204 relations: Academic journal, Adam Back, Arctic, Artificial scarcity, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, Austria, Baidu, Bank for International Settlements, Banknote, Base58, Bing (search engine), Bit, Bitcoin Cash, Bitcoin Classic, Bitcoin Core, Bitcoin Foundation, Bitcoin Gold, Bitcoin network, Bitcoin Private, Bitcoin Unlimited, Bitcoin XT, Bitfinex, BitPay, Bitstamp, Blockchain, Bloomberg L.P., Broadcasting (networking), Central bank, Chicago Mercantile Exchange, Circa, Circulation (currency), CNBC, CNNMoney, Coin, Coinbase, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, Complementary currency, Compound (linguistics), Computer network, Computer performance, Concordia University, Crypto-anarchism, Cryptocurrency, Cryptocurrency exchange, Cryptographic hash function, Cryptographic nonce, Cryptography, Currency, Currency Symbols (Unicode block), Cypherpunk, ..., Dan Boneh, Digital asset, Digital currency, Digital signature, Distributed database, Distributed ledger, Double-spending, Economic bubble, Email spam, Eric Posner, European Banking Authority, Facebook, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal Council (Switzerland), Fiat money, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Fork (software development), Forth (programming language), Founders Fund, Fractional-reserve banking, Fungibility, Gavin Andresen, George Soros, Geothermal energy, Ghash.io, Google, Hal Finney (computer scientist), Hash function, Hashcash, Howard Marks (investor), HSBC, Hydro-Québec, Hydroelectricity, Hyun-Song Shin, IEEE Computer Society, Initial coin offering, International Association for Cryptologic Research, ISO 4217, Jack Ma, Jamie Dimon, Joseph Stiglitz, Journal of Monetary Economics, JPMorgan Chase, Kraken (bitcoin exchange), Ledger, Ledger (journal), Liability (financial accounting), Line Corporation, LinkedIn, List of bitcoin companies, List of bitcoin organizations, List of cryptocurrencies, Litecoin, MailChimp, Mark T. Williams, Medium of exchange, Megabyte, Mining pool, MIT Technology Review, Monetary policy, Mt. Gox, National Australia Bank, New York University, Nick Szabo, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Node (networking), North American Securities Administrators Association, Nouriel Roubini, Open-source model, Open-source software, Oxford English Dictionary, OxfordDictionaries.com, Paolo Tasca, Paul Krugman, Paxos (company), Peer review, Peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Politico, Ponzi scheme, Promissory note, Proof-of-work system, Pseudonym, Pseudorandomness, Public-key cryptography, Pyramid scheme, Qt (software), Quebec, Random seed, Reuters, Richard Thaler, Robert J. Shiller, S&P 500 Index, Satoshi Nakamoto, SegWit, SegWit2x, Self-regulatory organization, SHA-2, Snapchat, Solvency, SourceForge, Spoofing (finance), Stanford University, Store of value, Supreme Court of the United States, Switzerland, TechCrunch, Tencent, Tether (cryptocurrency), Thai baht, The Chronicle of Higher Education, The Economist, The Motley Fool, The New Yorker, The Rise and Rise of Bitcoin, The Times of Israel, The Wall Street Journal, Tibet, Ticker symbol, Tim Draper, Tony Gallippi, Trusted timestamping, Turku University of Applied Sciences, Twitter, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Unicode, Unit of account, United States Senate, University of Cambridge, University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, Unspent transaction output, USA Today, Venture capital, Virtual currency, Virtual currency law in the United States, Volatility (finance), Volatility risk, Warren Buffett, Wash trade, Washington (state), Wei Dai, Weibo (company), White paper, Winklevoss twins, Wired (magazine), World Bank, World Bank Group, WxWidgets, XE.com, Yandex, Zero Hedge, Zero-knowledge proof, 2012–13 Cypriot financial crisis. Expand index (154 more) » « Shrink index
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published.
Adam Back (born July 1970) is a British cryptographer and crypto-hacker.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
Artificial scarcity describes the scarcity of items even though either the technology and production, or sharing capacity exists to create a theoretically limitless abundance, as well as the use of laws to create scarcity where otherwise there wouldn't be.
The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) is an independent authority of the Australian government.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Baidu, Inc. (anglicized), incorporated on 18 January 2000, is a Chinese multinational technology company specializing in Internet-related services and products, and artificial intelligence, headquartered at the Baidu Campus in Beijing's Haidian District.
The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution owned by central banks which "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks".
A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.
Base58 is a group of binary-to-text encoding schemes used to represent large integers as alphanumeric text, introduced by Satoshi Nakamoto for use with Bitcoin.
Bing is a web search engine owned and operated by Microsoft.
The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.
Bitcoin Cash is a cryptocurrency.
Bitcoin Classic was one of several forks of the Bitcoin reference implementation Bitcoin Core aiming to increase the transaction processing capacity of Bitcoin by increasing the block size limit.
Bitcoin Core is an implementation of bitcoin.
The Bitcoin Foundation is an American nonprofit corporation.
Bitcoin Gold is a distributed digital currency.
The bitcoin network is a peer-to-peer payment network that operates on a cryptographic protocol.
Bitcoin Private (BTCP) is an open-source, peer-to-peer cryptocurrency with the optional ability to keep the sender, receiver, and amount private in a given transaction.
Bitcoin Unlimited (BU) is a full node implementation for the bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash networks.
Bitcoin XT is a fork of Bitcoin Core, the reference client for the bitcoin network.
Bitfinex is a cryptocurrency trading platform, owned and operated by iFinex Inc.
BitPay is a global bitcoin payment service provider headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, United States.
Bitstamp is a bitcoin exchange based in Luxembourg.
A blockchain, originally block chain, is a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography.
Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
In computer networking, telecommunication and information theory, broadcasting is a method of transferring a message to all recipients simultaneously.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) (often called "the Chicago Merc", or "the Merc") is an American financial and commodity derivative exchange based in Chicago and located at 20 S. Wacker Drive.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
In monetary economics, circulation is the continuing use of individual units of a currency for transactions.
CNBC is an American basic cable, internet and satellite business news television channel that is owned by NBCUniversal News Group, a division of NBCUniversal, with both being ultimately owned by Comcast.
CNNMoney.com is a financial news and information website, operated by CNN.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
Coinbase is a digital currency exchange headquartered in San Francisco, California.
The U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is an independent agency of the US government created in 1974, that regulates futures and option markets.
A complementary currency is a currency or medium of exchange which is not a national currency, but which is thought of as supplementing or complementing national currencies.
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
Computer performance is the amount of work accomplished by a computer system.
Concordia University (commonly referred to as Concordia) is a public comprehensive university located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada on unceded Indigenous lands.
Crypto-anarchism (or crypto-anarchy) is a cyber-spatial realization of anarchism.
A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency) is digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange that uses strong cryptography to secure financial transactions, control the creation of additional units, and verify the transfer of assets.
Cryptocurrency exchange, Crypto exchange or digital currency exchange (DCE) is a businesses that allow customers to trade cryptocurrencies or digital currencies for other assets, such as conventional fiat money, or different digital currencies.
A cryptographic hash function is a special class of hash function that has certain properties which make it suitable for use in cryptography.
In cryptography, a nonce is an arbitrary number that can be used just once.
Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
Currency Symbols is a Unicode block containing characters for representing unique monetary signs.
A cypherpunk (UK /ˈsʌɪfəpʌŋk/ US /ˈsʌɪfərpʌŋk/) is any activist advocating widespread use of strong cryptography and privacy-enhancing technologies as a route to social and political change.
Dan Boneh (דן בונה) is a teacher and researcher in applied cryptography and computer security.
A digital asset, in essence, is anything that exists in a binary format and comes with the right to use.
Digital currency (digital money or electronic money or electronic currency) is a type of currency available only in digital form, not in physical (such as banknotes and coins).
A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for presenting the authenticity of digital messages or documents.
A distributed database is a database in which storage devices are not all attached to a common processor.
A distributed ledger (also called a shared ledger, or distributed ledger technology, DLT) is a consensus of replicated, shared, and synchronized digital data geographically spread across multiple sites, countries, or institutions.
Double-spending is a potential flaw in a digital cash scheme in which the same single digital token can be spent more than once.
An economic bubble or asset bubble (sometimes also referred to as a speculative bubble, a market bubble, a price bubble, a financial bubble, a speculative mania, or a balloon) is trade in an asset at a price or price range that strongly exceeds the asset's intrinsic value.
Email spam, also known as junk email, is a type of electronic spam where unsolicited messages are sent by email.
Eric Andrew Posner (born December 5, 1965) is an American law professor at the University of Chicago Law School.
The European Banking Authority (EBA) is a regulatory agency of the European Union headquartered in London.
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
The Federal Council is the seven-member executive council which constitutes the federal government of the Swiss Confederation and serves as the collective executive head of government and state of Switzerland.
Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation.
In the United States, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (FINRA) is a private corporation that acts as a self-regulatory organization (SRO).
In software engineering, a project fork happens when developers take a copy of source code from one software package and start independent development on it, creating a distinct and separate piece of software.
Forth is an imperative stack-based computer programming language and environment originally designed by Charles "Chuck" Moore.
Founders Fund is an American San Francisco-based venture capital firm investing in companies building revolutionary technologies.
Fractional-reserve banking is the practice whereby a bank accepts deposits, makes loans or investments, but is required to hold reserves equal to only a fraction of its deposit liabilities.
In economics, fungibility is the property of a good or a commodity whose individual units are essentially interchangeable.
Gavin Andresen (born Gavin Bell) is a software developer best known for his involvement with bitcoin.
George Soros, Hon (Soros György,; born György Schwartz; August 12, 1930) is a Hungarian-American investor, business magnate, philanthropist, political activist and author.
Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth.
GHash.IO is a bitcoin mining pool having operated from 2013 and allowed bitcoins to mine using personal hardware or cloud-based mining power.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
Harold Thomas Finney II (May 4, 1956 – August 28, 2014) was a developer for PGP Corporation, and was the second developer hired after Phil Zimmermann.
A hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to data of a fixed size.
Hashcash is a proof-of-work system used to limit email spam and denial-of-service attacks, and more recently has become known for its use in bitcoin (and other cryptocurrencies) as part of the mining algorithm.
Howard Stanley Marks (born April 23, 1946) is an American investor and writer.
HSBC Holdings plc is a British multinational banking and financial services holding company, tracing its origin to a hong in Hong Kong.
Hydro-Québec is a public utility that manages the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity in Quebec.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
Hyun Song Shin is a South Korean economic theorist and financial economist who focuses on global games.
IEEE Computer Society (sometimes abbreviated Computer Society or CS) is a professional society of IEEE.
An initial coin offering (ICO) or initial currency offering, a type of crowdfunding using cryptocurrencies, is a means of raising capital that has been prone to scams and securities law violations.
The International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR) is a non-profit scientific organization whose purpose is to further research in cryptology and related fields.
ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.
Ma Yun (born 10 September 1964), known professionally as Jack Ma, is a Chinese business magnate, investor, and philanthropist.
Jamie Dimon (born March 13, 1956) is an American business executive.
Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist and a professor at Columbia University.
The Journal of Monetary Economics is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on macroeconomics and monetary economics.
JPMorgan Chase & Co. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City.
Kraken is a US-based cryptocurrency exchange operating in Canada, the EU, Japan, and the US, and "the world's largest bitcoin exchange in euro volume and liquidity".
A ledger is the principal book or computer file for recording and totaling economic transactions measured in terms of a monetary unit of account by account type, with debits and credits in separate columns and a beginning monetary balance and ending monetary balance for each account.
Ledger is the first peer-reviewed academic journal dedicated to cryptocurrency and blockchain technology research.
In financial accounting, a liability is defined as the future sacrifices of economic benefits that the entity is obliged to make to other entities as a result of past transactions or other past events, the settlement of which may result in the transfer or use of assets, provision of services or other yielding of economic benefits in the future.
Line Corporation (stylized as LINE Corporation), located in Tokyo, is a Japanese subsidiary of the South Korean internet search giant Naver Corporation.
LinkedIn is a business and employment-oriented service that operates via websites and mobile apps.
This is a list of for-profit companies with notable commercial activities related to bitcoins and Cryptocurrency.
This is a list of nonprofit organizations with notable activities related to bitcoin.
This is a list of cryptocurrencies.
Litecoin (LTC or Ł) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency and open source software project released under the MIT/X11 license.
MailChimp is a marketing automation platform and an email marketing service and a trading name of its operator, Rocket Science Group, an American company founded in 2001 by Ben Chestnut and Dan Kurzius.
Mark Thomas Williams (born August 19, 1963) is an academic, financial author, columnist and risk management expert.
A medium of exchange is a tradeable entity used to avoid the inconveniences of a pure barter system.
The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
In the context of cryptocurrency mining, a mining pool is the pooling of resources by miners, who share their processing power over a network, to split the reward equally, according to the amount of work they contributed to the probability of finding a block.
MIT Technology Review is a magazine published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.
National Australia Bank (abbreviated NAB, branded nab) is one of the four largest financial institutions in Australia in terms of market capitalisation, earnings and customers.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
New York University (NYU) is a private nonprofit research university based in New York City.
Nick Szabo is a computer scientist, legal scholar and cryptographer known for his research in digital contracts and digital currency.
The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (officially Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne, or the Swedish National Bank's Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field.
In telecommunications networks, a node (Latin nodus, ‘knot’) is either a redistribution point or a communication endpoint.
The North American Securities Administrators Association (NASAA), founded in Kansas in 1919, is the oldest international investor protection organization.
Nouriel Roubini (born March 29, 1958) is an American economist.
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.
Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software whose source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
OxfordDictionaries.com, originally titled Oxford Dictionaries Online (ODO) and rebranded Oxford Living Dictionaries in 2017, is an online dictionary produced by the Oxford University Press (OUP) publishing house, a department of the University of Oxford, which also publishes a number of print dictionaries, among other works.
Paolo Tasca (born 1976) is an Italian economist, researcher, public speaker, author and advisor.
Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist who is currently Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, and a columnist for The New York Times.
Paxos is an American financial technology (“fintech”) company, established in September 2016 and based in New York, with international offices in London and Singapore.
Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers).
Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.
Peter Andreas Thiel (born October 11, 1967) is an American entrepreneur, venture capitalist, philanthropist, political activist, and author.
Politico, known earlier as The Politico, is an American political journalism company based in Arlington County, Virginia, that covers politics and policy in the United States and internationally.
A Ponzi scheme (also a Ponzi game) is a form of fraud in which a purported businessman lures investors and pays profits to earlier investors using funds obtained from newer investors.
A promissory note, sometimes referred to as a note payable, is a legal instrument (more particularly, a financial instrument and a debt instrument), in which one party (the maker or issuer) promises in writing to pay a determinate sum of money to the other (the payee), either at a fixed or determinable future time or on demand of the payee, under specific terms.
A proof-of-work (PoW) system (or protocol, or function) is an economic measure to deter denial of service attacks and other service abuses such as spam on a network by requiring some work from the service requester, usually meaning processing time by a computer.
A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name (orthonym).
A pseudorandom process is a process that appears to be random but is not.
Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is any cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys which may be disseminated widely, and private keys which are known only to the owner.
A pyramid scheme (commonly known as pyramid scams) is a business model that recruits members via a promise of payments or services for enrolling others into the scheme, rather than supplying investments or sale of products or services.
Qt ("cute") is a cross-platform application framework and widget toolkit for creating classic and embedded graphical user interfaces, and applications that run on various software and hardware platforms with little or no change in the underlying codebase, while still being a native application with native capabilities and speed.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
A random seed (or seed state, or just seed) is a number (or vector) used to initialize a pseudorandom number generator.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Richard H. Thaler (born September 12, 1945) is an American economist and the Charles R. Walgreen Distinguished Service Professor of Behavioral Science and Economics at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.
Robert James Shiller (born March 29, 1946) is an American Nobel Laureate, economist, academic, and best-selling author.
The Standard & Poor's 500, often abbreviated as the S&P 500, or just the S&P, is an American stock market index based on the market capitalizations of 500 large companies having common stock listed on the NYSE or NASDAQ.
Satoshi Nakamoto is the name used by the unknown person or people who developed bitcoin, authored the bitcoin white paper, created and deployed bitcoin's original reference implementation.
Segregated Witness, or SegWit, is the name used for an implemented soft fork change in the transaction format of the cryptocurrency bitcoin.
Segwit2x was a proposal to upgrade the cryptocurrency Bitcoin via a hard fork.
A self-regulatory organization (SRO) is an organization that exercises some degree of regulatory authority over an industry or profession.
SHA-2 (Secure Hash Algorithm 2) is a set of cryptographic hash functions designed by the United States National Security Agency (NSA).
Snapchat is a multimedia messaging app used globally, created by Evan Spiegel, Bobby Murphy, and Reggie Brown, former students at Stanford University, and developed by Snap Inc., originally Snapchat Inc.
Solvency, in finance or business, is the degree to which the current assets of an individual or entity exceed the current liabilities of that individual or entity.
SourceForge is a Web-based service that offers software developers a centralized online location to control and manage free and open-source software projects.
Spoofing is a disruptive algorithmic trading entity employed by traders to outpace other market participants and to manipulate commodity markets.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
A store of value is the function of an asset that can be saved, retrieved and exchanged at a later time, and be predictably useful when retrieved.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
TechCrunch is an American online publisher of technology industry news founded in 2005 by Archimedes Ventures whose partners were Michael Arrington and Keith Teare.
Tencent Holdings Limited is a Chinese multinational investment holding conglomerate whose subsidiaries specialize in various Internet-related services and products, entertainment, artificial intelligence and technology both in China and globally.
Tether is a controversial cryptocurrency token claimed by its creators to be backed by one dollar for each token issued, though Tether Limited has not issued a promised audit of their currency reserves.
The baht (บาท,; sign: ฿; code: THB) is the currency of Thailand.
The Chronicle of Higher Education is a newspaper and website that presents news, information, and jobs for college and university faculty and Student Affairs professionals (staff members and administrators).
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Motley Fool is a multimedia financial-services company that provides financial advice for investors through various stock, investing, and personal finance services.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
The Rise and Rise of Bitcoin is a 2014 American documentary film directed by Nicholas Mross.
The Times of Israel is an Israeli-based online newspaper launched in 2012.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market.
Timothy Cook Draper (born June 11, 1958) is an American venture capital investor, and in 1985, the founder of the firm that would become Draper Fisher Jurvetson (DFJ).
Tony Gallippi is the co-founder and current Chairman of the financial services company, BitPay.
Trusted timestamping is the process of securely keeping track of the creation and modification time of a document.
Turku University of Applied Sciences (abbr. TUAS, Finnish Turun ammattikorkeakoulu) is a multidisciplinary higher education institution, located in the city of Turku in.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is an independent agency of the United States federal government.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
A unit of account in economics is a nominal monetary unit of measure or currency used to represent the real value (or cost) of any economic item; i.e. goods, services, assets, liabilities, income, expenses.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Kentucky (UK) is a public co-educational university in Lexington, Kentucky.
The University of Pittsburgh (commonly referred to as Pitt) is a state-related research university located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
In cryptocurrencies, an unspent transaction output (UTXO) is an output of a blockchain transaction that has not been spent, i.e. used as an input in a new transaction.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Venture capital (VC) is a type of private equity, a form of financing that is provided by firms or funds to small, early-stage, emerging firms that are deemed to have high growth potential, or which have demonstrated high growth (in terms of number of employees, annual revenue, or both).
Virtual currency, or virtual money, is a type of unregulated, digital money, which is issued and usually controlled by its developers and used and accepted among the members of a specific virtual community.
United States virtual currency law is financial regulation as applied to transactions in virtual currency in the U.S. The Commodity Futures Trading Commission has regulated and may continue to regulate virtual currencies as commodities.
In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns.
Volatility risk is the risk of a change of price of a portfolio as a result of changes in the volatility of a risk factor.
Warren Edward Buffett (born August 30, 1930) is an American business magnate, investor, and philanthropist who serves as the chairman and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway.
A wash trade is a form of market manipulation in which an investor simultaneously sells and buys the same financial instruments to create misleading, artificial activity in the marketplace.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Wei Dai (c) is a computer engineer best known as the creator of the Bitcoin predecessor "" and as the developer of the Crypto++ library.
Weibo Corporation is the social network company which is providing the Chinese microblogging website Sina Weibo, based in Beijing, China.
A white paper is an authoritative report or guide that informs readers concisely about a complex issue and presents the issuing body's philosophy on the matter.
The Winklevoss twins (born August 21, 1981; also humorously referred to as the Winklevi or Winklevii) are American rowers and Internet entrepreneurs, Cameron Winklevoss and Tyler Winklevoss.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Bank Group (WBG) (Groupe de la Banque mondiale) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries.
wxWidgets ("wix-widgets", formerly wxWindows) is a widget toolkit and tools library for creating graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for cross-platform applications.
XE.com (XE) is a Canadian-based online foreign exchange tools and services company headquartered in Newmarket, Ontario.
Yandex N.V. (p) is a multinational corporation specializing in Internet-related services and products.
Zero Hedge is an English-language blog that aggregates financial and political news and presents editorial opinions from original and outside sources.
In cryptography, a zero-knowledge proof or zero-knowledge protocol is a method by which one party (the prover Peggy) can prove to another party (the verifier Victor) that she knows a value x, without conveying any information apart from the fact that she knows the value x. Another way of understanding this would be: Interactive zero-knowledge proofs require interaction between the individual (or computer system) proving their knowledge and the individual validating the proof.
The 2012–2013 Cypriot financial crisis was an economic crisis in the Republic of Cyprus that involved the exposure of Cypriot banks to overleveraged local property companies, the Greek government-debt crisis, the downgrading of the Cypriot government's bond credit rating to junk status by international credit rating agencies, the consequential inability to refund its state expenses from the international markets and the reluctance of the government to restructure the troubled Cypriot financial sector.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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