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Bitcoin is a payment system invented by Satoshi Nakamoto,It is not known whether the name Satoshi Nakamoto is real or a pseudonym, or if it represents one person or a group. [1]

281 relations: Advocacy, Alan Greenspan, Alberta, Alternative currency, Alternative Finance, Application-specific integrated circuit, ASCII art, Atomic Mall, Australia, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Austrian School, Baidu, Bank of America, Bank of Estonia, Banknote, Barclays, BBC News, Ben Bernanke, Benjamin Lawsky, Bid–ask spread, Big government, Bill Gates, Bit, Bitcoin ATM, Bitcoin faucet, Bitcoin Foundation, Bitcoin network, Bitcoin XT, BitInstant, BitLicense, BitPay, Bitstamp, BitTorrent, Block chain (database), Blockchain.info, Bloomberg L.P., Bloomberg News, Botnet, Brazil, Broadcasting (networking), BTC China, Business Insider, Cameron Winklevoss, Carnegie Mellon University, Central bank, Central processing unit, Chair of the Federal Reserve, Chargeback, Charles Stross, Charlie Shrem, ..., Child pornography, China, Circa, Circle (company), City A.M., Clearly Canadian, Clipboard (computing), CNBC, CNN, CNNMoney, Coinbase, CoinCorner, CoinDesk, Commodity Exchange Act, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, Compound (linguistics), Computer network, Computer virus, Credit card, Crowdfunding, Crypto-anarchism, Cryptocurrency, Cryptographic hash function, Cryptographic nonce, CryptoLocker, Cyprus, Dark Web, Darknet market, David A. Marcus, Decentralised system, Decentralized autonomous organization, Dell, Dell SecureWorks, Denial-of-service attack, DigiCash, Digital currency, Digital currency exchanger, Digital signature, Direct democracy, Dish Network, Distributed database, Double-spending, Download.com, Dynamite Entertainment, Economic bubble, Economist, Efficient-market hypothesis, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Electronic money, Eric Posner, Esports, European Banking Authority, European Central Bank, Europol, Exchange-traded fund, Expedia (website), Exploit (computer security), Ƀ, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, Fiat money, Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering, Financial crisis of 2007–08, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Founders Fund, Free market, Free software movement, Friedrich Hayek, Fungibility, Gavin Andresen, Graphics processing unit, Greenpeace, Hal Finney (computer scientist), High-frequency trading, Honduras, HSBC, Hyperlink, IBM, Initial public offering, Institute for Business Value, International Data Group, Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, Internet of Things, Internet Watch Foundation, Interstellar travel, IP address, Isle of Man, ISO 4217, J. Bradford DeLong, Jeff Kurzon, Jeffrey Tucker, Jersey, John Quiggin, Kevin Dowd, Keystroke logging, Khan Academy, Ledger, Left-wing politics, Libertarianism, List of bitcoin companies, MacUpdate, Magic: The Gathering, Malware, Mark T. Williams, Mark Twain, Market capitalization, Market liquidity, Mashable, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Medium of exchange, Mevade Botnet, Microsoft, Microsoft Security Essentials, Mining pool, MIT Technology Review, Monetary inflation, Money, Mozilla Foundation, Mt. Gox, Nasdaq, Inc., National Australia Bank, Neptune's Brood, New York Stock Exchange, Newegg, Nick Szabo, Node (networking), Nonprofit organization, Nouriel Roubini, OkCupid, Open source, Open-source software, OS X, Overstock.com, Parallel computing, Paul Krugman, Payment service provider, Payment system, PayPal, PC World, Peer-to-peer, People's Bank of China, Peter Schiff, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, Private currency, PrivateFly, Promissory note, Proof-of-work system, Public-key cryptography, Pyramid scheme, QR code, Qt (software), Quandl, Race condition, Ransomware, Reference implementation, Renminbi, Richard Stallman, Right-wing politics, Ripple (payment protocol), Robert J. Shiller, Ross Ulbricht, S&P 500 Index, Sacramento Kings, Satoshi Nakamoto, Self-regulatory organization, SHA-2, Sheep Marketplace, Silk Road (marketplace), St. Petersburg Bowl, Stanford University, Store of value, Swiss Federal Council, Switzerland, Symantec, TechCrunch, Technology, Telehash, Thai baht, The Chronicle of Higher Education, The Good Wife, The Motley Fool, The New York Times, The Sydney Morning Herald, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, Theft, Tidbit, TigerDirect, Time Inc., Timothy C. Draper, Tokyo, Tony Gallippi, Tor (anonymity network), Trojan horse (computing), Trustwave Holdings, Turku University of Applied Sciences, Uniform Resource Identifier, Unit of account, United Kingdom, United States, United States Department of Homeland Security, United States Department of the Treasury, United States diplomatic cables leak, University of Amsterdam, University of California, Berkeley, University of California, Irvine, University of Nicosia, Value (economics), Vancouver, Venture capital, Video card, Virgin Galactic, Virtual currency, Volatility (finance), White paper, Wikimedia Foundation, Winklevoss twins, Wired (magazine), WordPress, World Bank, World Bank Group, World currency, WxWidgets, XE.com, Yahoo!, Yahoo! Finance, Zerocoin, Zynga, 2012–13 Cypriot financial crisis. Expand index (231 more) »


Advocacy is a political process by an individual or group which aims to influence decisions within political, economic, and social systems and institutions.

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Alan Greenspan

Alan Greenspan (born March 6, 1926) is an American economist who served as Chairman of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006.

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Alberta is a western province of Canada.

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Alternative currency

An alternative currency (or private currency) is any currency used as an alternative to the dominant national or multinational currency systems.

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Alternative Finance

Alternative Finance refers to financial channels and instruments that have emerged outside of the traditional finance system such as regulated banks and capital markets.

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Application-specific integrated circuit

An application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use.

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ASCII art is a graphic design technique that uses computers for presentation and consists of pictures pieced together from the 95 printable (from a total of 128) characters defined by the ASCII Standard from 1963 and ASCII compliant character sets with proprietary extended characters (beyond the 128 characters of standard 7-bit ASCII).

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Atomic Mall

Atomic Mall is a multi-seller online marketplace based in Yakima, Washington.

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Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

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Australian Broadcasting Corporation

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) is Australia's state-owned and funded national public broadcaster.

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Austrian School

The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that is based on the concept of methodological individualism, that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.

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Baidu 百度, Inc. (pronounced "" in English), incorporated on January 18, 2000, is a Chinese web services company headquartered at the Baidu Campus in Beijing's Haidian District.

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Bank of America

Bank of America (abbreviated as BofA) is an American multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina.

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Bank of Estonia

The Bank of Estonia (Eesti Pank) is the central bank of Estonia as well as a member of the Eurosystem organisation of euro area central banks.

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A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable instrument known as a promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.

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Barclays is a British multinational banking & financial services company headquartered in London.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Ben Bernanke

Ben Shalom Bernanke (born December 13, 1953) is an American economist at the Brookings Institution who served two terms as chairman of the Federal Reserve, the central bank of the United States from 2006 to 2014.

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Benjamin Lawsky

Benjamin M. Lawsky (born April 14, 1970) is an American attorney and New York State's first Superintendent of Financial Services serving through June, 2015, and former Acting Superintendent of Banks serving through 2011.

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Bid–ask spread

The bid–offer spread (also known as bid–ask or buy–sell spread (in the case of a market maker), and their equivalents using slashes in place of the dashes) for securities (such as stocks, futures contracts, options, or currency pairs) is the difference between the prices quoted (either by a single market maker or in a limit order book) for an immediate sale (bid) and an immediate purchase (offer).

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Big government

Big government is a term generally used by conservatives and libertarians to describe a government or public sector that they consider to be excessively large, corrupt and inefficient, or inappropriately involved in certain areas of public policy or the private sector.

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Bill Gates

William Henry "Bill" Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate, philanthropist, investor, computer programmer, and inventor.

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A bit is the basic unit of information in computing and digital communications.

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Bitcoin ATM

A bitcoin ATM is an electronic telecommunications device (an ATM) that allows a person to exchange bitcoins and cash without the need for a human to facilitate the transaction.

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Bitcoin faucet

Bitcoin faucet is a World Wide Web website that gives out "free" bitcoins (BTC) in exchange for doing a simple task, such as clicking on an advert, solving a CAPTCHA, or viewing a webpage for a certain amount of time.

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Bitcoin Foundation

The Bitcoin Foundation is an American nonprofit corporation.

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Bitcoin network

The bitcoin network is a peer-to-peer payment network that operates on a cryptographic protocol.

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Bitcoin XT

Bitcoin XT is a fork of the bitcoin Core reference client.

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BitInstant was a bitcoin exchange start-up based in New York City.

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A BitLicense is the common term used for a business license issued by the New York State Department of Financial Services (NYSDFS) under regulations designed for companies engaged in virtual currency business activities.

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BitPay is a global bitcoin payment service provider headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia.

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Bitstamp is a bitcoin exchange based in the United Kingdom.

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BitTorrent is a protocol for the practice of peer-to-peer file sharing that is used to distribute large amounts of data over the Internet.

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Block chain (database)

A block chain or blockchain is a distributed database that maintains a continuously growing list of data records that are hardened against tampering and revision, even by operators of the data store's nodes.

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Blockchain.info is a bitcoin wallet and block explorer service.

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Bloomberg L.P.

Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.

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Bloomberg News

Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through the Bloomberg terminal, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.

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A botnet is a number of Internet-connected computers communicating with other similar machines in an effort to complete repetitive tasks and objectives.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and the Latin American region.

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Broadcasting (networking)

In telecommunication and information theory, broadcasting refers to a method of transferring a message to all recipients simultaneously.

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BTC China

BTCChina, based in Shanghai, China, is the world's second largest bitcoin exchange by volume as of October 2014.

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Business Insider

Business Insider is an American business, celebrity and technology news website launched in February 2009 and based in New York City.

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Cameron Winklevoss

Cameron Howard Winklevoss (born August 21, 1981) is an American rower and entrepreneur.

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Carnegie Mellon University

Carnegie Mellon University (Carnegie Mellon or CMU; or) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

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Central bank

A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.

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Central processing unit

A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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Chair of the Federal Reserve

The Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is the head of the central banking system of the United States.

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Chargeback is the return of funds to a consumer, mainly used in the United States, forcibly initiated by the issuing bank of the instrument used by a consumer to settle a debt.

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Charles Stross

Charles David George "Charlie" Stross (born 18 October 1964) is a British writer of science fiction, Lovecraftian horror and fantasy.

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Charlie Shrem

Charles "Charlie" Shrem IV (born November 25, 1989)Max Raskin, Bloomberg Businessweek, April 10, 2013.

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Child pornography

Child pornography is pornography that exploits children for sexual stimulation.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca or ca. (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages including English, usually in reference to a date.

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Circle (company)

Circle is a bitcoin services company.

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City A.M.

City A.M. is a free, business-focused newspaper distributed in and around London, England.

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Clearly Canadian

Clearly Canadian is a North American multi-SKU premium beverage brand, produced by The Clearly Food & Beverage Company of Canada.

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Clipboard (computing)

The clipboard is a software facility used for short-term data storage and/or data transfer between documents or applications, via copy and paste operations.

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CNBC is an American basic cable and satellite business news television channel that is owned by NBCUniversal News Group, a division of Comcast Corporation.

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The Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television channel that is owned by the Turner Broadcasting System division of Time Warner.

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CNNMoney.com is a financial news and information website, operated by the CNN division of Time Warner.

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Coinbase is a bitcoin wallet and exchange company headquartered in San Francisco California, founded by Brian Armstrong and Fred Ehrsam.

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CoinCorner is a universal bitcoin solutions provider, based in the Isle of Man.

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CoinDesk is a news site specializing in bitcoin and digital currencies.

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Commodity Exchange Act

Commodity Exchange Act (ch. 545,, enacted June 15, 1936) is a federal act passed in 1936 by the U.S. Government (replacing the Grain Futures Act of 1922).

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Commodity Futures Trading Commission

The U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is an independent agency of the US government created in 1974, that regulates futures and option markets.

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Compound (linguistics)

In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.

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Computer network

A computer network or data network is a telecommunications network which allows computers to exchange data.

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Computer virus

A computer virus is a malware program that, when executed, replicates by inserting copies of itself (possibly modified) into other computer programs, data files, or the boot sector of the hard drive; when this replication succeeds, the affected areas are then said to be "infected".

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Credit card

A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) as a method of payment.

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Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising monetary contributions from a large number of people, typically via the internet.

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Crypto-anarchism (or crypto-anarchy) is a cyber-spatial realization of anarchism.

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A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency) is a medium of exchange using cryptography to secure the transactions and to control the creation of new units.

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Cryptographic hash function

A cryptographic hash function is a hash function which is considered practically impossible to invert, that is, to recreate the input data from its hash value alone.

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Cryptographic nonce

In cryptography, a nonce is an arbitrary number that may only be used once.

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CryptoLocker is a ransomware trojan which targeted computers running Microsoft Windows, believed to have first been posted to the Internet on 5 September 2013.

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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

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Dark Web

The Dark Web, also confusingly referred to as the Deep Web and conflated with Deep Web search is the World Wide Web content that exists on darknets, overlay networks which use the public Internet but which require specific software, configurations or authorization to access.

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Darknet market

A darknet market or cryptomarket is a commercial website on the dark web, operating on top of darknets such as Tor or I2P.

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David A. Marcus

David Marcus is an American businessman.

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Decentralised system

A decentralised system in systems theory is a system in which lower level components operate on local information to accomplish global goals.

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Decentralized autonomous organization

A decentralized autonomous organization (DAO), fully automated business entity (FAB), or distributed autonomous corporation/company (DAC) is a decentralized network of narrow-AI autonomous agents which perform an output-maximizing production function and which divides its labor into computationally intractable tasks (which it incentivizes humans to do) and tasks which it performs itself.

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Dell Inc. is an American privately owned multinational computer technology company based in Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells, repairs, and supports computers and related products and services.

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Dell SecureWorks

Dell SecureWorks Inc. is a United States-based Dell Inc. subsidiary that provides information security services, protecting its customers' computers, networks and information assets from malicious activity such as cybercrime.

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Denial-of-service attack

In computing, a denial-of-service (DoS) attack is an attempt to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users, such as to temporarily or indefinitely interrupt or suspend services of a host connected to the Internet.

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DigiCash Inc. was an electronic money corporation founded by David Chaum in 1990.

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Digital currency

Digital currency or digital money is an Internet-based medium of exchange distinct from physical (such as banknotes and coins) that exhibits properties similar to physical currencies, but allows for instantaneous transactions and borderless transfer-of-ownership.

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Digital currency exchanger

Digital currency exchangers (DCEs) or bitcoin exchanges are businesses that allow customers to trade digital currencies for other assets, such as conventional fiat money, or different digital currencies.

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Digital signature

A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or documents.

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Direct democracy

Direct democracy (also known as pure democracy) is a form of democracy in which people decide (e.g. vote on, form consensus on) policy initiatives directly.

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Dish Network

Dish Network (branded as "dish") is an American direct-broadcast satellite service provider.

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Distributed database

A distributed database is a database in which storage devices are not all attached to a common processing unit such as the CPU, controlled by a distributed database management system (together sometimes called a distributed database system).

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Double-spending is a failure mode of digital cash schemes, when it is possible to spend a single digital token twice.

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Download.com is an Internet download directory website launched in 1996 as a part of CNET.

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Dynamite Entertainment

Dynamite Entertainment is an American comic book publishing imprint of Dynamic Forces that primarily publishes adaptations of franchises from other media.

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Economic bubble

An economic bubble (sometimes referred to as a speculative bubble, a market bubble, a price bubble, a financial bubble, a speculative mania or a balloon) is trade in an asset at a price or price range that strongly deviates from the corresponding asset's intrinsic value.

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An economist is a professional in the social science discipline of economics.

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Efficient-market hypothesis

In financial economics, the efficient-market hypothesis (EMH) states that it is impossible to "beat the market" because stock market efficiency causes existing share prices to always incorporate and reflect all relevant information.

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Electronic Frontier Foundation

The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit digital rights group based in the United States.

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Electronic money

Electronic money, or e-money, is the money balance recorded electronically on a stored-value card.

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Eric Posner

Eric Andrew Posner (born December 5, 1965) is an American law professor and son of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit judge Richard Posner.

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Esports (also known as eSports, e-sports, competitive gaming, electronic sports, or progaming in Korea) is a term for organized multiplayer video game competitions, particularly between professional players.

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European Banking Authority

The European Banking Authority (EBA) is a regulatory agency of the European Union headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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European Central Bank

The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the Eurozone, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.

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The European Police Office, commonly abbreviated Europol, is the law enforcement agency of the European Union (EU) that handles criminal intelligence and combating serious international organised crime by means of cooperation between the relevant authorities of the member states, including those tasked with customs, immigration services, border and financial police etc.

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Exchange-traded fund

An exchange-traded fund (ETF) is an investment fund traded on stock exchanges, much like stocks.

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Expedia (website)

Expedia is an online travel company initially launched in October 22, 1996 as the first Microsoft internet property.

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Exploit (computer security)

An exploit (from the English verb to exploit, meaning "using something to one’s own advantage") is a piece of software, a chunk of data, or a sequence of commands that takes advantage of a bug or vulnerability in order to cause unintended or unanticipated behavior to occur on computer software, hardware, or something electronic (usually computerized).

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B with stroke (majuscule:, minuscule) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from B with the addition of a bar, which can be through either the ascender or the bowl.

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Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, which simultaneously serves as the nation's prime Federal law enforcement organization.

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Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago

The Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (informally the Chicago Fed) is one of twelve regional Reserve Banks that, along with the Board of Governors in Washington, D.C., make up the nation's central bank.

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

The Federal Reserve Bank of St.

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Fiat money

Fiat money is currency which derives its value from government regulation or law.

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Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering

The Financial Action Task Force (on Money Laundering) (FATF), also known by its French name, Groupe d'action financière (GAFI), is an intergovernmental organization founded in 1989 on the initiative of the G7 to develop policies to combat money laundering.

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Financial crisis of 2007–08

The financial crisis of 2007–08, also known as the Global Financial Crisis and 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

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Financial Industry Regulatory Authority

In the United States, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (FINRA) is a private corporation that acts as a self-regulatory organization (SRO).

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Founders Fund

Founders Fund is a San Francisco-based venture capital firm investing in companies building revolutionary technologies.

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Free market

A free market is a market economy system in which the prices for goods and services are set freely by consent between vendors and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.

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Free software movement

The free software movement is a social movement with the goal of obtaining and guaranteeing certain freedoms for software users, namely the freedom to run the software, to study and change the software, and to redistribute copies with or without changes.

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Friedrich Hayek

Friedrich Hayek CH (8 May 189923 March 1992), born in Austria-Hungary as Friedrich August von Hayek and frequently referred to as F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian and British economist and philosopher best known for his defence of classical liberalism.

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Fungibility is the property of a good or a commodity whose individual units are capable of mutual substitution.

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Gavin Andresen

Gavin Andresen (born Gavin Bell) is the Amherst, Massachusetts-based chief scientist at the Bitcoin Foundation.

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Graphics processing unit

A graphics processor unit (GPU), also occasionally called visual processor unit (VPU), is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display.

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Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over forty countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

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Hal Finney (computer scientist)

Harold Thomas Finney II (May 4, 1956 – August 28, 2014) was a developer for PGP Corporation, and was the second developer hired after Phil Zimmermann.

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High-frequency trading

High-frequency trading (HFT) is a type of algorithmic trading characterized by high speeds, high turnover rates, and high order-to-trade ratios that leverages high-frequency financial data and electronic trading tools.

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Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.

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HSBC Holdings plc is a British multinational banking and financial services company headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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In computing, a hyperlink is a reference to data that the reader can directly follow either by clicking or by hovering.

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International Business Machines Corporation (commonly referred to as IBM) is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation, with headquarters in Armonk, New York.

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Initial public offering

Initial public offering (IPO) or stock market launch is a type of public offering in which shares of stock in a company usually are sold to institutional investors that in turn, sell to the general public, on a securities exchange, for the first time.

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Institute for Business Value

The IBM Institute for Business Value is a business research organization that focuses on managerial and economic issues faced by companies and governments around the world.

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International Data Group

International Data Group, Inc. (IDG) is an American technology, media, research, event management, and venture capital organization.

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Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is a department of ICANN, a nonprofit private American corporation that oversees global IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation, root zone management in the Domain Name System (DNS), media types, and other Internet Protocol-related symbols and numbers.

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Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity, which enables these objects to collect and exchange data.

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Internet Watch Foundation

The Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) is a registered charity based in Cambridgeshire, England.

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Interstellar travel

Interstellar space travel is manned or unmanned travel between stars.

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IP address

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.

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Isle of Man

The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), otherwise known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency located in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.

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ISO 4217

ISO 4217 is a standard published by International Organization for Standardization, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.

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J. Bradford DeLong

James Bradford DeLong (born June 24, 1960), who goes by Brad DeLong, is a professor of Economics at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Jeff Kurzon

Jeffrey Mead "Jeff" Kurzon, born in 1976, is a New York City attorney and politician.

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Jeffrey Tucker

Jeffrey Albert Tucker (born December 19, 1963) is CLO (Chief Liberty Officer) of Liberty.me and publisher of Laissez Faire Books.

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Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a possession of the Crown in right of Jersey, off the coast of Normandy, France.

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John Quiggin

John Quiggin (born 29 March 1956) is an Australian economist, a Professor and an Australian Research Council Laureate Fellow at the University of Queensland, and a member of the Board of the Climate Change Authority of the Australian Government.

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Kevin Dowd

Kevin Dowd is an economist with research interests in private money and free banking, monetary and macro economics, financial risk measurement and management, risk disclosure, political economy and policy analysis, pensions and mortality modelling.

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Keystroke logging

Keystroke logging, often referred to as keylogging or keyboard capturing, is the action of recording (or logging) the keys struck on a keyboard, typically in a covert manner so that the person using the keyboard is unaware that their actions are being monitored.

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Khan Academy

Khan Academy is a non-profit educational organization created in 2006 by educator Salman Khan to provide "a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere".

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A ledger is the principal book or computer file for recording and totaling economic transactions measured in terms of a monetary unit of account by account type, with debits and credits in separate columns and a beginning monetary balance and ending monetary balance for each account.

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Left-wing politics

Left-wing politics are political positions or activities that accept or support social equality, often in opposition to social hierarchy and social inequality.

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Libertarianism (liber, "free") is a political philosophy that upholds liberty as its principal objective.

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List of bitcoin companies

This is a list of for-profit companies with notable commercial activities related to bitcoin.

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MacUpdate is an Apple Macintosh (desktop) app/software download website, which was started in the late-1990s.

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Magic: The Gathering

Magic: The Gathering (MTG; also known as Magic) is a trading card game created by Richard Garfield.

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Malware, short for malicious software, is any software used to disrupt computer operation, gather sensitive information, or gain access to private computer systems.

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Mark T. Williams

Mark Thomas Williams (born August 19, 1963) is an academic, financial author, columnist and risk management expert.

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Mark Twain

Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American author and humorist.

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Market capitalization

Market capitalization or market cap is the total money market value of the shares outstanding of a publicly traded company; it is equal to the share price times the number of shares outstanding.

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Market liquidity

In business, economics or investment, market liquidity is a market's ability to facilitate the purchase or sale of an asset without causing drastic change in the asset's price.

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Mashable (Mashable Inc.) is a digital media website founded by Pete Cashmore in 2005.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Medium of exchange

A medium of exchange is an intermediary used in trade to avoid the inconveniences of a pure barter system.

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Mevade Botnet

The Mevade Botnet, also known as Sefnit or SBC, is a massive botnet.

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Microsoft Corporation (commonly referred to as Microsoft) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Redmond, Washington, that develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics and personal computers and services.

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Microsoft Security Essentials

Microsoft Security Essentials (MSE) is an antivirus software (AV) product that provides protection against different types of malicious software such as computer viruses, spyware, rootkits and Trojan horses.

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Mining pool

In the context of cryptocurrency mining, a mining pool is the pooling of resources by miners, who share their processing power over a network, to split the reward equally, according to the amount of work they contributed to solving a block.

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MIT Technology Review

MIT Technology Review is a magazine published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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Monetary inflation

Monetary inflation is a sustained increase in the money supply of a country (or currency area).

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Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context, or is easily converted to such a form.

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Mozilla Foundation

The Mozilla Foundation is a non-profit organization that exists to support and collectively lead the open source Mozilla project.

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Mt. Gox


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Nasdaq, Inc.

Nasdaq, Inc. is an American multinational financial services corporation that owns and operates the NASDAQ stock market and eight European stock exchanges, namely Armenian Stock Exchange, Copenhagen Stock Exchange, Helsinki Stock Exchange, Iceland Stock Exchange, Riga Stock Exchange, Stockholm Stock Exchange, Tallinn Stock Exchange, and NASDAQ OMX Vilnius.

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National Australia Bank

National Australia Bank (abbreviated NAB, branded nab) is one of the four largest financial institutions in Australia in terms of market capitalisation and customers.

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Neptune's Brood

Neptune's Brood is a science fiction novel by British author Charles Stross, set in the same universe as Saturn's Children, but thousands of years later and with all new characters.

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New York Stock Exchange

The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), sometimes known as the "Big Board", is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States.

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Newegg.com Inc. (commonly referred to as Newegg, stylized as newegg) is an online retailer of computer hardware and software.

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Nick Szabo

Nick Szabo is a computer scientist, legal scholar and cryptographer known for his research in digital contracts and digital currency.

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Node (networking)

In communication networks, a node (Latin nodus, ‘knot’) is either a connection point, a redistribution point, or a communication endpoint (e.g. data terminal equipment).

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Nonprofit organization

A nonprofit organization (NPO, also known as a non-business entity) is an organization that uses its surplus revenues to further achieve its purpose or mission, rather than distributing its surplus income to the organization's directors (or equivalents) as profit or dividends.

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Nouriel Roubini

Nouriel Roubini (born March 29, 1958) is an American economist.

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OkCupid is an American-based international operating free online dating, friendship, and social networking website that features member-created quizzes and multiple-choice questions.

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Open source

In production and development, open source as a development model promotes a universal access via a free license to a product's design or blueprint, and universal redistribution of that design or blueprint, including subsequent improvements to it by anyone.

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Open-source software

Open-source software (OSS) is computer software with its source code made available with a license in which the copyright holder provides the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.

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OS X (pronounced; originally Mac OS X) is a series of Unix-based graphical interface operating systems (OS) developed and marketed by Apple Inc. It is designed to run on Macintosh computers, having been pre-installed on all Macs since 2002.

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Overstock.com, Inc. is an American online retailer headquartered in Cottonwood Heights, Utah, near Salt Lake City.

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Parallel computing

Parallel computing is a form/type of computation in which many calculations are carried out simultaneously, operating on the principle that large problems can often be divided into smaller ones, which are then solved at the same time.

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Paul Krugman

Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist, Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, and an op-ed columnist for The New York Times.

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Payment service provider

A payment service provider (PSP) offers shops online services for accepting electronic payments by a variety of payment methods including credit card, bank-based payments such as direct debit, bank transfer, and real-time bank transfer based on online banking.

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Payment system

A payment system is any system used to settle financial transactions through the transfer of monetary value, and includes the institutions, instruments, people, rules, procedures, standards, and technologies that make such an exchange possible.

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PayPal Holdings, Inc. is an American company operating a worldwide online payments system.

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PC World

PC World, stylized PCWorld, is a global computer magazine published monthly by IDG.

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Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or work loads between peers.

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People's Bank of China

The People's Bank of China (PBC or PBOC) is the central bank of the People's Republic of China with the power to control monetary policy and regulate financial institutions in mainland China.

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Peter Schiff

Peter David Schiff (born March 23, 1963) is an American financial analyst, stockbroker, author and one-time Senate candidate.

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Peter Thiel

Peter Andreas Thiel (born October 11, 1967) is an American entrepreneur, venture capitalist, hedge fund manager, and social critic.

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Ponzi scheme

A Ponzi scheme is a fraudulent investment operation where the operator, an individual or organization, pays returns to its investors from new capital paid to the operators by new investors, rather than from profit earned by the operator.

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Private currency

A private currency is a currency issued by a private organization, be it a commercial business or a nonprofit enterprise.

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PrivateFly is a global private jet charter broker company with websites covering 19 countries: (Australia, Canada, China, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Qatar, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Switzerland, UAE, UK, & US).

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Promissory note

A promissory note is a legal instrument (more particularly, a financial instrument), in which one party (the maker or issuer) promises in writing to pay a determinate sum of money to the other (the payee), either at a fixed or determinable future time or on demand of the payee, under specific terms.

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Proof-of-work system

A proof-of-work (POW) system (or protocol, or function) is an economic measure to deter denial of service attacks and other service abuses such as spam on a network by requiring some work from the service requester, usually meaning processing time by a computer.

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Public-key cryptography

Public-key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography, is a class of cryptographic protocols based on algorithms that require two separate keys, one of which is secret (or private) and one of which is public.

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Pyramid scheme

A pyramid scheme is an unsustainable and often illegal business model that involves promising participants payment or services, primarily for enrolling other people into the scheme, rather than supplying any real investment or sale of products or services to the public.

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QR code

QR code (abbreviated from Quick Response Code) is the trademark for a type of matrix barcode (or two-dimensional barcode) first designed for the automotive industry in Japan.

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Qt (software)

Qt ("cute", or unofficially as Q-T cue-tee) is a cross-platform application framework that is widely used for developing application software that can be run on various software and hardware platforms with little or no change in the underlying codebase, while having the power and speed of native applications. Qt is currently being developed both by the Qt Company, a subsidiary of Digia, and the Qt Project under open-source governance, involving individual developers and firms working to advance Qt. Digia owns the Qt trademark and copyright. Qt is available with both commercial and open source GPL v3, LGPL v3 and LGPL v2 licenses.

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Quandl is a search engine for numerical data.

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Race condition

A race condition or race hazard is the behavior of an electronic, software or other system where the output is dependent on the sequence or timing of other uncontrollable events.

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Ransomware is a type of malware that restricts access to a computer system that it infects in some way, and demands that the user pay a ransom to the operators of the malware to remove the restriction.

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Reference implementation

In the software development process, a reference implementation (or, less frequently, sample implementation or model implementation) is the standard from which all other implementations and corresponding customizations are derived.

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The renminbi is the official currency of the People's Republic of China.

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Richard Stallman

Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often known by his initials, rms, is a software freedom activist and computer programmer.

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Right-wing politics

Right-wing politics are political positions or activities that view some forms of social stratification or social inequality as either inevitable, natural, normal, or desirable,J.

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Ripple (payment protocol)

Ripple is a real-time gross settlement system (RTGS), currency exchange and remittance network by Ripple Labs.

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Robert J. Shiller

Robert James "Bob" Shiller (born March 29, 1946) is an American Nobel Laureate, economist, academic, and best-selling author.

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Ross Ulbricht

Ross William Ulbricht created darknet market Silk Road and ran it until his 2013 arrest, under the pseudonym Dread Pirate Roberts.

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S&P 500 Index

The S&P 500, or the Standard & Poor's 500, is an American stock market index based on the market capitalizations of 500 large companies having common stock listed on the NYSE or NASDAQ.

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Sacramento Kings

The Sacramento Kings are a professional basketball team based in Sacramento, California.

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Satoshi Nakamoto

is a person or group of people who created the bitcoin protocol and reference software, Bitcoin Core (formerly known as Bitcoin-Qt).

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Self-regulatory organization

A self-regulatory organization (SRO) is an organization that exercises some degree of regulatory authority over an industry or profession.

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SHA-2 (Secure Hash Algorithm 2) is a set of cryptographic hash functions designed by the NSA (U.S. National Security Agency).

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Sheep Marketplace

Sheep Marketplace was an anonymous marketplace set up as a Tor hidden service.

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Silk Road (marketplace)

Silk Road was an online black market and the first modern darknet market, best known as a platform for selling illegal drugs.

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St. Petersburg Bowl

The St.

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University) is a private research university in Stanford, California, and one of the world's most prestigious institutions, with the top position in numerous rankings and measures in the United States.

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Store of value

A store of value is the function of an asset that can be saved, retrieved and exchanged at a later time, and be predictably useful when retrieved.

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Swiss Federal Council

The Federal Council is the seven-member executive council which constitutes the federal government of Switzerland and serves as the collective head of government and state of Switzerland.

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Switzerland (Schweiz;Swiss Standard German spelling and pronunciation. The Swiss German name is sometimes spelled as Schwyz or Schwiiz. Schwyz is also the standard German (and international) name of one of the Swiss cantons. Suisse; Svizzera; Svizra or),The latter is the common Sursilvan pronunciation.

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Symantec Corporation (commonly known as Symantec) is an American technology company headquartered in Mountain View, California, United States.

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TechCrunch is an online publisher of technology industry news.

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Technology (from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is the collection of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation.

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Telehash is a peer to peer data distribution and communication protocol that is designed to be decentralised and secure.

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Thai baht

The baht (บาท, sign: ฿; code: THB) is the currency of Thailand.

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The Chronicle of Higher Education

The Chronicle of Higher Education is a newspaper and website that presents news, information, and jobs for college and university faculty and Student Affairs professionals (staff members and administrators).

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The Good Wife

The Good Wife is an American television legal and political drama that premiered on CBS on September 22, 2009.

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The Motley Fool

The Motley Fool is a multimedia financial-services company that provides financial solutions for investors through various stock, investing, and personal finance products.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.

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The Sydney Morning Herald

The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney and is also an Australian national brand.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is an American daily newspaper.

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In common usage, theft is the taking of another person's property without that person's permission or consent with the intent to deprive the rightful owner of it.

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Tidbit is a Boston area startup company founded by MIT students to use web based distributed computing to mine bitcoins.

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TigerDirect is a direct online and catalog retailer of computers and consumer electronics.

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Time Inc.

Time Inc. is an American New York-based publishing company.

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Timothy C. Draper

Timothy Cook "Tim" Draper (born June 11, 1958) is an American venture capital investor, and 1985 founder of the firm that would become Draper Fisher Jurvetson (DFJ).

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(), officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, and is both the capital and largest city of Japan.

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Tony Gallippi

Tony Gallippi is the co-founder and current Chairman of the financial services company, BitPay.

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Tor (anonymity network)

Tor is free software for enabling anonymous communication.

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Trojan horse (computing)

A Trojan horse, or Trojan, in computing is any malicious computer program which misrepresents itself as useful, routine, or interesting in order to persuade a victim to install it.

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Trustwave Holdings

Trustwave Holdings is a privately held information security company that provides on demand threat, vulnerability and compliance management services and technologies for more than 3 million business customers in 96 countries.

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Turku University of Applied Sciences

Turku University of Applied Sciences (abbr. TUAS, Finnish Turun ammattikorkeakoulu) is a multidisciplinary higher education institution, located in the city of Turku in.

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Uniform Resource Identifier

In computing, a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a string of characters used to identify the name of a resource.

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Unit of account

A unit of account in economics is a nominal monetary unit of measure or currency used to value/cost goods, services, assets, liabilities, income, expenses; i.e., any economic item.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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United States Department of Homeland Security

The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a cabinet department of the United States federal government, created in response to the September 11 attacks, and with the primary responsibilities of protecting the territory of the United States and protectorates from and responding to terrorist attacks, man-made accidents, and natural disasters.

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United States Department of the Treasury

The Department of the Treasury (DoT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.

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United States diplomatic cables leak

The United States diplomatic cables leak, widely known as Cablegate, began on Sunday, 28 November 2010 when WikiLeaks—a non-profit organization that publishes submissions from anonymous whistleblowers—began releasing classified cables that had been sent to the U.S. State Department by 274 of its consulates, embassies, and diplomatic missions around the world.

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University of Amsterdam

The University of Amsterdam (abbreviated as UvA, Universiteit van Amsterdam) is a public university located in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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University of California, Berkeley

The University of California, Berkeley (also referred to as Berkeley, UC Berkeley, California or simply Cal) is a public research university located in Berkeley, California.

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University of California, Irvine

The University of California, Irvine (UCI, UC Irvine, or Irvine), is a public research university located in Irvine, California, and one of the 10 general campuses in the University of California (UC) system.

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University of Nicosia

The University of Nicosia (Πανεπιστήμιο Λευκωσίας Lefkoşa Üniversitesi) is the largest university in Cyprus, with campuses based in the three largest cities in Cyprus: Nicosia, Lemesos and Larnaca.

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Value (economics)

Economic value is a measure of the benefit provided by a good or service to an economic agent.

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Vancouver officially the City of Vancouver, is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada.

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Venture capital

Venture capital (VC) is money provided to seed, early-stage, emerging and emerging growth companies.

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Video card

A video card (also called a video adapter, display card, graphics card, graphics board, display adapter, graphics adapter or frame buffer) is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display (such as a computer monitor).

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Virgin Galactic

Virgin Galactic is a spaceflight company within the Virgin Group.

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Virtual currency

A virtual currency or virtual money has been defined in 2012 by the European Central Bank as "a type of unregulated, digital money, which is issued and usually controlled by its developers, and used and accepted among the members of a specific virtual community." The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network(FinCEN), a bureau of the US Treasury, defined virtual currency in its guidance published in 2013.

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Volatility (finance)

In finance, volatility is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time.

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White paper

A white paper is an authoritative report or guide informing readers in a concise manner about a complex issue and presenting the issuing body's philosophy on the matter.

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Wikimedia Foundation

The Wikimedia Foundation (WMF) is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco, California, that operates many wikis.

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Winklevoss twins

The Winklevoss twins (born August 21, 1981), collectively referred to as the Winklevi or Winklevii, are American rowers and Internet entrepreneurs, Cameron Winklevoss and Tyler Winklevoss.

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Wired (magazine)

Wired is a full-color monthly American magazine, published in both print and online editions, that reports on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy and politics.

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WordPress is a free and open-source content management system (CMS) based on PHP and MySQL.

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World Bank

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs.

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World Bank Group

The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries.

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World currency

In the foreign exchange market and international finance, a world currency, supranational currency, or global currency refers to a currency that is transacted internationally, with no set borders.

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wxWidgets (formerly wxWindows) is a widget toolkit and tools library for creating graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for cross-platform applications.

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XE.com (XE) is a Canadian-based online foreign exchange tools and services company headquartered in Newmarket, Ontario.

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Yahoo Inc. (styled as Yahoo!) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Sunnyvale, California.

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Yahoo! Finance

Yahoo! Finance is a media property that is part of Yahoo!'s network.

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Zerocoin is a cryptocurrency proposed by Johns Hopkins University professor Matthew D. Green and graduate students Ian Miers and Christina Garman as an extension to the bitcoin protocol that would add true cryptographic anonymity to bitcoin transactions.

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Zynga is a provider of social video game services founded in July 2007 and headquartered in San Francisco, California, United States.

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2012–13 Cypriot financial crisis

The 2012–2013 Cypriot financial crisis is an economic crisis in the Republic of Cyprus that involves the exposure of Cypriot banks to overleveraged local property companies, the Greek government-debt crisis, the downgrading of the Cypriot government's bond credit rating to junk status by international credit rating agencies, the consequential inability to refund its state expenses from the international markets and the reluctance of the government to restructure the troubled Cypriot financial sector.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bitcoin

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