101 relations: Alexander the Great, Anatolia, Ancient regions of Anatolia, Antinous, Apamea Myrlea, Armenians, Arrian, Asia Minor Slavs, Astacus in Bithynia, İzmit, İznik, Bartın, Bartın River, Bas of Bithynia, Basileus, Bithyni, Bithynia and Pontus, Bithynian coinage, Black Sea, Bolu, Bosporus, Bursa, Byzantine Empire, Byzantium, Cassius Dio, Catamite, Caucones, Chalcedon, Cius, Constantine the Great, Croesus, Danube, Euphrates, Filyos River, Galatia, Gemlik, Greece, Gulf of İzmit, Hadrian, Helena (empress), Heraclea Pontica, Herodotus, Hipparchus, Istanbul, Isthmus, Kadıköy, Karadeniz Ereğli, Koine Greek, Late Bronze Age collapse, List of rulers of Bithynia, ..., Lydia, Mariandyni, Mithridates VI of Pontus, Morus (plant), Mudanya, Mustafakemalpaşa River, Mysia, Mysians, Nicaea, Nicene Creed, Nicomedes I of Bithynia, Nicomedes II of Bithynia, Nicomedes IV of Bithynia, Nicomedia, Opsikion, Paleo-Balkan languages, Paphlagonia, PDF, Persian Empire, Phrygia, Phrygians, Pliny the Younger, Pontus (region), Praetorian prefecture of the East, Prusias I of Bithynia, Prusias II of Bithynia, Rise of the Ottoman Empire, Roman consul, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman province, Roman Republic, Roman Senate, Sakarya River, Sangarius Bridge, Satrap, Sea of Marmara, Seljuk Empire, Siege of Nicomedia, Strabo, Theme (Byzantine district), Theodosius of Bithynia, Thracian language, Thracians, Thyni, Thynia, Tium, Trajan, Turkey, Uludağ, Zipoetes I of Bithynia. Expand index (51 more) » « Shrink index
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The following is a list of regions of Ancient Anatolia, also known as "Asia Minor," in the present day Anatolia region of Turkey in Western Asia.
Antinous (also Antinoüs or Antinoös; Ἀντίνοος; 27 November, c. 111 – before 30 October 130) was a Bithynian Greek youth and a favourite, or lover, of the Roman emperor Hadrian.
Apamea Myrlea (Απάμεια Μύρλεια) was an ancient city and bishopric (Apamea in Bithynia) on the Sea of Marmara, in Bithynia, Anatolia; its ruins are a few kilometers south of Mudanya, Bursa Province in the Marmara Region of Asian Turkey.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Arrian of Nicomedia (Greek: Ἀρριανός Arrianos; Lucius Flavius Arrianus) was a Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman period.
Asia Minor Slavs refers to the historical South Slav communities relocated to Anatolia by the Byzantine Empire, from the Balkans.
Astacus (Greek Ἀστακός Βιθυνίας) is the name of an ancient city in Bithynia; it was also called Olbia.
İzmit, known as Nicomedia in antiquity, is a city in Turkey, the administrative center of the Kocaeli Province as well as the Metropolitan Municipality.
İznik is a town and an administrative district in the Province of Bursa, Turkey.
Bartın is a city in northern Turkey and the central district of the province of Bartın.
Bartın River (Bartın Çayı, ancient Parthenius, Parthenios), is a small river in the east of the Black Sea Region of Turkey.
Bas (Βᾶς; c. 397 BC – 326) was the first independent ruler of Bithynia.
Basileus (βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history.
The Bithyni (Βιθυνοί) were a Thracian tribe who, along with the Thyni, migrated to Anatolia.
Bithynia and Pontus (Provincia Bithynia et Pontus) was the name of a province of the Roman Empire on the Black Sea coast of Anatolia (Turkey).
Bithynian coinage refers to coinage struck by the Kingdom of Bithynia that was situated on the coast of the Black Sea.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
Bolu is a city in Turkey, and administrative center of the Bolu Province.
The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.
Bursa is a large city in Turkey, located in northwestern Anatolia, within the Marmara Region.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.
In ancient Greece and Rome, a catamite (Latin catamitus) was a pubescent boy who was the intimate companion of a young man, usually in a pederastic relationship – in the broadest sense.
The Caucones (Καύκωνες Kaukônes) were an autochthonous tribe of Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) who later migrated to parts of the Greek mainland (Arcadia, Triphylian Pylos and Elis).
Chalcedon (or;, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor.
Cius (Kίος Kios), later renamed Prusias on the Sea (Prusias ad Mare) after king Prusias I of Bithynia, was an ancient Greek city bordering the Propontis (now known as the Sea of Marmara), in Bithynia (in modern northwestern Turkey), and had a long history, being mentioned by Aristotle, Strabo and Apollonius Rhodius.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Croesus (Κροῖσος, Kroisos; 595 BC – c. 546 BC) was the king of Lydia who, according to Herodotus, reigned for 14 years: from 560 BC until his defeat by the Persian king Cyrus the Great in 546 BC (sometimes given as 547 BC).
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
The Filyos River is a river in northern Turkey.
Ancient Galatia (Γαλατία, Galatía) was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia (Ankara, Çorum, Yozgat Province) in modern Turkey.
Gemlik is a town and district in the Bursa Province in Turkey on the southern gulf of Armutlu Peninsula on the coast of the Sea of Marmara.
Gulf of İzmit (Turkish: İzmit Körfezi), also referred to as Izmit Bay, is a bay at the easternmost edge of the Sea of Marmara, in Kocaeli Province, Turkey.
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
Helena, or Saint Helena (Greek: Ἁγία Ἑλένη, Hagía Helénē, Flavia Iulia Helena Augusta; –), was an Empress of the Roman Empire, and mother of Emperor Constantine the Great.
__notoc__ Heraclea Pontica (Ἡράκλεια Ποντική Hērakleia Pontikē) was an ancient city on the coast of Bithynia in Asia Minor, at the mouth of the river Lycus.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Hipparchus of Nicaea (Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
An isthmus (or; plural: isthmuses; from neck) is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water by which they are otherwise separated.
Kadıköy (in Byzantine Chalcedon, in Χαλκηδών), is a large, populous, and cosmopolitan district in the Asian side of Istanbul, Turkey on the northern shore of the Sea of Marmara, facing the historic city centre on the European side of the Bosporus.
Karadeniz Ereğli is a city and district in Zonguldak Province of Turkey, on the Black Sea shore at the mouth of the Kılıçsu River.
The Late Bronze Age collapse involved a dark-age transition period in the Near East, Asia Minor, Aegean region, North Africa, Caucasus, Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, a transition which historians believe was violent, sudden, and culturally disruptive.
This page lists rulers of Bithynia, an ancient kingdom in northwestern Anatolia.
Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lydía; Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.
The Mariandyni (Μαριανδυνοί, Μαριανδηνοί, or Μαρυανδυνοί) were an ancient tribe in the north-east of Bithynia.
Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI (Μιθραδάτης, Μιθριδάτης), from Old Persian Miθradāta, "gift of Mithra"; 135–63 BC, also known as Mithradates the Great (Megas) and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia (now Turkey) from about 120–63 BC.
Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, comprises 10–16 species of deciduous trees commonly known as mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions.
Mudanya (Mudania, Greek: τα Μουδανιά) (the site of ancient Apamea Myrlea), is a town and district of Bursa Province in the Marmara region of Turkey.
The Mustafakemalpasha River, Orhaneli River or Adirnaz River (Mustafakemalpaşa Çayı, Orhaneli Çayı or Adırnaz Çayı) is a river in northwestern Anatolia in the Bursa Province of Turkey's Marmara Region.
Mysia (UK, US or; Μυσία, Mysia, Misya) was a region in the northwest of ancient Asia Minor (Anatolia, Asian part of modern Turkey).
Mysians (Mysi, Μυσοί) were the inhabitants of Mysia, a region in northwestern Asia Minor.
Nicaea or Nicea (Νίκαια, Níkaia; İznik) was an ancient city in northwestern Anatolia, and is primarily known as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea (the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian Church), the Nicene Creed (which comes from the First Council), and as the capital city of the Empire of Nicaea following the Fourth Crusade in 1204, until the recapture of Constantinople by the Byzantines in 1261.
The Nicene Creed (Greek: or,, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a statement of belief widely used in Christian liturgy.
Nicomedes I (Nικoμήδης; lived c. 300 BC – c. 255 BC, ruled 278 BC – c. 255 BC), second king of Bithynia, was the eldest son of Zipoetes I, whom he succeeded on the throne in 278 BC.
Nicomedes II Epiphanes (Greek: Νικομήδης ὁ Ἐπιφανής) was the king of Bithynia from 149 to c. 127 BC.
Nicomedes IV Philopator (Νικομήδης) was the king of Bithynia from c. 94 BC to 74 BC.
Nicomedia (Νικομήδεια, Nikomedeia; modern İzmit) was an ancient Greek city in what is now Turkey.
The Opsician Theme (θέμα Ὀψικίου, thema Opsikiou) or simply Opsikion (Greek: Ὀψίκιον, from Obsequium) was a Byzantine theme (a military-civilian province) located in northwestern Asia Minor (modern Turkey).
The Paleo-Balkan languages are the various extinct Indo-European languages that were spoken in the Balkans in ancient times.
Paphlagonia (Παφλαγονία, Paphlagonía, modern pronunciation Paflagonía; Paflagonya) was an ancient area on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia to the west and Pontus to the east, and separated from Phrygia (later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.
In Antiquity, Phrygia (Φρυγία, Phrygía, modern pronunciation Frygía; Frigya) was first a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centered on the Sangarios River, later a region, often part of great empires.
The Phrygians (gr. Φρύγες, Phruges or Phryges) were an ancient Indo-European people, initially dwelling in the southern Balkans – according to Herodotus – under the name of Bryges (Briges), changing it to Phryges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the Hellespont.
Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61 – c. 113), better known as Pliny the Younger, was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome.
Pontus (translit, "Sea") is a historical Greek designation for a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.
The praetorian prefecture of the East or of Oriens (praefectura praetorio Orientis, ἐπαρχότης/ὑπαρχία τῶν πραιτωρίων τῆς ἀνατολῆς) was one of four large praetorian prefectures into which the Late Roman Empire was divided.
Prusias I Cholus (Greek: Προυσίας ὁ Χωλός "the Lame") (lived c. 243 – 182 BC, reigned c. 228 – 182 BC) was a king of Bithynia, the son of Ziaelas of Bithynia.
Prusias II Cynegus (Greek: Προυσίας ὁ Κυνηγός; "the Hunter", c. 220 BC – 149 BC, reigned c. 182 BC – 149 BC) was the Greek king of Bithynia.
The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality in, and ended with the conquest of Constantinople on May 29, 1453.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
The Sakarya (Sakarya Irmağı, translit) is the third longest river in Turkey.
The Sangarius Bridge or Bridge of Justinian (Turkish: Justinianos Köprüsü or Beşköprü) is a late Roman bridge over the river Sakarya (Sangarius, Greek Σαγγάριος) in Anatolia, in modern-day Turkey.
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.
The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.
From 1299, the newly founded Turkic state of the Ottomans had been slowly but surely capturing territory from the Byzantine Greeks.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
The themes or themata (θέματα, thémata, singular: θέμα, théma) were the main administrative divisions of the middle Eastern Roman Empire.
Theodosius of Bithynia (Θεοδόσιος; c. 160 BC – c. 100 BC) was a Greek astronomer and mathematician who wrote the Sphaerics, a book on the geometry of the sphere.
The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times in Southeast Europe by the Thracians, the northern neighbors of the Ancient Greeks.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
The Thyni (Θυνοί) were a Thracian tribe that lived in south-eastern Thrace, later they, along with the Bithyni, migrated to the lands that would later be known as Thynia and Bithynia in Anatolia.
In the ancient world, Thynia (Θυνία) was a region of Europe along the northern coast of the Propontis, opposite Bithynia on the Asian side.
Tium (Τῖον) was an ancient settlement, now known as Filyos, on the south coast of the Black Sea at the mouth of the river Billaeus in present-day Turkey.
Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Uludağ, the ancient Mysian Olympus (also Bithynian Olympus), is a mountain in Bursa Province, Turkey, with an elevation of.
Zipoetes I, also Zipoites I or Ziboetes I, possibly Tiboetes I (Greek: Zιπoίτης or Zιβoίτης (three syllables, oe is a diphthong); lived c. 354 BC – 278 BC, ruled c. 326 BC – 278 BC) was the second independent ruler of Bithynia.