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Index Bivalvia

Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts. [1]

371 relations: Abyssal zone, Adamussium, Adductor muscles (bivalve), Algal bloom, Amebocyte, Amino acid, Amnesic shellfish poisoning, Amphibious fish, Anadara subcrenata, Anatomical terms of location, Anomalodesmata, Anomiidae, Anomioidea, Aorta, Aragonite, Arcida, Arhouriella, Ark clam, Atlantic jackknife clam, Atrium (heart), Autotomy, Axe, Axon, Bathymodiolus thermophilus, Beak (bivalve), Bioindicator, Biological membrane, Biological pigment, Biological specificity, Biomonitoring, Black market, Blue mussel, Brachiopod, Brackish water, Brain, Bryozoa, Buccinidae, Buoyancy, Busycotypus canaliculatus, Button, Byssus, Cadmium, Calcareous, Calcite, Calcium carbonate, Calcium phosphate, California, Calyptogena magnifica, Cambrian, Cambrian explosion, ..., Camino de Santiago, Camya, Capillary, Carboniferous, Carditoida, Carl Linnaeus, Carnivore, Chamidae, Chela (organ), Chemoreceptor, Chitin, Cilium, Circulatory system, CITES, Cladistics, Clam, Clam shrimp, Class (biology), Cockle (bivalve), Coliform bacteria, Common carp, Common cockle, Competition (biology), Conchology, Condylonucula maya, Connecticut, Convergent evolution, Copper, Corneous, Cryptodonta, Ctenidium (mollusc), Cuspidariidae, Cyst, Demersal fish, Devonian, Diatom, Dimyidae, Dinoflagellate, Diverticulum, Domoic acid, Dredging, Dreissenoidea, Ecological niche, Ecosystem, Effluent, Elodea, Endemism, Enigmonia, Ensis, Entovalva nhatrangensis, Epidemiology, Ernst Haeckel, Esophagus, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Estuary, Euheterodonta, Eurasian oystercatcher, European herring gull, Exoskeleton, Extinction, Extinction event, Family (biology), Filter feeder, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food chain, Fordilla, Fordilloidea, Fossil, French language, Freshwater bivalve, Ganglion, Gas exchange, Gastrochaenidae, Gastroenteritis, Gastrointestinal tract, Gastropoda, Geoduck, Ghana, Giant clam, Gill, Gizzard, Glochidium, Gonad, Grooved carpet shell, Hard clam, Heart, Heavy metals, Hemoglobin, Hemolymph, Hepatitis A, Hepatopancreas, Hermaphrodite, Heterodonta, Hiatellidae, HighBeam Research, Hinge, Hinge line, Hinge teeth, Ho-Chunk, Holocene, Homology (biology), Hooded oyster, Host (biology), Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrothermal vent, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indus River, Intertidal zone, Invasive species, Iron, James, son of Zebedee, Johannes Thiele (zoologist), Juliidae, Keratin, Knobbed whelk, Kunstformen der Natur, Kuphus, Lasaea, Late Cretaceous, Late Jurassic, Latin, Lens (anatomy), Ligament, Ligament (bivalve), Lima (bivalve), Limaria fragilis, Limecola balthica, Limidae, Limnoperna fortunei, Linnaean taxonomy, Lipid, Lophophore, Lucinidae, Lucinoida, Malacologia, Mangrove, Mantle (mollusc), Margaritiferidae, Mariculture, Marine larval ecology, Marquetry, Mechanoreceptor, Mediterranean mussel, Metamorphosis, Microalgae, Microgram, Mohenjo-daro, Molecular phylogenetics, Mollusca, Monophyly, Morphology (biology), Mucus, Muricidae, Mussel, Myoida, Mytilidae, Mytiloida, Nacre, Nekton, Neontology, Neotrigonia, Nephridium, Neritic zone, Nerve net, Nervous system, Norman D. Newell, Norovirus, Nucella lamellosa, Nuculanoida, Nuculida, Nuculoidea, Odontophore, Order (biology), Ordovician, Osphradium, Ostracod, Ostrea edulis, Ostreoida, Ostreoidea, Ouachita Mountains, Overfishing, Oyster, Oyster farming, Pacific oyster, Pacific razor clam, Palaeoheterodonta, Paleozoic, Pallial line, Pallial sinus, Paralytic shellfish poisoning, Parasitism, Parts-per notation, Patinopecten yessoensis, Pearl, Pectinoida, Pectinoidea, Pedipalp, Periostracum, Perna canaliculus, Persian Gulf, Persistent organic pollutant, PH, Phagocytosis, Phoronid, Photoreceptor cell, Phylogenetic tree, Phylum, Phytoplankton, Pinctada, Pinctada radiata, Pinna nobilis, Pinnidae, Platyceramus, Plicatulidae, Pojetaia, Poromya granulata, Poromyoidea, Praecardioida, Predation, Protobranchia, Pseudo-nitzschia, Pteriidae, Pterioida, Pterioidea, Pteriomorphia, Radiation, Radula, Razor shell, Red tide, Regeneration (biology), Retina, Roman mythology, Rosetta Stone, Rostroconchia, Royal Dutch Shell, Rudists, Sagittal plane, Salinity, Sandro Botticelli, Santiago de Compostela, Saxitoxin, Scallop, Sea cucumber, Sea otter, Sea silk, Sea snail, Seashell, Sediment-dwelling organism, Serum (blood), Sessility (motility), Sewage treatment, Shanghai, Shellfish, Shellfish poisoning, Shipworms, Silurian, Sinistrofulgur sinistrum, Siphon (mollusc), Smithsonian Institution, Soft-shell clam, Solemyoida, South Wales, Spawn (biology), Species, Species diversity, Sphaeriidae, Sphaerium corneum, Splash zone, Spondylus, Statocyst, Stomach, Stratigraphy, Style (zoology), Substrate (biology), Sydney rock oyster, Symbiosis, Systema Naturae, Taxon, Tellinidae, Tellinoidea, Temperate climate, Tentacle, Teredo navalis, Thyasiridae, Toxin, Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Triassic, Trichomya, Trigonia, Trigoniida, Trigonioidea, Trochophore, Tuarangia, Turbidity, Typhoid fever, Umbo (bivalve), Unionidae, Unionoida, University of California, Riverside, Urinary bladder, Valve (mollusc), Vector (epidemiology), Veliger, Veneridae, Veneroida, Venerupis corrugata, Venerupis philippinarum, Ventricle (heart), Venus (mythology), Vibrio, Vibrio vulnificus, Villosa arkansasensis, Vladivostok, Walrus, Wampum, Water column, Water vascular system, World Register of Marine Species, Zebra mussel, Zinc, 10th edition of Systema Naturae. 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Abyssal zone

The abyssal zone or abyssopelagic zone is a layer of the pelagic zone of the ocean.

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Adamussium is a monotypic genus of bivalve molluscs in the large family of scallops, the Pectinidae.

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Adductor muscles (bivalve)

The adductor muscles are the main muscular system in bivalve mollusks, i.e. in clams, scallops, mussels, oysters, etc.

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Algal bloom

An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments.

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An amebocyte or amoebocyte is a mobile cell (moving like an amoeba) in the body of invertebrates including echinoderms, molluscs, tunicates, sponges and some chelicerates.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Amnesic shellfish poisoning

Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) is an illness caused by consumption of the marine biotoxin called domoic acid.

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Amphibious fish

Amphibious fish are fish that are able to leave water for extended periods of time.

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Anadara subcrenata

Anadara subcrenata is an ark clam in the family Arcidae.

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Anatomical terms of location

Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.

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Anomalodesmata is an order of saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs.

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Anomiidae is a family of saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs related to scallops and oysters, and known as anomiids.

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The Anomioidea are a superfamily of marine bivalve molluscs that include two families, the Anomiidae and the Placunidae, the jingle shells and saddle shells.

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The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).

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Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the two most common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the other forms being the minerals calcite and vaterite).

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The Arcoida is an extant order of bivalve molluscs.

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Arhouriella is arguably the oldest example of a bivalve mollusc in the fossil record.

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Ark clam

Ark clam is the common name for a family of small to large-sized saltwater clams or marine bivalve molluscs in the family Arcidae.

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Atlantic jackknife clam

The Atlantic jackknife clam, Ensis directus, also known as the bamboo clam, American jackknife clam or razor clam (but note that "razor clam" sometimes refers to different species), is a large species of edible marine bivalve mollusc, found on the North American Atlantic coast, from Canada to South Carolina.

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Atrium (heart)

The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.

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Autotomy (from the Greek auto- "self-" and tome "severing", αὐτονομία) or self-amputation is the behaviour whereby an animal sheds or discards one or more of its own appendages, usually as a self-defense mechanism to elude a predator's grasp or to distract the predator and thereby allow escape.

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An axe (British English or ax (American English; see spelling differences) is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape, split and cut wood; to harvest timber; as a weapon; and as a ceremonial or heraldic symbol. The axe has many forms and specialised uses but generally consists of an axe head with a handle, or helve. Before the modern axe, the stone-age hand axe was used from 1.5 million years BP without a handle. It was later fastened to a wooden handle. The earliest examples of handled axes have heads of stone with some form of wooden handle attached (hafted) in a method to suit the available materials and use. Axes made of copper, bronze, iron and steel appeared as these technologies developed. Axes are usually composed of a head and a handle. The axe is an example of a simple machine, as it is a type of wedge, or dual inclined plane. This reduces the effort needed by the wood chopper. It splits the wood into two parts by the pressure concentration at the blade. The handle of the axe also acts as a lever allowing the user to increase the force at the cutting edge—not using the full length of the handle is known as choking the axe. For fine chopping using a side axe this sometimes is a positive effect, but for felling with a double bitted axe it reduces efficiency. Generally, cutting axes have a shallow wedge angle, whereas splitting axes have a deeper angle. Most axes are double bevelled, i.e. symmetrical about the axis of the blade, but some specialist broadaxes have a single bevel blade, and usually an offset handle that allows them to be used for finishing work without putting the user's knuckles at risk of injury. Less common today, they were once an integral part of a joiner and carpenter's tool kit, not just a tool for use in forestry. A tool of similar origin is the billhook. However, in France and Holland, the billhook often replaced the axe as a joiner's bench tool. Most modern axes have steel heads and wooden handles, typically hickory in the US and ash in Europe and Asia, although plastic or fibreglass handles are also common. Modern axes are specialised by use, size and form. Hafted axes with short handles designed for use with one hand are often called hand axes but the term hand axe refers to axes without handles as well. Hatchets tend to be small hafted axes often with a hammer on the back side (the poll). As easy-to-make weapons, axes have frequently been used in combat.

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An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.

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Bathymodiolus thermophilus

Bathymodiolus thermophilus is a species of large, deep water mussel, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Mytilidae, the true mussels.

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Beak (bivalve)

The beak is part of the shell of a bivalve mollusk, i.e. part of the shell of a saltwater or freshwater clam.

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A bioindicator is any species (an indicator species) or group of species whose function, population, or status can reveal the qualitative status of the environment.

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Biological membrane

A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things.

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Biological pigment

Biological pigments, also known simply as pigments or biochromes, are substances produced by living organisms that have a color resulting from selective color absorption.

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Biological specificity

In biology, biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species.

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In analytical chemistry, biomonitoring is the measurement of the body burden of toxic chemical compounds, elements, or their metabolites, in biological substances.

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Black market

A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.

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Blue mussel

The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), also known as the common mussel, is a medium-sized edible marine bivalve mollusc in the family Mytilidae, the mussels.

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Brachiopods, phylum Brachiopoda, are a group of lophotrochozoan animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs.

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Brackish water

Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Bryozoa (also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals) are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals.

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The Buccinidae are a very large and diverse taxonomic family of large sea snails, often known as whelks or true whelks.

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In physics, buoyancy or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.

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Busycotypus canaliculatus

The channeled whelk, Busycotypus canaliculatus, previously known as Busycon canaliculatum, is a very large predatory sea snail, a marine prosobranch gastropod, a busycon whelk, belonging to the family Busyconidae.

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In modern clothing and fashion design, a button is a small fastener, now most commonly made of plastic, but also frequently made of metal, wood or seashell, which secures two pieces of fabric together.

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A byssus is a bundle of filaments secreted by many species of bivalve mollusk that function to attach the mollusk to a solid surface.

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Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.

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Calcareous is an adjective meaning "mostly or partly composed of calcium carbonate", in other words, containing lime or being chalky.

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Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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Calcium phosphate

Calcium phosphate is a family of materials and minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with inorganic phosphate anions.

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California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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Calyptogena magnifica

Calyptogena magnifica is a species of giant white clam found clustered around hydrothermal vents at abyssal depths in the Pacific Ocean.

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The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Cambrian explosion

The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation was an event approximately in the Cambrian period when most major animal phyla appeared in the fossil record.

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Camino de Santiago

The Camino de Santiago (Peregrinatio Compostellana, "Pilgrimage of Compostela"; O Camiño de Santiago), known in English as the Way of Saint James among other names, is a network of pilgrims' ways serving pilgrimage to the shrine of the apostle Saint James the Great in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia in northwestern Spain, where tradition has it that the remains of the saint are buried.

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Camya is an extinct genus of early bivalve and is the only genus in the extinct family Camyidae.

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A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.

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The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.

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Carditoida is an order of marine bivalve clams.

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.

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A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.

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Chamidae, common name the jewel boxes or jewel box clams, is a taxonomic family of saltwater clams, the marine bivalve mollusks in the order Veneroida.

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Chela (organ)

A chela, also named claw, nipper, or pincer, is a pincer-like organ terminating certain limbs of some arthropods.

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A chemoreceptor, also known as chemosensor, is a specialized sensory receptor cell which transduces (responds to) a chemical substance (endogenous or induced) and generates a biological signal.

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Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.

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A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention) is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals.

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Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.

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Clam is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs.

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Clam shrimp

Clam shrimp are a taxon of bivalved branchiopod crustaceans that resemble the unrelated bivalved molluscs.

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Class (biology)

In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.

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Cockle (bivalve)

A cockle is a small, edible, marine bivalve mollusc.

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Coliform bacteria

Coliform bacteria are defined as rod-shaped Gram-negative non-spore forming and motile or non-motile bacteria which can ferment lactose with the production of acid and gas when incubated at 35–37°C.

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Common carp

The common carp or European carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread freshwater fish of eutrophic waters in lakes and large rivers in Europe and Asia.

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Common cockle

The common cockle (Cerastoderma edule) is a species of edible saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Cardiidae, the cockles.

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Competition (biology)

Competition is an interaction between organisms or species in which both the organisms or species are harmed.

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Conchology (from κόγχος konkhos, "cockle") is the study of mollusc shells.

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Condylonucula maya

Condylonucula maya is a microscopic species of saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusk or micromollusk in the family Nuculidae, the nut clams.

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Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Corneous is a biological and medical term meaning horny, in other words made out of a substance similar to that of horns and hooves in some mammals.

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The Cryptodonta are a nearly-extinct subclass of the bivalves.

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Ctenidium (mollusc)

A ctenidium is a respiratory organ or gill which is found in many mollusks.

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Cuspidariidae is a family of small marine bivalve mollusks in the order Pholadomyoida.

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A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division compared with the nearby tissue.

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Demersal fish

Demersal fish live and feed on or near the bottom of seas or lakes (the demersal zone).

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The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.

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Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.

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Dimyidae is a family of extremely flattened, small (C. M. YONGE. ON THE DIMYIDAE (MOLLUSCA:BIVALVIA) WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO DIMYA CORRUGATA HEDLEY AND BASILIOMYA GOREAUI BAYER J. Mollus. Stud. (1978) 44 (3): 357-375 They are related to the scallops and other oysters.

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The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.

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A diverticulum (plural: diverticula) is the medical or biological term for an outpouching of a hollow (or a fluid-filled) structure in the body.

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Domoic acid

Domoic acid (DA) is a kainic acid analog neurotoxin that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP).

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Dredging is an excavation activity usually carried out underwater, in harbours, shallow seas or freshwater areas with the purpose of gathering up bottom sediments to deepen or widen the sea bottom / channel.

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Dreissenoidea is a superfamily of brackish water and freshwater false mussels, aquatic bivalve molluscs in the order Veneroida.

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Ecological niche

In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.

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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Effluent is an outflowing of water or gas to natural body of water, or from a manmade structure.

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Elodea is a genus of 6 species of aquatic plants often called the waterweeds described as a genus in 1803.

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Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.

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Enigmonia is a genus of saltwater clams, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Anomiidae, the jingle shells.

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Ensis is a genus of medium-sized edible saltwater clams, littoral bivalve molluscs in the family Pharidae.

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Entovalva nhatrangensis

Entovalva nhatrangensis is a species of small marine bivalve mollusc in the family Lasaeidae.

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Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

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Ernst Haeckel

Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.

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The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

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Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science

Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science is a peer-reviewed academic journal on ocean sciences, with a focus on coastal regions ranging from estuaries up to the edge of the continental shelf.

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An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.

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Euheterodonta is an infraclass of Mollusca in the class Bivalvia.

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Eurasian oystercatcher

The Eurasian oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) also known as the common pied oystercatcher, or palaearctic oystercatcher, or (in Europe) just oystercatcher, is a wader in the oystercatcher bird family Haematopodidae.

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European herring gull

The European herring gull (Larus argentatus) is a large gull (up to long).

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An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.

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In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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Extinction event

An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.

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Family (biology)

In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.

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Filter feeder

Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.

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Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Food chain

A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).

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Fordilla is an extinct genus of early bivalves, one of two genera in the extinct family Fordillidae.

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Fordilloidea is an extinct superfamily of early bivalves containing two described families, Fordillidae and Camyidae and the only superfamily in the order Fordillida.

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Freshwater bivalve

Freshwater bivalves are one kind of freshwater molluscs, along with freshwater snails.

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A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system.

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Gas exchange

Gas exchange is the physical process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface.

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Gastrochaenidae is a taxonomic family of saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs in the unassigned Euheterodonta.

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Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.

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The Pacific geoduck, scientific name Panopea generosa, is a species of very large, edible saltwater clam in the family Hiatellidae.

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Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.

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Giant clam

The giant clams are the genus Tridacna of clams that are the largest living bivalve mollusks.

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A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.

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The gizzard, also referred to as the ventriculus, gastric mill, and gigerium, is an organ found in the digestive tract of some animals, including archosaurs (pterosaurs, crocodiles, alligators, and dinosaurs, including birds), earthworms, some gastropods, some fish, and some crustaceans.

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The glochidium (plural glochidia) is a microscopic larval stage of some freshwater mussels, aquatic bivalve mollusks in the families Unionidae and Margaritiferidae, the river mussels and European freshwater pearl mussels.

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A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.

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Grooved carpet shell

The grooved carpet shell or Palourde clam, Ruditapes decussatus, is a clam or bivalve mollusc in the family Veneridae.

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Hard clam

The hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria), also known as a quahog (or quahaug), round clam, or hard-shell (or hard-shelled) clam, is an edible marine bivalve mollusc that is native to the eastern shores of North America and Central America, from Prince Edward Island to the Yucatán Peninsula.

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The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heavy metals

Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.

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Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.

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Hemolymph, or haemolymph, is a fluid, analogous to the blood in vertebrates, that circulates in the interior of the arthropod body remaining in direct contact with the animal's tissues.

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Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is an infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV).

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The hepatopancreas, digestive gland or midgut gland is an organ of the digestive tract of arthropods and molluscs.

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In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.

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Heterodonta is a taxonomic subclass of saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs.

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Hiatellidae is a taxonomic family of saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs.

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HighBeam Research

HighBeam Research is a paid search engine and full text online archive owned by Gale, a subsidiary Cengage, for thousands of newspapers, magazines, academic journals, newswires, trade magazines, and encyclopedias in English.

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A hinge is a mechanical bearing that connects two solid objects, typically allowing only a limited angle of rotation between them.

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Hinge line

A hinge line is an imaginary longitudinal line along the dorsal edge of the shell of a bivalve mollusk where the two valves hinge or articulate.

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Hinge teeth

Hinge teeth are part of the anatomical structure of the inner surface of a bivalve shell, i.e. the shell of a bivalve mollusk.

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The Ho-Chunk, also known as Hoocąągra or Winnebago, are a Siouan-speaking Native American people whose historic territory includes parts of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, and Illinois.

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The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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Hooded oyster

The hooded oyster or Natal rock oyster (Saccostrea cucullata) is a species of rock oyster found mainly in the Indo-Pacific Ocean.

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Host (biology)

In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.

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Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.

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Hydrothermal vent

A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.

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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.

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Indus River

The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.

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Intertidal zone

The intertidal zone, also known as the foreshore and seashore and sometimes referred to as the littoral zone, is the area that is above water at low tide and under water at high tide (in other words, the area between tide marks).

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Invasive species

An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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James, son of Zebedee

James, son of Zebedee (Hebrew:, Yaʿqob; Greek: Ἰάκωβος; ⲓⲁⲕⲱⲃⲟⲥ; died 44 AD) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, and traditionally considered the first apostle to be martyred.

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Johannes Thiele (zoologist)

Johannes Thiele, full name Karl Hermann Johannes Thiele (1 October 1860 – 5 August 1935) was a German zoologist specialized in malacology.

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Juliidae, common name the bivalved gastropods, is a family of minute sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks or micromollusks in the superfamily Oxynooidea, an opisthobranch group.

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Keratin is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins.

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Knobbed whelk

The knobbed whelk (Busycon carica) is a species of very large predatory sea snail, or in the USA, a whelk, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Busyconidae, the busycon whelks.

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Kunstformen der Natur

Kunstformen der Natur (known in English as Art Forms in Nature) is a book of lithographic and halftone prints by German biologist Ernst Haeckel.

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Kuphus is a genus of shipworms, marine bivalve molluscs in the family Teredinidae.

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Lasaea was a city in the island of Crete mentioned in the Bible at.

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Late Cretaceous

The Late Cretaceous (100.5–66 Ma) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale.

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Late Jurassic

The Late Jurassic is the third epoch of the Jurassic period, and it spans the geologic time from 163.5 ± 1.0 to 145.0 ± 0.8 million years ago (Ma), which is preserved in Upper Jurassic strata.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lens (anatomy)

The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.

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A ligament is the fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones.

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Ligament (bivalve)

A hinge ligament is a crucial part of the anatomical structure of a bivalve shell, i.e. the shell of a bivalve mollusk.

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Lima (bivalve)

Lima is a genus of file shells or file clams, marine bivalve molluscs in the family Limidae, the file shells, within the subclass Pteriomorphia.

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Limaria fragilis

Limaria fragilis, the fragile file clam, is a species of bivalve mollusc in the family Limidae.

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Limecola balthica

Limecola balthica, commonly called the Baltic macoma, Baltic clam or Baltic tellin,Sartori, André F. (2016).

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The Limidae or file shells are members of the only family of bivalve molluscs in the suborder Limoida.

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Limnoperna fortunei

Limnoperna fortunei, the golden mussel, is a medium-sized freshwater bivalve mollusc of the family Mytilidae.

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Linnaean taxonomy

Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts.

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In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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The lophophore is a characteristic feeding organ possessed by four major groups of animals: the Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Hyolitha, and Phoronida, which collectively constitute the protostome group Lophophorata.

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Lucinidae is a family of saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs.

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Lucinoida is a taxonomic order of saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs.

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Malacologia is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of malacology, the study of mollusks.

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A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.

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Mantle (mollusc)

The mantle (also known by the Latin word pallium meaning mantle, robe or cloak, adjective pallial) is a significant part of the anatomy of molluscs: it is the dorsal body wall which covers the visceral mass and usually protrudes in the form of flaps well beyond the visceral mass itself.

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Margaritiferidae is a family of medium-sized freshwater mussels, aquatic bivalve molluscs in the order Unionoida.

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Mariculture is a specialized branch of aquaculture involving the cultivation of marine organisms for food and other products in the open ocean, an enclosed section of the ocean, or in tanks, ponds or raceways which are filled with seawater.

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Marine larval ecology

Marine larval ecology is the study of the factors influencing the dispersing larval stage which is exhibited by many marine invertebrates and fishes.

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Marquetry (also spelled as marqueterie; from the French marqueter, to varigate) is the art and craft of applying pieces of veneer to a structure to form decorative patterns, designs or pictures.

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A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion.

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Mediterranean mussel

The Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) is a species of bivalve, a marine mollusc in the family Mytilidae.

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Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.

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Microalgae or microphytes are microscopic algae, typically found in freshwater and marine systems, living in both the water column and sediment.

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In the metric system, a microgram or microgramme (μg; the recommended symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one millionth of a gram.

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Mohenjo-daro (موئن جو دڙو, meaning 'Mound of the Dead Men'; موئن جو دڑو) is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.

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Molecular phylogenetics

Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.

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Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.

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In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.

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Muricidae is a large and varied taxonomic family of small to large predatory sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks, commonly known as murex snails or rock snails.

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Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.

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Myoida is an order of saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs in the subclass Heterodonta.

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The Mytilidae are a family of small to large saltwater mussels, marine bivalve mollusks in the order Mytiloida.

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Mytiloida is an order of marine bivalve mollusks, commonly known as true mussels.

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Nacre (also), also known as mother of pearl, is an organic-inorganic composite material produced by some molluscs as an inner shell layer; it also makes up the outer coating of pearls.

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Nekton or necton refers to the aggregate of actively swimming aquatic organisms in a body of water.

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Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.

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Neotrigonia is a genus of living saltwater clams, marine bivalve mollusks in the family Trigoniidae, which otherwise consists only of fossil genera.

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The nephridium (plural nephridia) is an invertebrate organ which occurs in pairs and performs a function similar to the vertebrate kidney.

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Neritic zone

The neritic zone is the relatively shallow part of the ocean above the drop-off of the continental shelf, approximately in depth.

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Nerve net

A nerve net consists of interconnected neurons lacking a brain or any form of cephalization.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Norman D. Newell

Norman Dennis Newell (January 27, 1909 – April 18, 2005) was professor of geology at Columbia University, and chairman and curator of invertebrate paleontology at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City.

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Norovirus, sometimes referred to as the winter vomiting bug, is the most common cause of gastroenteritis.

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Nucella lamellosa

Nucella lamellosa is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Muricidae, the murex snails or rock snails.

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Nuculanoida is an order of very small saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs in the subclass Protobranchia.

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Nuculida is an order of small saltwater clams, marine bivalve mollusks.

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Nuculoidea is a superfamily of bivalves.

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The odontophore is part of the feeding mechanism in molluscs.

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Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.

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The osphradium is an olfactory organ in certain molluscs, linked with the respiration organ.

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Ostracods, or ostracodes, are a class of the Crustacea (class Ostracoda), sometimes known as seed shrimp.

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Ostrea edulis

Ostrea edulis is a species of oyster native to Europe and commonly known as the European flat oyster, Colchester native oyster (hence Colchester natives), mud oyster, or edible oyster (despite this latter name it is not the only oyster that is edible by humans).

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The order Ostreoida includes the true oysters.

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Ostreoidea is a taxonomic superfamily of bivalve marine mollusc, sometimes simply identified as oysters, containing two families.

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Ouachita Mountains

The Ouachita Mountains, simply referred to as the Ouachitas, are a mountain range in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma.

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Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area.

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Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.

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Oyster farming

Oyster farming is an aquaculture (or mariculture) practice in which oysters are raised for human consumption.

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Pacific oyster

The Pacific oyster, Japanese oyster, or Miyagi oyster (Magallana gigas) previously and currently also known as Crassostrea gigas, considered by part of the scientific community to be the proper denomination, an accepted alternative in.

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Pacific razor clam

The Pacific razor clam, Siliqua patula, is a species of large edible marine bivalve mollusc in the family Pharidae.

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Palaeoheterodonta is a subclass of bivalve molluscs.

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The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Pallial line

The pallial line is a mark (a line) on the interior of each valve of the shell of a bivalve mollusk.

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Pallial sinus

The pallial sinus is an indentation or inward bending in the pallial line on the interior of a bivalve mollusk shell's valves that corresponds to the position of the siphons in those types of clams which have siphons (i.e. siphonate).

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Paralytic shellfish poisoning

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is one of the four recognized syndromes of shellfish poisoning, which share some common features and are primarily associated with bivalve mollusks (such as mussels, clams, oysters and scallops).

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In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.

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Parts-per notation

In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.

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Patinopecten yessoensis

Patinopecten yessoensis (Yesso scallop, Giant Ezo scallop, Ezo giant scallop) is a species of scallop.

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A pearl is a hard glistening object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as a conulariid.

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Pectinoida is a taxonomic suborder of large and medium-sized saltwater clams, marine bivalve mollusks, commonly known as scallops and their allies.

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The Pectinoidea are a superfamily of marine bivalve molluscs, including the scallops and spiny oysters.

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Pedipalps (commonly shortened to palps or palpi) are the second pair of appendages of chelicerates – a group of arthropods including spiders, scorpions, horseshoe crabs, and sea spiders.

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The periostracum is a thin organic coating or "skin" which is the outermost layer of the shell of many shelled animals, including molluscs and brachiopods.

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Perna canaliculus

The New Zealand green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus), also known as the New Zealand mussel, the greenshell mussel, kuku, and kutai, is a bivalve mollusc in the family Mytilidae (the true mussels).

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Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

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Persistent organic pollutant

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.

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In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.

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Phoronids (scientific name Phoronida, sometimes called horseshoe worms) are a small phylum of marine animals that filter-feed with a lophophore (a "crown" of tentacles), and build upright tubes of chitin to support and protect their soft bodies.

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Photoreceptor cell

A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.

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Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

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Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.

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Pinctada is a genus of saltwater oysters, marine bivalve mollusks in the family Pteriidae, the pearl oysters.

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Pinctada radiata

Pinctada radiata, commonly known as the Atlantic pearl-oyster or the Gulf pearl oyster is a species of pearl oyster distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific.

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Pinna nobilis

Pinna nobilis, common name the noble pen shell or fan mussel, is a large species of Mediterranean clam, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Pinnidae, the pen shells.

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The Pinnidae are a taxonomic family of large saltwater clams sometimes known as pen shells.

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Platyceramus was a genus of Cretaceous bivalve molluscs belonging to the extinct inoceramid lineage.

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The Plicatulidae are a family of saltwater clams, marine bivalve mollusks, known commonly as kitten's paws or kittenpaws.

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Pojetaia is an extinct genus of early bivalves, one of two genera in the extinct family Fordillidae.

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Poromya granulata

Poromya granulata, or the granular poromya, is a species of marine bivalve mollusc in the family Poromyidae.

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Poromyoidea is a superfamily of molluscs.

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Praecardioida is an extinct order of fossil saltwater clams, marine pteriomorphian bivalve molluscs.

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Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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Protobranchia is a subclass of bivalve molluscs.

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Pseudo-nitzschia is a marine planktonic diatom genus containing some species capable of producing the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), which is responsible for the neurological disorder known as amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP).

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Pteriidae, also called the feather oysters, is a family of medium-sized to large saltwater clams.

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The Pterioida are a order of large and medium-sized marine bivalve mollusks.

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Pterioidea is a superfamily of epifaunal marine bivalves mostly inhabiting continental shelf regions of tropical and subtropical oceans.

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The Pteriomorphia comprise a subclass of saltwater clams, marine bivalve mollusks.

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In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

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The radula (plural radulae or radulas) is an anatomical structure that is used by mollusks for feeding, sometimes compared to a tongue.

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Razor shell

The razor shell, Ensis magnus, also called razor clam, razor fish, or spoot (colloquially), is a bivalve of the family Pharidae.

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Red tide

Red tide is a common name for a worldwide phenomenon known as an algal bloom (large concentrations of aquatic microorganisms—protozoans or unicellular algae) when it is caused by species of dinoflagellates and other organisms.

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Regeneration (biology)

In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage.

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The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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Roman mythology

Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.

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Rosetta Stone

The Rosetta Stone is a granodiorite stele, found in 1799, inscribed with three versions of a decree issued at Memphis, Egypt in 196 BC during the Ptolemaic dynasty on behalf of King Ptolemy V.

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The Rostroconchia is a class of extinct molluscs dating from the early Cambrian to the late Permian.

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Royal Dutch Shell

Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.

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Rudists are a group of box-, tube-, or ring-shaped marine heterodont bivalves that arose during the Late Jurassic and became so diverse during the Cretaceous that they were major reef-building organisms in the Tethys Ocean.

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Sagittal plane

A sagittal plane or longitudinal plane is an anatomical plane which divides the body into right and left parts.

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Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).

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Sandro Botticelli

Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (c. 1445 – May 17, 1510), known as Sandro Botticelli, was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.

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Santiago de Compostela

Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia, in northwestern Spain.

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Saxitoxin (STX) is a potent neurotoxin and the best-known paralytic shellfish toxin (PST).

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Scallop is a common name that is primarily applied to any one of numerous species of saltwater clams or marine bivalve mollusks in the taxonomic family Pectinidae, the scallops.

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Sea cucumber

Sea cucumbers are echinoderms from the class Holothuroidea.

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Sea otter

The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean.

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Sea silk

Sea silk is an extremely fine, rare, and valuable fabric that is made from the long silky filaments or byssus secreted by a gland in the foot of pen shells (in particular Pinna nobilis).

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Sea snail

Sea snail is a common name for snails that normally live in saltwater, in other words marine gastropods.

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A seashell or sea shell, also known simply as a shell, is a hard, protective outer layer created by an animal that lives in the sea.

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Sediment-dwelling organism

A sediment-dwelling organism is a creature or micro-organism which lives mainly inside sediment – the layer of small particles at the bottom of a body of water.

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Serum (blood)

In blood, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma not including the fibrinogens.

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Sessility (motility)

In biology, sessility (in the sense of positional movement or motility) refers to organisms that do not possess a means of self-locomotion and are normally immobile.

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Sewage treatment

Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.

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Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.

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Shellfish is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.

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Shellfish poisoning

Shellfish poisoning includes four (4) syndromes that share some common features and are primarily associated with bivalve molluscs (such as mussels, clams, oysters and scallops.) These shellfish are filter feeders and, therefore, accumulate toxins produced by microscopic algae, such as cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates.

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The shipworms are marine bivalve molluscs in the family Teredinidae: a group of saltwater clams with long, soft, naked bodies.

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The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.

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Sinistrofulgur sinistrum

Sinistrofulgur sinistrum is an edible species of large predatory sea snail or whelk, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Busyconidae, the busycon whelks.

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Siphon (mollusc)

A siphon is an anatomical structure which is part of the body of aquatic molluscs in three classes: Gastropoda, Bivalvia and Cephalopoda (members of these classes include saltwater and freshwater snails, clams, octopus, squid and relatives).

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Smithsonian Institution

The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.

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Soft-shell clam

Soft-shell clams (American English) or sand gaper (British English/Europe), scientific name Mya arenaria, popularly called "steamers", "softshells", "longnecks", "piss clams", "Ipswich clams", or "Essex clams" are a species of edible saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusk in the family Myidae.

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Solemyoida is an order of bivalve molluscs.

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South Wales

South Wales (De Cymru) is the region of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south, and Mid Wales and West Wales to the north and west.

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Spawn (biology)

Spawn is the eggs and sperm released or deposited into water by aquatic animals.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Species diversity

Species diversity is the number of different species that are represented in a given community (a dataset).

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The Sphaeriidae are a family of small to minute freshwater bivalve molluscs, in the order Veneroida; this family also includes the clams formerly placed in the Pisidiidae.

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Sphaerium corneum

Sphaerium corneum, also known as the European fingernailclam, is a very small freshwater clam, an aquatic bivalve mollusk in the family Sphaeriidae, the fingernail clams.

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Splash zone

Splash zone applies either to the Supralittoral zone or, in the context of Offshore construction, to the transition from air to water when lowering heavy burdens into the sea.

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Spondylus is a genus of bivalve molluscs, the only genus in the family Spondylidae.

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The statocyst is a balance sensory receptor present in some aquatic invertebrates, including molluscs, bivalves, cnidarians, ctenophorans, echinoderms, cephalopods, and crustaceans.

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The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.

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Stratigraphy is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification).

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Style (zoology)

A style, sometimes referred to as a crystalline style (though there are no other biological kinds), is a rod made of glycoprotein located in the midgut of most bivalves and some gastropods which aids in extracellular digestion.

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Substrate (biology)

In biology, a substrate is the surface on which an organism (such as a plant, fungus, or animal) lives.

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Sydney rock oyster

The Sydney rock oyster, New Zealand rock oyster, or Auckland oyster (Saccostrea glomerata), is an oyster species endemic to Australia and New Zealand.

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Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.

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Systema Naturae

(originally in Latin written with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.

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In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.

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The Tellinidae are a family of marine bivalve molluscs of the order Veneroida.

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The Tellinoidea are a taxonomic superfamily of saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs.

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Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.

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In zoology, a tentacle is a flexible, mobile, elongated organ present in some species of animals, most of them invertebrates.

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Teredo navalis

Teredo navalis, the naval shipworm, is a species of saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Teredinidae, the shipworms.

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Thyasiridae is a family of bivalve molluscs, including the cleft clams.

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A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.

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Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology

The Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology (or TIP) published by the Geological Society of America and the University of Kansas Press, is a definitive multi-authored work of some 50 volumes, written by more than 300 paleontologists, and covering every phylum, class, order, family, and genus of fossil and extant (still living) invertebrate animals.

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The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.

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Trichomya is a monotypic genus of marine bivalve molluscs in the family Mytilidae, the mussels.

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Trigonia is an extinct genus of saltwater clams, fossil marine bivalve mollusk in the family Trigoniidae.

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Trigoniida is order of medium-sized saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs.

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Trigonioidea is superfamily of medium-sized saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs.

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A trochophore (also spelled trocophore) is a type of free-swimming planktonic marine larva with several bands of cilia.

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Tuarangia is a Cambrian shelly fossil interpreted as an early bivalve, though alternative classifications have been proposed and its systematic position remains controversial.

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Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air.

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Typhoid fever

Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.

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Umbo (bivalve)

The umbo (plural umbones or umbos) is the vaguely defined, often most prominent, highest part of each valve of the shell of a bivalve or univalve mollusk.

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The Unionidae are a family of freshwater mussels, the largest in the order Unionoida, the bivalve mollusks sometimes known as river mussels, or simply as unionids.

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Unionoida is a monophyletic order of freshwater mussels, aquatic bivalve molluscs.

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University of California, Riverside

The University of California, Riverside (UCR or UC Riverside), is a public research university and one of the 10 general campuses of the University of California system.

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Urinary bladder

The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.

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Valve (mollusc)

A mollusc valve is each articulating part of the shell of a mollusc.

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Vector (epidemiology)

In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.

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A veliger is the planktonic larva of many kinds of sea snails and freshwater snails, as well as most bivalve molluscs (clams) and tusk shells.

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The Veneridae or venerids, common name the venus clams, are a very large family of minute to large, saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs.

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The Veneroida or veneroids are an order of mostly saltwater but also some freshwater bivalve molluscs.

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Venerupis corrugata

Venerupis corrugata, the pullet carpet shell, is a species of bivalve mollusc in the family Veneridae.

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Venerupis philippinarum

Venerupis philippinarum (syn. Ruditapes phlippinarum)Gofas, S. (2014).

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Ventricle (heart)

A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.

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Venus (mythology)

Venus (Classical Latin) is the Roman goddess whose functions encompassed love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity and victory.

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Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a curved-rod shape (comma shape), several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood.

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Vibrio vulnificus

Vibrio vulnificus is a species of Gram-negative, motile, curved, rod-shaped (bacillus), pathogenic bacteria of the genus Vibrio.

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Villosa arkansasensis

Villosa arkansasensis, the Ouachita creekshell, is a species of freshwater mussel, an aquatic bivalve mollusc in the family Unionidae, the river mussels.

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Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.

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The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere.

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Wampum is a traditional shell bead of the Eastern Woodlands tribes of American Indians.

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Water column

A water column is a conceptual column of water from the surface of a sea, river or lake to the bottom sediment.

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Water vascular system

The water vascular system is a hydraulic system used by echinoderms, such as sea stars and sea urchins, for locomotion, food and waste transportation, and respiration.

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World Register of Marine Species

The World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) is a database that aims to provide an authoritative and comprehensive list of names of marine organisms.

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Zebra mussel

The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is a small freshwater mussel.

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Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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10th edition of Systema Naturae

The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bivalvia

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