds in the family Ardeidae, with 64 recognised species, some of which are referred to as egrets or bitterns rather than herons.
Hesperornithes is an extinct and highly specialized group of aquatic avialans closely related to the ancestors of modern birds.
Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
In archaic times, ancient Greeks, Etruscans and Celts established settlements in the south, the centre and the north of Italy respectively, while various Italian tribes and Italic peoples inhabited the Italian peninsula and insular Italy.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
The homing pigeon is a variety of domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) derived from the rock pigeon, selectively bred for its ability to find its way home over extremely long distances.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Honeyguides (family Indicatoridae) are a near passerine bird species of the order Piciformes.
Hongshanornithidae is an extinct group of early ornithuromorph birds from the early Cretaceous period of China.
The hook-billed vanga (Vanga curvirostris) is a species of bird in the family Vangidae.
Hoopoes are colourful birds found across Afro-Eurasia, notable for their distinctive "crown" of feathers.
The hornbills (Bucerotidae) are a family of bird found in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia and Melanesia.
The American (North and South America) horned owls and the Old World eagle-owls make up the genus Bubo, at least as traditionally described.
The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a bird of the sparrow family Passeridae, found in most parts of the world.
The house wren (Troglodytes aedon) is a very small songbird of the wren family, Troglodytidae.
In Norse mythology, Huginn (from Old Norse "thought"Orchard (1997:92).) and Muninn (Old Norse "memory"Orchard (1997:115). or "mind"Lindow (2001:186).) are a pair of ravens that fly all over the world, Midgard, and bring information to the god Odin.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
Hummingbirds are birds from the Americas that constitute the family Trochilidae.
Humphrey-Parkes terminology is a system of nomenclature for the plumage of birds.
Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.
Ibis, subtitled the International Journal of Avian Science, is the peer-reviewed scientific journal of the British Ornithologists' Union.
Ichthyornis (meaning "fish bird", after its fish-like vertebrae) was a genus of toothed seabird-like ornithuran from the late Cretaceous period of North America.
Icterids make up a family (Icteridae) of small- to medium-sized, often colorful, New-World passerine birds.
In-situ conservation is the on-site conservation or the conservation of genetic resources in natural populations of plant or animal species, such as forest genetic resources in natural populations of Teagan species.
Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.
Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals.
The Indian peafowl or blue peafowl (Pavo cristatus), a large and brightly coloured bird, is a species of peafowl native to South Asia, but introduced in many other parts of the world.
The inner ear (internal ear, auris interna) is the innermost part of the vertebrate ear.
Inopinaves is a clade of neoavian birds recovered in a compressive genomic systematic study using nearly 200 species in 2015; it contains the clades Opisthocomiformes (Hoatzin) and Telluraves (core landbirds); the study shows that the Hoatzin diverged from other birds 64 million years ago.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
robber fly eating a hoverfly An insectivore is a carnivorous plant or animal that eats insects.
Integrative and Comparative Biology is the scientific journal for the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology (formerly the American Society of Zoologists).
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Jacana is the genus comprising the two jacanas of the Americas: the northern jacana, Jacana spinosa, and the wattled jacana, Jacana jacana.
Jacques Armand Gauthier (born June 7, 1948 in New York City) is an American vertebrate paleontologist, comparative morphologist, and systematist, and one of the founders of the use of cladistics in biology.
The Jamaican ibis, Jamaican flightless ibis or clubbed-wing ibis (Xenicibis xympithecus) is an extinct bird species of the ibis subfamily uniquely characterized by its club-like wings.
Jeholornis (meaning "Jehol bird") is a genus of avialans that lived between approximately 122 and 120 million years ago during the early Cretaceous Period in China.
Jianchangornis a genus of basal ornithuromorph birds.
Jinfengopteryx (from Jinfeng, 'golden phoenix', the queen of birds in Chinese folklore, and Ancient Greek πτερυξ pteryx, meaning 'feather') is a genus of maniraptoran dinosaur.
Jixiangornis is a genus of primitive euavialans from the Early Cretaceous.
John James Audubon (born Jean Rabin; April 26, 1785 – January 27, 1851) was an American ornithologist, naturalist, and painter.
John Ray FRS (29 November 1627 – 17 January 1705) was an English naturalist widely regarded as one of the earliest of the English parson-naturalists.
Jon Edward Ahlquist (born 1944) is an American molecular biologist and ornithologist who has specialized in molecular phylogenetics.
Jonah or Jonas is the name given in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) to a prophet of the northern kingdom of Israel in about the 8th century BCE.
The Journal of Animal Ecology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research in all areas of animal ecology.
The Journal of Avian Biology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal of ornithology published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Nordic Society Oikos.
The Journal of Zoology is a scientific journal concerning zoology, the study of animals.
The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.
The kōkako make up two species of endangered forest birds which are endemic to New Zealand, the North Island kōkako (Callaeas wilsoni) and the presumably extinct (recently data deficient) South Island kōkako (Callaeas cinereus).
The keel-billed toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus), also known as sulfur-breasted toucan or rainbow-billed toucan, is a colorful Latin American member of the toucan family.
The name kestrel (from French crécerelle, derivative from crécelle, i.e. ratchet) is given to several different members of the falcon genus, Falco.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kingfishers or Alcedinidae are a family of small to medium-sized, brightly colored birds in the order Coraciiformes.
Kiwi or kiwis are flightless birds native to New Zealand, in the genus Apteryx and family Apterygidae.
Kleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding in which one animal takes prey or other food from another that has caught, collected, or otherwise prepared the food, including stored food (as in the case of cuckoo bees, which lay their eggs on the pollen masses made by other bees; food resources could also be in the form of hosts of parasitic or parasitoid wasps).
The Late Cretaceous (100.5–66 Ma) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale.
The Late Jurassic is the third epoch of the Jurassic period, and it spans the geologic time from 163.5 ± 1.0 to 145.0 ± 0.8 million years ago (Ma), which is preserved in Upper Jurassic strata.
The Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) is a large seabird that ranges across the North Pacific.
A lek, from the Swedish word for "play", is an aggregation of male animals gathered to engage in competitive displays, lekking, to entice visiting females which are surveying prospective partners for copulation.
Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.
Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts.
The lists of birds in the light blue box below are divided by biological family.
This list of fictional birds is subsidiary to the list of fictional animals.
In Germanic paganism, the indigenous religion of the ancient Germanic peoples that inhabited Germanic Europe, there were a number of different gods and goddesses.
Deities in ancient Mesopotamia were almost exclusively anthropomorphic.
The little owl (Athene noctua) is a bird that inhabits much of the temperate and warmer parts of Europe, Asia east to Korea, and north Africa.
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.
Longline fishing is a commercial fishing technique.
The loons (North America) or divers (Great Britain/Ireland) are a group of aquatic birds found in many parts of North America and northern Eurasia.
Lories and lorikeets (tribe Loriini) are small to medium-sized arboreal parrots characterized by their specialized brush-tipped tongues for feeding on nectar of various blossoms and soft fruits, preferably berries.
Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 1770Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often given as 16 December and his family and associates celebrated his birthday on that date, and most scholars accept that he was born on 16 December; however there is no documentary record of his birth.26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.
Lynx Edicions is a Spanish ornithological publishing company.
The Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) is a South American penguin, breeding in coastal Argentina, Chile and the Falkland Islands, with some migrating to Brazil where they are occasionally seen as far north as Rio de Janeiro.
Makemake (also written as Make-make or MakeMake; pronounced in Rapa Nui) in the Rapa Nui mythology of Easter Island, is the creator of humanity, the god of fertility and the chief god of the "Tangata manu" or bird-man cult (this cult succeeded the island's more famous Moai era).
A male (♂) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Maniraptora is a clade of coelurosaurian dinosaurs that includes the birds and the non-avian dinosaurs that were more closely related to them than to Ornithomimus velox.
The Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) is a medium-sized shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae.
Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.
The masked booby (Sula dactylatra) is a large seabird of the booby family, Sulidae.
In biology, mating (or mateing in British English) is the pairing of either opposite-sex or hermaphroditic organisms, usually for the purposes of sexual reproduction.
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
The megapodes, also known as incubator birds or mound-builders, are stocky, medium-large, chicken-like birds with small heads and large feet in the family Megapodiidae.
Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji.
The mesites (Mesitornithidae) are a family of birds that are part of a clade (Columbimorphae) that include Columbiformes and Pterocliformes.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
The metatarsal bones, or metatarsus are a group of five long bones in the foot, located between the tarsal bones of the hind- and mid-foot and the phalanges of the toes.
Micronesia ((); from μικρός mikrós "small" and νῆσος nêsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, composed of thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean.
Microraptor (Greek, μικρός, mīkros: "small"; Latin, raptor: "one who seizes") was a genus of small, four-winged paravian dinosaurs.
Mirandornithes (name coined by Sangster (2005)) is a clade that consists of flamingos and grebes.
A mixed-species feeding flock, also termed a mixed-species foraging flock, mixed hunting party or informally bird wave, is a flock of usually insectivorous birds of different species that join each other and move together while foraging.
The moa were nine species (in six genera) of flightless birds endemic to New Zealand.
Mobbing in animals is an antipredator adaptation in which individuals of prey species mob a predator by cooperatively attacking or harassing it, usually to protect their offspring.
The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.
The monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus), also known as the Quaker parrot, is a small, bright-green parrot with a greyish breast and greenish-yellow abdomen.
Monogamy is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime — alternately, only one partner at any one time (serial monogamy) — as compared to non-monogamy (e.g., polygamy or polyamory).
In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.
In biology, moulting (British English), or molting (American English), also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (often, but not always, an outer layer or covering), either at specific times of the year, or at specific points in its life cycle.
The mousebirds (family Coliidae, order Coliiformes) are a family of birds.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
The mute swan (Cygnus olor) is a species of swan and a member of the waterfowl family Anatidae.
Muttonbirding is the seasonal harvesting of the chicks of petrels, especially shearwater species, for food, oil and feathers by recreational or commercial hunters.
Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.
The myna (also known as mynah) is a bird of the starling family (Sturnidae).
The National Audubon Society (Audubon) is a non-profit environmental organization dedicated to conservation.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.
In zoology, a nectarivore is an animal which derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of the sugar-rich nectar produced by flowering plants.
Neoaves is a clade that consists of all modern birds (Neornithes or Aves) with the exception of Paleognathae (ratites and kin) and Galloanserae (ducks, chickens and kin).
Neognaths (Neognathae) are birds within the subclass Neornithes of the class Aves.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).
New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.
The New World vulture or condor family Cathartidae contains seven species in five genera, all but one of which are monotypic.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The New Zealand pigeon or kereru (Maori: kererū; Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae) is a bird endemic to New Zealand.
The nictitating membrane (from Latin nictare, to blink) is a transparent or translucent third eyelid present in some animals that can be drawn across the eye from the medial canthus for protection and to moisten it while maintaining vision.
Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal or crepuscular birds in the family Caprimulgidae, characterized by long wings, short legs and very short bills.
Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day.
The Norfolk parakeet (Cyanoramphus cookii), also called Tasman parakeet, Norfolk Island green parrot or Norfolk Island red-crowned parakeet, is a species of parrot in the family Psittaculidae.
Notopalaeognathae is a clade that contains the order Rheiformes (rheas), the clade Novaeratitae (birds such as the kiwis and the emus), the order Tinamiformes (tinamous) and the extinct order Dinornithiformes (the moas).
Novaeratitae is a clade that was originally defined to contain the recent common ancestors of the orders Casuariiformes (emus and cassowaries) and Apterygiformes (kiwis).
Nuptial gifts are food items or inedible tokens that are transferred to females by males during courtship or copulation.
In Germanic mythology, Odin (from Óðinn /ˈoːðinː/) is a widely revered god.
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
Oecologia is an international peer-reviewed English-language journal published by Springer since 1968 (some articles were published in German or French until 1976).
Oikos is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in the field of ecology.
An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution.
The oilbird (Steatornis caripensis), locally known as the guácharo, is a bird species found in the northern areas of South America including the island of Trinidad.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
Olivier Eugène Prosper Charles Messiaen (December 10, 1908 – April 27, 1992) was a French composer, organist, and ornithologist, one of the major composers of the 20th century.
Omnivore is a consumption classification for animals that have the capability to obtain chemical energy and nutrients from materials originating from plant and animal origin.
Opisthocomidae is a group of birds, the only named family within the order Opisthocomiformes.
In anatomy, the orbit is the cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds.
Ornithothoraces is a group of avialans that includes all enantiornithes ("opposite birds") and the euornithes ("true birds"), which includes modern birds and their closest ancestors.
Ornithurae (meaning "bird tails" in Greek) is a natural group which includes the common ancestor of Ichthyornis, Hesperornis, and all modern birds as well as all other descendants of that common ancestor.
The Otidimorphae are a clade of birds that contains the orders Cuculiformes (cuckoos), Musophagiformes (turacos), and Otidiformes (bustards) identified in 2014 by genome analysis.
Ottorino Respighi (9 July 187918 April 1936) was an Italian violinist, composer and musicologist, best known for his three orchestral tone poems Fountains of Rome (1916), Pines of Rome (1924), and Roman Festivals (1928).
Out-crossing or out-breeding means that the crossing between different breeds.This is the practice of introducing unrelated genetic material into a breeding line.
Oviparous animals are animals that lay eggs, with little or no other embryonic development within the mother.
Oviraptoridae is a group of bird-like, herbivorous and omnivorous maniraptoran dinosaurs.
Owls are birds from the order Strigiformes, which includes about 200 species of mostly solitary and nocturnal birds of prey typified by an upright stance, a large, broad head, binocular vision, binaural hearing, sharp talons, and feathers adapted for silent flight.
In Greek mythology, a little owl (Athene noctua) traditionally represents or accompanies Athena, the virgin goddess of wisdom, or Minerva, her syncretic incarnation in Roman mythology.
Owlet-nightjars are small crepuscular birds related to the nightjars and frogmouths.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Oxfordian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the earliest age of the Late Jurassic epoch, or the lowest stage of the Upper Jurassic series.
Palaeognathae, or paleognaths, is one of the two living clades of birds – the other being Neognathae.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
The palm cockatoo (Probosciger aterrimus), also known as the goliath cockatoo or great black cockatoo, is a large smoky-grey or black parrot of the cockatoo family native to New Guinea, Aru Islands, and Cape York Peninsula.
Paraves are a widespread group of theropod dinosaurs that originated in the Late Jurassic period.
Parental investment (PI), in evolutionary biology and evolutionary psychology, is any parental expenditure (time, energy, etc.) that benefits one offspring at a cost to parents' ability to invest in other components of fitness,Clutton-Brock, T.H. 1991.
Parrots, also known as psittacines, are birds of the roughly 393 species in 92 genera that make up the order Psittaciformes, found in most tropical and subtropical regions.
Partridges are medium-sized non-migratory gamebirds, with a wide native distribution throughout the Old World, including Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa.
Pascal Godefroit is a Belgian paleontologist.
A passerine is any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species.
Patagopteryx is an extinct monotypic genus of patagopterygiforms that lived during the Late Cretaceous, around 80 mya, in what is now the Sierra Barrosa in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina.
In biology, paternal care is parental investment provided by a male animal to his own offspring.
Paul Ehrlich (14 March 1854 – 20 August 1915) was a German Jewish physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology, immunology, and antimicrobial chemotherapy.
The Peacock Throne was a famous jeweled throne that was the seat of the Mughal emperors of India.
The peafowl include three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies.
The pecten or pecten oculi is a comb-like structure of blood vessels belonging to the choroid in the eye of a bird.
The Pelecaniformes are an order of medium-sized and large waterbirds found worldwide.
Pelicans are a genus of large water birds that make up the family Pelecanidae.
A pellet, in ornithology, is the mass of undigested parts of a bird's food that some bird species occasionally regurgitate.
The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).
Pengornis is the largest known enantiornithine bird from the Early Cretaceous of northeast China.
Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless birds.
A penis (plural penises or penes) is the primary sexual organ that male animals use to inseminate sexually receptive mates (usually females and hermaphrodites) during copulation.
The pericardium is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels.
A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
The Phaethontiformes are an order of birds.
A phalarope is any of three living species of slender-necked shorebirds in the genus Phalaropus of the bird family Scolopacidae.
The Phasianidae are a family of heavy, groundliving birds which includes pheasants, partridges, junglefowl, chickens, Old World quail, and peafowl.
Pheasants are birds of several genera within the subfamily Phasianinae, of the family Phasianidae in the order Galliformes.
The pheasant-tailed jacana (Hydrophasianus chirurgus) is a jacana in the monotypic genus Hydrophasianus.
Philip John Currie, (born March 13, 1949) is a Canadian palaeontologist and museum curator who helped found the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology in Drumheller, Alberta and is now a professor at the University of Alberta in Edmonton.
Phoenicopteriformes is a group of water birds which comprises flamingos and their extinct relatives.
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.
The International Code of Phylogenetic Nomenclature, known as the PhyloCode for short, is a developing draft for a formal set of rules governing phylogenetic nomenclature.
Phylogenetic nomenclature, often called cladistic nomenclature, is a method of nomenclature for taxa in biology that uses phylogenetic definitions for taxon names as explained below.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
Nine families of largely arboreal birds make up the order Piciformes, the best-known of them being the Picidae, which includes the woodpeckers and close relatives.
Picocoraciae is a clade that contains the order Bucerotiformes (hornbills and hoopoes) and the clade Picodynastornithes (containing birds like kingfishers and rollers, and woodpeckers and toucans) supported by various genetic analysisNaish, D. (2012).
Pigeon racing is the sport of releasing specially trained racing pigeons, which then return to their homes over a carefully measured distance.
The pitohuis are birds endemic to New Guinea.
Plumage ("feather") refers both to the layer of feathers that cover a bird and the pattern, colour, and arrangement of those feathers.
The polar regions, also called the frigid zones, of Earth are the regions of the planet that surround its geographical poles (the North and South Poles), lying within the polar circles.
Polaris, designated Alpha Ursae Minoris (Ursae Minoris, abbreviated Alpha UMi, UMi), commonly the North Star or Pole Star, is the brightest star in the constellation of Ursa Minor.
Polyandry (from πολυ- poly-, "many" and ἀνήρ anēr, "man") is a form of polygamy in which a woman takes two or more husbands at the same time.
Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.
Polygynandry is a mating system in which both males and females have multiple mating partners during a breeding season.
Polygyny (from Neoclassical Greek πολυγυνία from πολύ- poly- "many", and γυνή gyne "woman" or "wife") is the most common and accepted form of polygamy, entailing the marriage of a man with several women.
Polynesia (from πολύς polys "many" and νῆσος nēsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.
Potoos (family Nyctibiidae) are a group of near passerine birds related to the nightjars and frogmouths.
In Māori mythology, the pouakai or poukai is a monstrous bird.
Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers.
In biology, precocial species are those in which the young are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
The prions (or whalebirds) are small petrels in the genera Pachyptila and Halobaena.
Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.
Procellariiformes is an order of seabirds that comprises four families: the albatrosses, petrels and shearwaters, and 2 families of storm petrels.
A proctodeum is the back ectodermal part of an alimentary canal.
Promiscuity is the practice of having casual sex frequently with different partners or being indiscriminate in the choice of sexual partners.
Protopteryx is an extinct genus of bird and the most primitive enantiornithean, from the Cretaceous period.
Psittacopasserae is a taxon of birds consisting of the Passeriformes (passerines, a large group of perching birds) and Psittaciformes (parrots).
Psittacosis—also known as parrot fever, and ornithosis—is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Chlamydia psittaci and contracted from infected parrots, such as macaws, cockatiels and budgerigars, and pigeons, sparrows, ducks, hens, gulls and many other species of bird.
Pterosaurs (from the Greek πτερόσαυρος,, meaning "winged lizard") were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria.
The purple-crowned fairywren (Malurus coronatus) is a species of bird in the Australasian wren family, Maluridae.
Pygostyle describes a skeletal condition in which the final few caudal vertebrae are fused into a single ossification, supporting the tail feathers and musculature.
Pygostylia is a group of avialans which includes the Confuciusornithidae and all of the more advanced species, the Ornithothoraces.
Rahonavis is a genus of bird-like theropods from the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian, about 70 mya) of what is now northwestern Madagascar.
The rainbow lorikeet (Trichoglossus moluccanus) is a species of parrot found in Australia.
A ratite is any of a diverse group of flightless and mostly large and long-legged birds of the infraclass Palaeognathae.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
The red kite (Milvus milvus) is a medium-large bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as eagles, buzzards, and harriers.
The red-crested turaco (Tauraco erythrolophus) is a turaco, a group of African near-passerines.
Religion in Ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy.
A religious symbol is an iconic representation intended to represent a specific religion, or a specific concept within a given religion.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Restoration ecology is the scientific study supporting the practice of ecological restoration, which is the practice of renewing and restoring degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystems and habitats in the environment by active human intervention and action.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
The rheas are large ratites (flightless birds without a keel on their sternum bone) in the order Rheiformes, native to South America, distantly related to the ostrich and emu.
Rheidae is a family of flightless ratite birds which first appeared in the Paleocene.
The rifleman (Acanthisitta chloris) (Māori: tītipounamu) is a small insectivorous passerine bird that is endemic to New Zealand.
Roadkill refers to an animal or animals that have been struck and killed by motor vehicles on highways.
The Roc (from ruḵ) is an enormous legendary bird of prey in the popular mythology of the Middle East.
The rock dove, IOC World Bird List, rock pigeon, or common pigeon (also; Columba livia) is a member of the bird family Columbidae (doves and pigeons).
The Rodrigues solitaire (Pezophaps solitaria) is an extinct, flightless bird that was endemic to the island of Rodrigues, east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean.
The ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) is a species of hummingbird that generally spends the winter in Central America, Mexico, and Florida, and migrates to Eastern North America for the summer to breed.
Safety in numbers is the hypothesis that, by being part of a large physical group or mass, an individual is less likely to be the victim of a mishap, accident, attack, or other bad event.
Salmonellosis is a symptomatic infection caused by bacteria of the Salmonella type.
The salt gland is an organ for excreting excess salts.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge (21 October 177225 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets.
Sandgrouse is the common name for Pteroclidae, a family of sixteen species of bird, members of the order Pterocliformes.
Sapeornis is a type of avialan which lived during the early Cretaceous period (late Aptian to early Albian, roughly 125-120 mya).
Saurischia (meaning "reptile-hipped" from the Greek (σαῦρος) meaning 'lizard' and (ἴσχιον) meaning 'hip joint') is one of the two basic divisions of dinosaurs (the other being Ornithischia).
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scansoriopterygidae (meaning "climbing wings") is an extinct family of climbing and gliding maniraptoran dinosaurs.
Scavenging is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat.
Schizooura is a genus of basal ornithuromorph bird known from the Early Cretaceous of Jianchang, western Liaoning, China.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scops owls are typical owls (family Strigidae) mostly belonging to the genus Otus.
The screamers are a small family, Anhimidae, of South American birds.
Seabirds (also known as marine birds) are birds that are adapted to life within the marine environment.
A season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and amount of daylight.
In biology, a septum (Latin for something that encloses; plural septa) is a wall, dividing a cavity or structure into smaller ones.
In physiology, the term serous fluid or serosal fluid (originating from the Medieval Latin word serosus, from Latin serum) is any of various body fluids resembling serum, that are typically pale yellow and transparent and of a benign nature.
The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population.
Sexual coercion in animals is the use of violence, threats, harassment, and other tactics to help them forcefully copulate.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).
Shearwaters are medium-sized long-winged seabirds.
The sheathbills are a family of birds, Chionidae.
The shoebill (Balaeniceps rex) also known as whalehead, is a very large stork-like bird.
The Sibley–Ahlquist taxonomy is a bird taxonomy proposed by Charles Sibley and Jon Edward Ahlquist.
A sibling is one of two or more individuals having one or both parents in common.
The sinoatrial node (SA node), also known as sinus node, is a group of cells located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart.
Skomer is an island off the coast of Pembrokeshire in west Wales.
The skuas are a group of seabirds with about seven species forming the family Stercorariidae and the genus Stercorarius.
Slow-wave sleep (SWS), often referred to as deep sleep, consists of stage three (combined stages 3 and 4) of non-rapid eye movement sleep.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
A snipe is any of about 26 wading bird species in three genera in the family Scolopacidae.
The snow petrel (Pagodroma nivea) is the only member of the genus Pagodroma. It is one of only three birds that breed exclusively in Antarctica and has been seen at the geographic South Pole.
Social status is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.
Sociality is the degree to which individuals in an animal population tend to associate in social groups (Gregariousness) and form cooperative societies.
A songbird is a bird belonging to the clade Passeri of the perching birds (Passeriformes).
Songlingornithidae is a family of early ornithuromorph birds from the early Cretaceous Period of China.
The sooty shearwater (Ardenna grisea) is a medium-large shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
The southern cassowary (Casuarius casuarius) also known as double-wattled cassowary, Australian cassowary or two-wattled cassowary, is a large flightless black bird.
The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.
The southern pied babbler (Turdoides bicolor) is a species of bird in the Leiothrichidae family, found in dry savannah of Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe.
Sparrows are a family of small passerine birds.
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.
Sperm competition is the competitive process between spermatozoa of two or more different males to fertilize the same egg during sexual reproduction.
The spur-winged goose (Plectropterus gambensis) is a large bird in the family Anatidae, related to the geese and the shelducks, but distinct from both of these in a number of anatomical features, and therefore treated in its own subfamily, the Plectropterinae.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
The steamer ducks are a genus (Tachyeres) of ducks in the family Anatidae.
Steller's sea eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus) is a large diurnal bird of prey in the family Accipitridae.
The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone located in the center of the chest.
Stomach oil is the light oil composed of neutral dietary lipids found in the proventriculus (fore-gut) of birds in the order Procellariiformes.
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long, stout bills.
Strisores is a clade of birds.
Struthionidae is a family of flightless ratite birds which first appeared during the Miocene epoch, though various Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene ratites may belong to this group.
The bird family Sulidae comprises the gannets and boobies.
The order Suliformes (dubbed "Phalacrocoraciformes" by Christidis & Boles 2008) is an order recognised by the International Ornithologist's Union.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
The sunbirds and spiderhunters make up a family, Nectariniidae, of passerine birds.
The sunbittern (Eurypyga helias) is a bittern-like bird of tropical regions of the Americas, and the sole member of the family Eurypygidae (sometimes spelled Eurypigidae) and genus Eurypyga.
Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.
The swifts are a family, Apodidae, of highly aerial birds.
In phylogenetics, a plesiomorphy, symplesiomorphy or symplesiomorphic character is an ancestral character or trait state shared by two or more taxa.
The synsacrum is a skeletal structure of birds and other dinosaurs, in which the sacrum is extended by incorporation of additional fused or partially fused caudal or lumbar vertebrae.
Synthliboramphus is a small genus of seabirds in the auk family from the North Pacific.
The syrinx (Greek σύριγξ for pan pipes) is the vocal organ of birds.
(originally in Latin written with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.
The Tangata manu ("bird-man," from tangata "human beings" + manu "bird") was the winner of a traditional competition on Rapa Nui (Easter Island).
In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
Telluraves (also called land birds or core landbirds) is a recently defined clade of birds with controversial content.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) is a type of environmental sex determination in which the temperatures experienced during embryonic/larval development determine the sex of the offspring.
Terns are seabirds in the family Laridae that have a worldwide distribution and are normally found near the sea, rivers, or wetlands.
In ethology, territory is the sociographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (or, occasionally, animals of other species).
Tetrachromacy is the condition of possessing four independent channels for conveying color information, or possessing four types of cone cells in the eye.
The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.
The American Naturalist is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1867.
The Auk: Ornithological Advances is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal and the official publication of the American Ornithological Society (AOS).
The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World is a book by Jim Clements which presents a list of the bird species of the world.
The Condor: Ornithological Applications is a peer-reviewed weekly scientific journal covering ornithology.
The Life of Birds is a BBC nature documentary series written and presented by David Attenborough, first transmitted in the United Kingdom from 21 October 1998.
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (originally The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere) is the longest major poem by the English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge, written in 1797–98 and published in 1798 in the first edition of Lyrical Ballads.
The Stationery Office (TSO) is a British publishing company created in 1996 when the publishing arm of Her Majesty's Stationery Office was privatised.
The Wilson Journal of Ornithology (until 2006 The Wilson Bulletin) is a quarterly scientific journal published by the Wilson Ornithological Society.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
Theropoda (or, from Greek θηρίον "wild beast" and πούς, ποδός "foot") or theropods are a dinosaur suborder characterized by hollow bones and three-toed limbs.
In vertebrates, thoracic vertebrae compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae.
Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, etc.) which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future.
The Tiaojishan Formation is a geological formation in Hebei and Liaoning, People's Republic of China, dating to the middle-late Jurassic period (Bathonian-Oxfordian stages).
Tinamous form an order of birds (Tinamiformes), comprising a single family (Tinamidae) with two distinct subfamilies, containing 47 species found in Mexico, Central America, and South America.
Tool use by animals is a phenomenon in which an animal uses any kind of tool in order to achieve a goal such as acquiring food and water, grooming, defense, recreation or construction.
A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food.
Torpor is a state of decreased physiological activity in an animal, usually by a reduced body temperature and metabolic rate.
The torrent duck (Merganetta armata) is a member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae.
A transitional fossil is any fossilized remains of a life form that exhibits traits common to both an ancestral group and its derived descendant group.
The treecreepers are a family, Certhiidae, of small passerine birds, widespread in wooded regions of the Northern Hemisphere and sub-Saharan Africa.
The trogons and quetzals are birds in the order Trogoniformes which contains only one family, the Trogonidae.
Troodontidae is a family of bird-like theropod dinosaurs.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
The true parrots are about 350 species of colorful flighted (with a few notable exceptions) hook-billed, mostly herbivorous birds forming the superfamily Psittacoidea, one of the three superfamilies in the biological order Psittaciformes (parrots).
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
A tuna is a saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family (Scombridae).
The turacos make up the bird family Musophagidae (literally "banana-eaters"), which includes plantain-eaters and go-away-birds.
The turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), also known in some North American regions as the turkey buzzard (or just buzzard), and in some areas of the Caribbean as the John crow or carrion crow, is the most widespread of the New World vultures.
Turtles are diapsids of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
Urohidrosis (sometimes misspelled "urohydrosis") is the habit in some birds of defecating onto the scaly portions of the legs as a cooling mechanism, using evaporative cooling of the fluids.
The uropygial gland, informally known as the preen gland or the oil gland, is a bilobate sebaceous gland possessed by the majority of birds.
Vanellus is the genus of waders which provisionally contains all lapwings except red-kneed dotterel, Erythrogonys cinctus.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Vegavis is a genus of extinct bird that lived during the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian stage) of Antarctica, some 68 to 66 mya.
A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
The visual field is the "spatial array of visual sensations available to observation in introspectionist psychological experiments".
Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.
Vorona (Malagasy for "bird", V. berivotrensis, "from Berivotra") is a monotypic genus of prehistoric birds.
A vulture is a scavenging bird of prey.
A vulture fund is a hedge fund, private equity fund or distressed debt fund, that invests in debt considered to be very weak or in default, known as distressed securities.
Waders are birds commonly found along shorelines and mudflats that wade in order to forage for food (such as insects or crustaceans) in the mud or sand.
The War of the Pacific (Guerra del Pacífico), also known as the Salpeter War (Guerra del Salitre) and by multiple other names (see the etymology section below) was a war between Chile on one side and a Bolivian-Peruvian alliance on the other.
The term water bird, waterbird or aquatic bird (not to be confused with wading birds) is used to refer to birds that live on or around water.
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
The white-tailed tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus) is a tropicbird, smallest of three closely related seabirds of the tropical oceans and smallest member of the order Phaethontiformes.
The wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an upland ground bird native to North America and is the heaviest member of the diverse Galliformes.
A wind turbine is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical energy.
A wing is a type of fin that produces lift, while moving through air or some other fluid.
Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups.
The woodcocks are a group of seven or eight very similar living species of wading birds in the genus Scolopax.
Woodpeckers are part of the family Picidae, a group of near-passerine birds that also consist of piculets, wrynecks, and sapsuckers.
Woodswallows are soft-plumaged, somber-coloured passerine birds in the genus Artamus.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xiaotingia is a genus of anchiornithid theropod dinosaur from early Late Jurassic deposits of western Liaoning, China, containing a single species, Xiaotingia zhengi.
The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila), some snakes, and some plants (Ginkgo).
The yellow-headed caracara (Milvago chimachima) is a bird of prey in the family Falconidae.
The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), is the most common estrildid finch of Central Australia and ranges over most of the continent, avoiding only the cool moist south and some areas of the tropical far north.
Zhongjianornis is a genus of beaked, pigeon-sized birds from the early Cretaceous period of China.
The Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal of zoology published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Linnean Society.
Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans.
The ZW sex-determination system is a chromosomal system that determines the sex of offspring in birds, some fish and crustaceans such as the giant river prawn, some insects (including butterflies and moths), and some reptiles, including Komodo dragons.
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.
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