107 relations: Acetone, Adsorption, Afimoxifene, Agonist, Alexander Dianin, Ammonium, Amphibian, Androgen receptor, Annelid, Antioxidant, Aqueous solution, Aromatase, Baby bottle, Bayer, Biodegradation, Bisphenol, Bisphenol S, Catalysis, Charles Dodds, Chemical formula, Chemist, Compact disc, Condensation reaction, CRC Press, Crustacean, Cumene process, CYP17A1, Diethylstilbestrol, Diphenyl carbonate, Diphenylmethane, Dissociation constant, DVD, Endocrine disruptor, Endocrine Society, Enthalpy, Entropy, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Epoxy, Equilibrium point, Equivalent (chemistry), Estradiol, Estrogen receptor, Estrogen receptor alpha, Estrogen receptor beta, Estrogen-related receptor gamma, European Chemicals Agency, European Food Safety Authority, Food and Drug Administration, Food Standards Agency, General Electric, ..., Gibbs free energy, GPER, Half-life, High production volume chemicals, Hormone, Hydrochloric acid, Ketone, Legume, Leydig cell, Liebigs Annalen, Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor, Mollusca, Monomer, Nitrate, Nitrate reductase, Nitrite reductase, Nitrogen fixation, Nuclear receptor, Organic compound, Orphan receptor, Partial agonist, PH, Phenol, Phenols, Phosgene, Plastic, Plastic bottle, Plasticizer, Pollutant, Polycarbonate, Polyether ether ketone, Polymerization, Polystyrene sulfonate, Polysulfone, Polyvinyl chloride, Precautionary principle, Receptor antagonist, Recycling symbol, Resin identification code, Royal Society, Russia, Selective estrogen receptor modulator, Sinorhizobium meliloti, Soybean, Steroid, Thermal paper, U.S. News & World Report, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Vacuum, Vapor pressure, Vinyl ester resin, Volatility (chemistry), Water bottle, Wiley-VCH, Xenoestrogen, Xiang River. Expand index (57 more) » « Shrink index
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.
Afimoxifene, also known as 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT, 4-HT, OHTAM, others), is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) of the triphenylethylene group and the major active metabolite of tamoxifen.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Alexander Pavlovich Dianin (Александр Павлович Дианин; April 20, 1851 – December 6, 1918) was a Russian chemist from Saint Petersburg.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
The androgen receptor (AR), also known as NR3C4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 4), is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding any of the androgenic hormones, including testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the cytoplasm and then translocating into the nucleus.
The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.
A baby bottle, or nursing bottle, or feeding bottle, is a bottle with a teat (also called a nipple in the US) to drink directly from.
Bayer AG is a German multinational, pharmaceutical and life sciences company.
Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.
The bisphenols (pronounced) are a group of chemical compounds with two hydroxyphenyl functionalities.
Bisphenol S (BPS) is an organic compound with the formula (HOC6H4)2SO2.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Sir Edward Charles Dodds, 1st Baronet MVO FRS FRSE FRCP LLD (13 October 1899 – 16 December 1973) was a British biochemist.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.
A condensation reaction is a class of an organic addition reaction that proceeds in a step-wise fashion to produce the addition product, usually in equilibrium, and a water molecule (hence named condensation).
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
The cumene process (cumene-phenol process, Hock process) is an industrial process for developing phenol and acetone from benzene and propylene.
Cytochrome P450 17A1, also called steroid 17α-monooxygenase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase, or 17,20-desmolase, is an enzyme of the hydroxylase type that in humans is encoded by the CYP17A1 gene on chromosome 10.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES), also known as stilbestrol or stilboestrol, is an estrogen medication which is mostly no longer used.
Diphenyl carbonate is an acyclic carbonate ester.
Diphenylmethane is an organic compound with the formula (C6H5)2CH2.
In chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmacology, a dissociation constant (K_d) is a specific type of equilibrium constant that measures the propensity of a larger object to separate (dissociate) reversibly into smaller components, as when a complex falls apart into its component molecules, or when a salt splits up into its component ions.
DVD (an abbreviation of "digital video disc" or "digital versatile disc") is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips and Sony in 1995.
Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses.
The Endocrine Society is a professional, international medical organization in the field of endocrinology and metabolism, founded in 1916 as The Association for the Study of Internal Secretions.
Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
Environment and Climate Change Canada (or simply its former name, Environment Canada, or EC) (Environnement et Changement climatique Canada), legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act (R.S., 1985, c. E-10), is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and renewable resources.
Epoxy is either any of the basic components or the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group.
In mathematics, specifically in differential equations, an equilibrium point is a constant solution to a differential equation.
An equivalent (symbol: equiv) is the amount of a substance that reacts with (or is equivalent to) an arbitrary amount of another substance in a given chemical reaction.
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), also known as NR3A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 1), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
Estrogen receptor beta (ER-β), also known as NR3A2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 2), is one of two main types of estrogen receptor, a nuclear receptor which is activated by the sex hormone estrogen.
Estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERR-gamma), also known as NR3B3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group B, member 3), is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the ESRRG (EStrogen Related Receptor Gamma) gene.
The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) is an agency of the European Union which manages the technical, scientific and administrative aspects of the implementation of the European Union regulation called Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH).
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).
G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER), also known as G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPER gene.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
High production volume chemicals, also referred to as HPV chemicals, are produced or imported into the United States in quantities of 1 million pounds or 500 tons per year.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
Leydig cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig, are found adjacent to the seminiferous tubules in the testicle.
Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie (often cited as just Liebigs Annalen) was one of the oldest and historically most important journals in the field of organic chemistry worldwide.
The luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR), also lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LCGR) or luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) is a transmembrane receptor found predominantly in the ovary and testis, but also many extragonadal organs such as the uterus and breasts.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
Nitrate reductases are molybdoenzymes that reduce nitrate (NO) to nitrite (NO).
Nitrite reductase refers to any of several classes of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of nitrite.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
In biochemistry, an orphan receptor is a protein that has a similar structure to other identified receptors but whose endogenous ligand has not yet been identified.
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group.
Phosgene is the chemical compound with the formula COCl2.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
A plastic bottle is a bottle constructed from plastic.
Plasticizers (UK: plasticisers) or dispersants are additives that increase the plasticity or decrease the viscosity of a material.
A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.
Polycarbonates (PC) are a group of thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate groups in their chemical structures.
Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) is a colourless organic thermoplastic polymer in the polyaryletherketone (PAEK) family, used in engineering applications.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Polystyrene sulfonates are polymers derived from polystyrene by the addition of sulfonate functional groups.
Polysulfones are a family of thermoplastic polymers.
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.
The precautionary principle (or precautionary approach) generally defines actions on issues considered to be uncertain, for instance applied in assessing risk management.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
The universal recycling symbol (or in Unicode) is internationally recognized.
The ASTM International Resin Identification Coding System, often abbreviated as the RIC, is a set of symbols appearing on plastic products that identify the plastic resin out of which the product is made.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a class of drugs that act on the estrogen receptor (ER).
Sinorhizobium meliloti is a Gram-negative nitrogen-fixing bacterium (rhizobium).
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Thermal paper is a special fine paper that is coated with a material formulated to change color when exposed to heat.
U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis.
Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry is a reference work related to industrial chemistry published in English and German.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
Vinyl ester resin, or often just vinyl ester, is a resin produced by the esterification of an epoxy resin with acrylic or methacrylic acids.
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.
A water bottle is a container that is used to hold water, liquids or other beverages for consumption.
Wiley-VCH is a German publisher owned by John Wiley & Sons.
Xenoestrogens are a type of xenohormone that imitates estrogen.
The Xiang River is the chief river of the Lake Dongting drainage system of the middle Yangtze, the largest river in Hunan Province, China.