110 relations: Alfil (chess), Alfonso X of Castile, Anatoly Karpov, Arabic, Archery, Armenian language, Balto-Slavic languages, Basic Chess Endings, Bishop and knight checkmate, Block (chess), Board game, Bulgarian language, Camel cavalry, Castling, Catalan language, Chaturanga, Check (chess), Checkmate, Chess, Chess endgame, Chess Life, Chess middlegame, Chess opening, Chess piece, Chess piece relative value, Chessgames.com, Connected pawns, Courier chess, Czech language, Dai shogi, Danish language, Diagonal, Doubled pawns, Draw (chess), Dutch language, Efim Bogoljubov, Elephant, English language, Estonian language, Fianchetto, FIDE World Chess Championship 2004, Finnish language, Fork (chess), Fortress (chess), French language, Gambit Publications, German language, Germanic languages, Glossary of chess, Greek language, ..., Hans L. Bodlaender, Hebrew language, History of Lithuania, Hungarian language, Icelandic language, Isolated pawn, Italian language, Jeremy Silman, Jester, John L. Watson, King (chess), Knight (chess), Lewis chessmen, Libro de los juegos, Lithuanian language, Max Blümich, Mihai Suba, Mitre, Mongolian language, Mongolic languages, Norwegian language, Opposite-colored bishops endgame, Pawn (chess), Persian language, Pin (chess), Polish language, Portuguese language, Promotion (chess), Queen (chess), Roman Dzindzichashvili, Romance languages, Romanian language, Rook (chess), Rules of chess, Russian language, Ruy Lopez, San Antonio, Sanskrit, Serbo-Croatian, Shatranj, Sho shogi, Shogi, Skewer (chess), Slovak language, South Slavic languages, Spanish language, Staunton chess set, Swedish language, Tempo (chess), The exchange (chess), The Oxford Companion to Chess, Triangulation (chess), Tribal chief, Turkic languages, Turkish language, Unicode, United States Chess Federation, Walter Browne, Wrong bishop, Wrong rook pawn. Expand index (60 more) » « Shrink index
An alfil (or elephant) is a xiangqi piece and fairy chess piece that jumps two squares diagonally.
Alfonso X (also occasionally Alphonso, Alphonse, or Alfons, 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284), called the Wise (el Sabio), was the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death in 1284.
Anatoly Yevgenyevich Karpov (Анато́лий Евге́ньевич Ка́рпов; born May 23, 1951) is a Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Archery is the art, sport, practice or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
Basic Chess Endings (abbreviated BCE) is a book on chess endgames which was written by Grandmaster Reuben Fine and originally published on October 27, 1941.
The bishop and knight checkmate in chess is the checkmate of a lone king which can be forced by a bishop, knight, and king.
A block is a defensive tactic in chess in response to an attack, consisting of interposing a piece between the opponent's attacking piece and the piece being attacked.
A board game is a tabletop game that involves counters or moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules.
Camel cavalry, or camelry, is a generic designation for armed forces using camels as a means of transportation.
Castling is a move in the game of chess involving a player's king and either of the player's original rooks.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Chaturanga (चतुरङ्ग), or catur for short, is an ancient Indian strategy game which is commonly theorized to be the common ancestor of the board games chess, shogi, sittuyin, makruk, xiangqi and janggi.
A check is a condition in chess, shogi, and xiangqi that occurs when a player's king (or general in xiangqi) is under threat of on their opponent's next turn.
Checkmate (often shortened to mate) is a game position in chess and other chess-like games in which a player's king is in check (threatened with) and there is no way to remove the threat.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
In chess and chess-like games, the endgame (or end game or ending) is the stage of the game when few pieces are left on the board.
The monthly Chess Life and bi-monthly Chess Life Kids (formerly School Mates and Chess Life for Kids) are the official magazines published by the United States Chess Federation (US Chess).
The middlegame in chess refers to the portion of the game in between the opening and the endgame.
A chess opening or simply an opening refers to the initial moves of a chess game.
A chess piece, or chessman, is any of the six different movable objects used on a chessboard to play the game of chess.
In chess, the chess piece relative value system conventionally assigns a point value to each piece when assessing its relative strength in potential exchanges.
Chessgames.com is an Internet chess community with over 224,000 members.
In chess, connected pawns are two or more pawns of the same color on adjacent files, as distinct from isolated pawns.
Courier Chess (or The Courier Game or simply courier) is a strategy board game in the chess family.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Dai shōgi (大将棋, 'large chess') or Kamakura dai shōgi (鎌倉大将棋) is a board game native to Japan.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
In geometry, a diagonal is a line segment joining two vertices of a polygon or polyhedron, when those vertices are not on the same edge.
In chess, doubled pawns are two pawns of the same color residing on the same file.
In chess, a draw is the result of a game ending in a tie.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Efim Dmitriyevich Bogolyubov (also Romanized Bogoljubov, Bogoljubow; April 14, 1889 – June 18, 1952) was a Russian-born German chess grandmaster who won numerous events and played two matches against Alexander Alekhine for the world championship.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
In chess, the fianchetto ("little flank") is a pattern of development wherein a bishop is developed to the second rank of the adjacent knight file, the knight pawn having been moved one or two squares forward.
The FIDE World Chess Championship 2004 was held at the Almahary Hotel in Tripoli, Libya, from June 18 to July 13.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
In chess, a fork is a tactic whereby a single piece makes two or more direct attacks simultaneously.
In chess, the fortress is an endgame drawing technique in which the side behind in sets up a zone of protection that the opponent cannot penetrate.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Gambit Publications is a major publisher of chess books.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
This page explains commonly used terms in chess in alphabetical order.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hans Leo Bodlaender (born April 21, 1960), retrieved 2012-02-18.
The history of Lithuania dates back to settlements founded many thousands of years ago, but the first written record of the name for the country dates back to 1009 AD.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
In chess, an isolated pawn is a pawn that has no friendly pawn on an adjacent.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Jeremy Silman (born August 28, 1954) is an American International Master of chess and writer.
A jester, court jester, or fool, was historically an entertainer during the medieval and Renaissance eras who was a member of the household of a nobleman or a monarch employed to entertain him and his guests.
John Leonard Watson (born 1951) is a chess International Master and author.
In chess, the king (♔,♚) is the most important piece.
The knight (♘ ♞) is a piece in the game of chess, representing a knight (armored cavalry).
The Lewis chessmen (Lewisbrikkene; Fir-Tàilisg; Lewis chesmen) or Uig chessmen, named after the bay where they were found, are a group of distinctive 12th-century chess pieces, along with other gaming pieces, most of which are carved from walrus ivory.
The Libro de los Juegos, ("Book of games"), or Libro de axedrez, dados e tablas, ("Book of chess, dice and tables", in Old Spanish) was commissioned by Alfonso X of Castile, Galicia and León and completed in his scriptorium in Toledo in 1283,Sonja Musser Golladay, (PhD diss., University of Arizona, 2007), 31.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Reinhold Max Blümich (Bluemich) (3 November 1886 – 23 February 1942, Falkenberg/Elster) was a German chess master and editor.
Mihai Șubă (born June 1, 1947 in Bucharest, Romania) is a Romanian chess Grandmaster.
The mitre (British English) (Greek: μίτρα, "headband" or "turban") or miter (American English; see spelling differences), is a type of headgear now known as the traditional, ceremonial head-dress of bishops and certain abbots in traditional Christianity.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in East-Central Asia, mostly in Mongolia and surrounding areas plus in Kalmykia.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
The opposite-colored bishops endgame is a chess endgame in which each side has a single bishop, but the bishops reside on opposite-colored squares on the chessboard, thus cannot attack or block each other.
The pawn (♙,♟) is the most numerous piece in the game of chess, and in most circumstances, also the weakest.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
In chess, a pin is a situation brought on by an attacking piece in which a defending piece cannot move without exposing a more valuable defending piece on its other side to capture by the attacking piece.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Promotion is a chess rule that requires a pawn that reaches its eighth to be immediately replaced by the player's choice of a queen, knight, rook, or bishop of the same.
The queen (♕,♛) is the most powerful piece in the game of chess, able to move any number of squares vertically, horizontally or diagonally.
Roman Yakovlevich Dzindzichashvili (რომან იაკობის-ძე ჯინჯიხაშვილი; pronounced jin-jee-khash-VEE-lee; born May 5, 1944) is a chess Grandmaster (GM).
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
A rook (♖,♜) is a piece in the strategy board game of chess.
The rules of chess (also known as the laws of chess) are rules governing the play of the game of chess.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Ruy Lopez, also called the Spanish Opening or Spanish Game, is a chess opening characterised by the moves: The Ruy Lopez is named after 16th-century Spanish bishop Ruy López de Segura.
San Antonio (Spanish for "Saint Anthony"), officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh most populous city in the United States and the second most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Shatranj (شطرنج, from Middle Persian chatrang) is an old form of chess, as played in the Persian Empire.
Shō shōgi (小将棋 'small chess') is a 16th-century form of shogi (Japanese chess), and the immediate predecessor of the modern game.
(), also known as Japanese chess or the Game of Generals, is a two-player strategy board game in the same family as chess, chaturanga, makruk, shatranj, janggi and xiangqi, and is the most popular of a family of chess variants native to Japan.
In chess, a skewer is an attack upon two pieces in a line and is similar to a pin.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Staunton chess set is composed of a particular style of chess pieces used to play the game of chess.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
In chess and other chess-like games, tempo is a "turn" or single move.
The exchange in chess refers to a situation in which one player loses a minor piece (i.e. a bishop or knight) but captures the opponent's rook.
The Oxford Companion to Chess is a reference book on the game of chess, written by David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld.
Triangulation is a tactic used in chess to put one's opponent in zugzwang (a position when it is a disadvantage to move).
A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The United States Chess Federation (also known as US Chess or USCF) is the governing body for chess competition in the United States and represents the U.S. in FIDE, the World Chess Federation.
Walter Shawn Browne (10 January 1949 – 24 June 2015) was an Australian-born American chess Grandmaster and poker player.
The wrong bishop is a situation in chess endgame when a bishop on the other color of square of the chessboard would either win a game instead of draw or salvage a draw from an inferior position; in other words, a bishop is unable to guard squares of the other color.
In chess endgames with a bishop, a pawn that is a may be the wrong rook pawn.