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Black is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of visible light. [1]

489 relations: A & C Black, Aboriginal Australians, Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Accretion disk, Acheron, Achilles, Adolf Hitler, African Americans, African National Congress, Age of Enlightenment, Ajanta Caves, Ajax the Great, AK Press, Anarchism, Anarchist symbolism, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Aniline, Animal glue, Ansar al-Sharia (Yemen), Anubis, Anubis Shrine, Apocalypse, Apricot, Arditi, Aryan, Atom, Atramentum, Audrey Hepburn, Australia, Auto racing, Édith Piaf, Édouard Manet, Baroque, Batter's eye, Beat Generation, Bela Lugosi, Belize, Beltzak, Benito Mussolini, Bernard of Clairvaux, Berthe Morisot, Berthe Morisot with a Bouquet of Violets, Bible, Biretta, Black and white, Black and white (police vehicle), Black beret, Black body, Black Brunswickers, ..., Black carbon, Black cat, Black Chamber, Black comedy, Black Country, Black Flame: The Revolutionary Class Politics of Anarchism and Syndicalism (Counter-Power vol. 1), Black Friday (1869), Black Friday (shopping), Black hole, Black is beautiful, Black July, Black knight, Black magic, Black mamba, Black market, Black Mass, Black operation, Black panther, Black Power, Black propaganda, Black Rose, Black September, Black sheep, Black Square (painting), Black Standard, Black tea, Black triangle (badge), Black-body radiation, Black-figure pottery, Blackballing, BlackBerry, Blacklight, Blacklisting, Blackmail, Blackshirts, Bone char, Book of Revelation, Brabant Revolution, Bram Stoker, Brazil, Breakfast at Tiffany's (film), Bremen, British English, British Union of Fascists, Camille Pissarro, Canada, Carbon black, Carbon nanotube, Catalysis, Catholic Church, Central America, Charcoal, Charles Dickens, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VI of France, Cherry, Chess, Chestnut, Chinese culture, Chinese painting, Christian, Christian Dior, Cistercians, Civil rights movement, Classical music, Cliché, CMYK color model, Coal, Coco Chanel, Coconut, College athletics, Color printing, Comic book, Comic strip, Complementary colors, Copper, Count Dracula, Counter-Reformation, Crow, Cue sports, Cyan, Dark Ages (historiography), Darkness, Death, Devil, Devil in Christianity, Dichotomy, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, Diffuse reflection, Dominance (genetics), Doppler effect, Drawing, Duccio, Duchy of Brabant, Duke of Windsor, Dutch language, Dutch Republic, Dye, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ebony, Edward I of England, Edward VII, Egyptian revolution of 1952, Electromagnetic radiation, Elizabeth I of England, Enigma machine, Ertzaintza, Eschatology, Europe, Event horizon, Evil, Fabaceae, Fabiana Semprebom, Familiar spirit, Fasces, Fascism, Fasti, Flag of Belgium, Flag of Egypt, Flag of Estonia, Flag of Germany, Flag of South Africa, Flag of the Arab Revolt, Flanders, Florence, Flowering plant, Ford Model T, Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, Fra Angelico, Francis Walsingham, French language, French Revolution, Galaxy, Gall wasp, General relativity, Gentlemen's club, German Confederation, Gianni Versace, God, Gospel of Nicodemus, Goth subculture, Gothic fashion, Graphite, Great Depression, Grey, Gum arabic, Gustave Doré, Gutenberg Bible, Habsburg Monarchy, Hades, Hadith, Haematoxylum campechianum, Han dynasty, Heinrich Himmler, Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers, Hel (being), Hells Angels, Henri Matisse, Henry L. 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Expand index (439 more) »

A & C Black

A & C Black is a British book publishing company, owned since 2002 by Bloomsbury Publishing.

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Aboriginal Australians

Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).

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Absorption (electromagnetic radiation)

In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.

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Accretion disk

An accretion disk is a structure (often a circumstellar disk) formed by diffused material in orbital motion around a massive central body.

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Acheron

The Acheron (Ἀχέρων Acheron or Ἀχερούσιος Acherousios; Αχέροντας Acherontas) is a river located in the Epirus region of northwest Greece.

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Achilles

In Greek mythology, Achilles or Achilleus (Ἀχιλλεύς, Achilleus) was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer's Iliad.

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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African Americans

African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.

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African National Congress

The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Ajanta Caves

The Ajanta Caves are 29 (approximately) rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to about 480 CE in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state of India.

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Ajax the Great

Ajax or Aias (or; Αἴας, gen. Αἴαντος Aiantos) is a mythological Greek hero, the son of King Telamon and Periboea, and the half-brother of Teucer.

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AK Press

AK Press is a worker-managed, independent publisher and book distributor that specialises in radical left and anarchist literature.

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Anarchism

Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.

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Anarchist symbolism

Anarchists have employed certain symbols for their cause, including most prominently the circle-A (Ⓐ) and the black flag (⚑), although anarchists have historically largely denied the importance of symbols to political movement.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Aniline

Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2.

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Animal glue

An animal glue is an adhesive that is created by prolonged boiling of animal connective tissue.

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Ansar al-Sharia (Yemen)

Jama'at Ansar al-Shari'a (جماعة أنصار الشريعة), also known as Ansar al-Shari'a, is a Yemen-based umbrella organization which includes units from several militant Islamic groups of al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP).

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Anubis

Anubis (Ἄνουβις, Egyptian: jnpw, Coptic: Anoup) is the Greek name of a god associated with mummification and the afterlife in ancient Egyptian religion, usually depicted as a canine or a man with a canine head.

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Anubis Shrine

The Anubis Shrine was part of the grave goods of Tutankhamun (18th Dynasty, New Kingdom).

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Apocalypse

An apocalypse (Ancient Greek: ἀποκάλυψις apokálypsis, from ἀπό and καλύπτω, literally meaning "an uncovering") is a disclosure of knowledge or revelation.

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Apricot

An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).

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Arditi

Arditi was the name adopted by Royal Italian Army elite special force of World War I. The name derives from the Italian verb ardire ("to dare") and translates as "The Daring Ones".

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Aryan

"Aryan" is a term that was used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people.

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Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atramentum

Atramentum or atrament, generally means a very black, usually liquid, substance.

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Audrey Hepburn

Audrey Hepburn (born Audrey Kathleen Ruston; 4 May 192920 January 1993) was a British actress, model, dancer and humanitarian.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Auto racing

Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing, or automobile racing) is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition.

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Édith Piaf

Édith Piaf (19 December 1915 – 10 October 1963; nee Édith Giovanna Gassion) was a French singer, songwriter, cabaret performer and film actress noted as France's national chanteuse and one of the country's most widely known international stars.

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Édouard Manet

Édouard Manet (23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter.

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Baroque

The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.

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Batter's eye

The batter's eye or batter's eye screen is a solid-colored, usually dark area beyond the center field wall of a baseball stadium, that is the visual backdrop directly in the line of sight of a baseball batter, while facing the pitcher and awaiting a pitch.

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Beat Generation

The Beat Generation was a literary movement started by a group of authors whose work explored and influenced American culture and politics in the post-World War II era.

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Bela Lugosi

Béla Ferenc Dezső Blaskó (20 October 1882 – 16 August 1956), better known as Bela Lugosi, was a Hungarian-American actor famous for portraying Count Dracula in the 1931 film and for his roles in various other horror films.

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Belize

Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent Commonwealth realm on the eastern coast of Central America.

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Beltzak

The beltzak (blacks in basque language) are the police officers that compose the riot unit of the Ertzaintza, who is the police force of the Basque Country, one of the autonomous communities of Spain.

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Benito Mussolini

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).

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Bernard of Clairvaux

Bernard of Clairvaux, O.Cist (Bernardus Claraevallensis; 109020 August 1153) was a French abbot and a major leader in the reform of Benedictine monasticism that caused the formation of the Cistercian order.

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Berthe Morisot

Berthe Marie Pauline Morisot (January 14, 1841 – March 2, 1895) was a painter and a member of the circle of painters in Paris who became known as the Impressionists.

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Berthe Morisot with a Bouquet of Violets

Berthe Morisot with a Bouquet of Violets (Berthe Morisot au bouquet de violettes) is an 1872 oil painting by Édouard Manet.

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Bible

The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.

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Biretta

The biretta (biretum, birretum) is a square cap with three or four peaks or horns, sometimes surmounted by a tuft.

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Black and white

Black and white, often abbreviated B/W or B&W, and hyphenated black-and-white when used as an adjective, is any of several monochrome forms in visual arts.

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Black and white (police vehicle)

Black and white is an American slang term for a police car that is painted in large panels of black and white or generally any "marked" police car.

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Black beret

The black beret is a type of headgear commonly worn by armoured forces around the world including the British Army's Royal Tank Regiment (RTR), the Royal Canadian Armoured Corps (RCAC), and the Royal Australian Armoured Corps (RAAC).

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Black body

A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.

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Black Brunswickers

The Brunswick Ducal Corps (Herzoglich Braunschweigisches Korps), commonly known as the Black Brunswickers in English and the Schwarze Schar (Black Troop, Black Horde, or Black Host) or Schwarze Legion (Black Legion) in German, were a military unit in the Napoleonic Wars.

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Black carbon

Chemically, black carbon (BC) is a component of fine particulate matter (PM ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter).

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Black cat

A black cat is a domestic cat with black fur that may be a mixed or specific breed.

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Black Chamber

The Black Chamber, also known as The Cipher Bureau, was the United States' first peacetime cryptanalytic organization, and a forerunner of the National Security Agency.

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Black comedy

Black comedy, also known as dark comedy or gallows humor, is a comic style that makes light of subject matter that is generally considered taboo, particularly subjects that are normally considered serious or painful to discuss.

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Black Country

The Black Country is a region of the West Midlands in England, west of Birmingham, and commonly refers to all or part of the four Metropolitan Boroughs of Dudley, Sandwell, Walsall and Wolverhampton.

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Black Flame: The Revolutionary Class Politics of Anarchism and Syndicalism (Counter-Power vol. 1)

Black Flame: The Revolutionary Class Politics of Anarchism and Syndicalism (Counter-Power vol. 1) is a book written by Lucien van der Walt and Michael Schmidt which deals with “the ideas, history and relevance of the broad anarchist tradition through a survey of 150 years of global history.” The book includes a preface by Scottish anarchist, and former political prisoner, Stuart Christie.

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Black Friday (1869)

The Black Friday, September 24, 1869, gold panic was caused by the efforts of two speculators, Jay Gould and his partner James Fisk, (AKA The Gold Ring) to corner the gold market on the New York Gold Exchange.

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Black Friday (shopping)

Black Friday is an informal name for the day following Thanksgiving Day in the United States, the fourth Thursday of November, which has been regarded as the beginning of the country's Christmas shopping season since 1952.

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Black hole

A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.

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Black is beautiful

Black is beautiful is a cultural movement that was started in the US in the 1960s by African Americans.

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Black July

Black July (translit; කළු ජූලිය Kalu Juliya) is the common name used to refer to the anti-Tamil pogrom and riots in Sri Lanka during July 1983.

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Black knight

The black knight is a literary stock character who masks their identity and that of their liege by not displaying heraldry.

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Black magic

Black magic has traditionally referred to the use of supernatural powers or magic for evil and selfish purposes.

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Black mamba

The black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) is a highly venomous snake endemic to parts of sub-Saharan Africa.

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Black market

A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.

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Black Mass

A Black Mass is a ritual characterized by the inversion of the Traditional Latin Mass celebrated by the Roman Catholic Church.

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Black operation

A black operation (or black ops) is a covert operation by a government, a government agency, or a military organization.

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Black panther

A black panther is the melanistic color variant of any big cat species.

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Black Power

Black Power is a political slogan and a name for various associated ideologies aimed at achieving self-determination for people of African descent.

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Black propaganda

Black propaganda is false information and material that purports to be from a source on one side of a conflict, but is actually from the opposing side.

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Black Rose

Black Rose or Black Roses may refer to.

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Black September

Black September (أيلول الأسود; Aylūl Al-Aswad) was the conflict fought in Jordan between the Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF), under the leadership of King Hussein, and the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO), under the leadership of Yasser Arafat, primarily between 16 and 27 September 1970, with certain actions continuing until 17 July 1971.

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Black sheep

In the English language, black sheep is an idiom used to describe an odd or disreputable member of a group, especially within a family.

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Black Square (painting)

Black Square (also known as The Black Square or Malevich's Black Square) is an iconic painting by Kazimir Malevich.

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Black Standard

The Black Banner or Black Standard (الراية السوداء rāyat as-sawdāʾ, also known as راية العقاب. rāyat al-ʿuqāb "banner of the eagle" or simply as "the banner") is one of the flags flown by Muhammad in Islamic tradition.

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Black tea

Black tea is a type of tea that is more oxidized than oolong, green, and white teas.

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Black triangle (badge)

The black triangle was a badge used in Nazi concentration camps to mark prisoners as "asocial" or "arbeitsscheu" (work-shy).

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Black-body radiation

Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body).

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Black-figure pottery

Black-figure pottery painting, also known as the black-figure style or black-figure ceramic (Greek, μελανόμορφα, melanomorpha) is one of the styles of painting on antique Greek vases.

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Blackballing

Blackballing is a rejection in a traditional form of secret ballot, where a white ball or ballot constitutes a vote in support and a black ball signifies opposition.

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BlackBerry

BlackBerry is a line of smartphones, tablets, and services originally designed and marketed by Canadian company BlackBerry Limited (formerly known as Research In Motion, or RIM).

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Blacklight

A blacklight (or often black light), also referred to as a UV-A light, Wood's lamp, or simply ultraviolet light, is a lamp that emits long-wave (UV-A) ultraviolet light and not much visible light.

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Blacklisting

Blacklisting is the action of a group or authority, compiling a blacklist (or black list) of people, countries or other entities to be avoided or distrusted as not being acceptable to those making the list.

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Blackmail

Blackmail is an act, often criminal, involving unjustified threats to make a gain—most commonly money or property—or cause loss to another unless a demand is met.

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Blackshirts

The Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN, "Voluntary Militia for National Security"), commonly called the Blackshirts (Camicie Nere, CCNN, singular: Camicia Nera) or squadristi (singular: squadrista), was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party and, after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy.

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Bone char

Bone char (carbo animalis.) is a porous, black, granular material produced by charring animal bones.

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Book of Revelation

The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation or Apocalypse (and often misquoted as Revelations), is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.

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Brabant Revolution

The Brabant Revolution or Brabantine Revolution (Révolution brabançonne, Brabantse Omwenteling), sometimes referred to as the Belgian Revolution of 1789–90 in older writing, was an armed insurrection that occurred in the Austrian Netherlands (modern-day Belgium) between October 1789 and December 1790.

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Bram Stoker

Abraham "Bram" Stoker (8 November 1847 – 20 April 1912) was an Irish author, best known today for his 1897 Gothic novel Dracula.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Breakfast at Tiffany's (film)

Breakfast at Tiffany's is a 1961 American romantic comedy film directed by Blake Edwards and written by George Axelrod, loosely based on Truman Capote's novella of the same name.

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Bremen

The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.

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British English

British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.

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British Union of Fascists

The British Union of Fascists, or BUF, was a fascist political party in the United Kingdom formed in 1932 by Oswald Mosley.

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Camille Pissarro

Camille Pissarro (10 July 1830 – 13 November 1903) was a Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas (now in the US Virgin Islands, but then in the Danish West Indies).

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Canada

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Carbon black

Carbon black (subtypes are acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black and thermal black) is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as FCC tar, coal tar, ethylene cracking tar, with the addition of a small amount of vegetable oil.

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Carbon nanotube

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.

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Catalysis

Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Central America

Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.

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Charcoal

Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.

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Charles Dickens

Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.

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Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.

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Charles VI of France

Charles VI (3 December 1368 – 21 October 1422), called the Beloved (le Bien-Aimé) and the Mad (le Fol or le Fou), was King of France for 42 years from 1380 to his death in 1422.

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Cherry

A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).

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Chess

Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.

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Chestnut

The chestnut (Castanea) group is a genus of eight or nine species of deciduous trees and shrubs in the beech family Fagaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

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Chinese culture

Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.

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Chinese painting

Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world.

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Christian

A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Christian Dior

Christian Dior (21 January 1905 – 24 October 1957) was a French fashion designer, best known as the founder of one of the world's top fashion houses, also called Christian Dior, which is now owned by Groupe Arnault.

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Cistercians

A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.

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Civil rights movement

The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.

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Classical music

Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.

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Cliché

A cliché or cliche is an expression, idea, or element of an artistic work which has become overused to the point of losing its original meaning or effect, even to the point of being trite or irritating, especially when at some earlier time it was considered meaningful or novel.

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CMYK color model

The CMYK color model (process color, four color) is a subtractive color model, used in color printing, and is also used to describe the printing process itself.

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Coal

Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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Coco Chanel

Gabrielle Bonheur "Coco" Chanel (19 August 1883 – 10 January 1971) was a French fashion designer and a business woman.

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Coconut

The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos.

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College athletics

College athletics or college sports encompasses non-professional, collegiate and university-level competitive sports and games requiring physical skill, and the systems of training that prepare athletes for competition performance.

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Color printing

Color printing or colour printing is the reproduction of an image or text in color (as opposed to simpler black and white or monochrome printing).

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Comic book

A comic book or comicbook, also called comic magazine or simply comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes.

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Comic strip

A comic strip is a sequence of drawings arranged in interrelated panels to display brief humor or form a narrative, often serialized, with text in balloons and captions.

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Complementary colors

Complementary colors are pairs of colors which, when combined, cancel each other out.

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Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Count Dracula

Count Dracula is the title character of Bram Stoker's 1897 gothic horror novel Dracula.

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Counter-Reformation

The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).

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Crow

A Crow is a bird of the genus Corvus, or more broadly is a synonym for all of Corvus.

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Cue sports

Cue sports (sometimes written cuesports), also known as billiard sports, are a wide variety of games of skill generally played with a cue stick, which is used to strike billiard balls and thereby cause them to move around a cloth-covered billiards table bounded by elastic bumpers known as.

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Cyan

Cyan is a greenish-blue color.

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Dark Ages (historiography)

The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization traditionally referring to the Middle Ages, that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.

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Darkness

Darkness, the polar opposite to brightness, is understood as a lack of illumination or an absence of visible light.

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Death

Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

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Devil

A devil (from Greek: διάβολος diábolos "slanderer, accuser") is the personification and archetype of evil in various cultures.

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Devil in Christianity

In mainstream Christianity, the Devil (or Satan) is a fallen angel who rebelled against God.

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Dichotomy

A dichotomy is a partition of a whole (or a set) into two parts (subsets).

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Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities

A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities is an English language encyclopedia first published in 1842.

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Diffuse reflection

Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light or other waves or particles from a surface such that a ray incident on the surface is scattered at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection.

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Dominance (genetics)

Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.

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Doppler effect

The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.

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Drawing

Drawing is a form of visual art in which a person uses various drawing instruments to mark paper or another two-dimensional medium.

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Duccio

Duccio di Buoninsegna (c. 1255–1260 – c. 1318–1319) was an Italian painter active in Siena, Tuscany, in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.

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Duchy of Brabant

The Duchy of Brabant was a State of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1183.

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Duke of Windsor

The Duke of Windsor was a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Dutch Republic

The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.

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Dye

A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Ebony

Ebony is a dense black hardwood, most commonly yielded by several different species in the genus Diospyros, which also contains the persimmons.

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Edward I of England

Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.

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Edward VII

Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.

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Egyptian revolution of 1952

The Egyptian coup d'etat of 1952 (ثورة 23 يوليو 1952), also known as the July 23 revolution, began on July 23, 1952, by the Free Officers Movement, a group of army officers led by Mohammed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.

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Enigma machine

The Enigma machines were a series of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial, diplomatic and military communication.

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Ertzaintza

The Ertzaintza (Public Guard or People's Guard), is the police force for the Basque Country.

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Eschatology

Eschatology is a part of theology concerned with the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Event horizon

In general relativity, an event horizon is a region in spacetime beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer.

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Evil

Evil, in a colloquial sense, is the opposite of good, the word being an efficient substitute for the more precise but religion-associated word "wickedness." As defined in philosophy it is the name for the psychology and instinct of individuals which selfishly but often necessarily defends the personal boundary against deadly attacks and serious threats.

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Fabaceae

The Fabaceae or Leguminosae, Article 18.5 states: "The following names, of long usage, are treated as validly published:....Leguminosae (nom. alt.: Fabaceae; type: Faba Mill.);...

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Fabiana Semprebom

Fabiana Semprebom (born May 26, 1984) is a Brazilian model.

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Familiar spirit

In European folklore and folk-belief of the Medieval and Early Modern periods, familiar spirits (sometimes referred to simply as "familiars" or "animal guides") were believed to be supernatural entities that would assist witches and cunning folk in their practice of magic.

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Fasces

Fasces ((Fasci,, a plurale tantum, from the Latin word fascis, meaning "bundle") is a bound bundle of wooden rods, sometimes including an axe with its blade emerging. The fasces had its origin in the Etruscan civilization and was passed on to ancient Rome, where it symbolized a magistrate's power and jurisdiction. The axe originally associated with the symbol, the Labrys (Greek: λάβρυς, lábrys) the double-bitted axe, originally from Crete, is one of the oldest symbols of Greek civilization. To the Romans, it was known as a bipennis. Commonly, the symbol was associated with female deities, from prehistoric through historic times. The image has survived in the modern world as a representation of magisterial or collective power, law and governance. The fasces frequently occurs as a charge in heraldry: it is present on the reverse of the U.S. Mercury dime coin and behind the podium in the United States House of Representatives; and it was the origin of the name of the National Fascist Party in Italy (from which the term fascism is derived). During the first half of the 20th century both the fasces and the swastika (each symbol having its own unique ancient religious and mythological associations) became heavily identified with the authoritarian/fascist political movements of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. During this period the swastika became deeply stigmatized, but the fasces did not undergo a similar process. The fact that the fasces remained in use in many societies after World War II may have been due to the fact that prior to Mussolini the fasces had already been adopted and incorporated within the governmental iconography of many governments outside Italy. As such, its use persists as an accepted form of governmental and other iconography in various contexts. (The swastika remains in common usage in parts of Asia for religious purposes which are also unrelated to early 20th century European fascism.) The fasces is sometimes confused with the related term fess, which in French heraldry is called a fasce.

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Fascism

Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.

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Fasti

In ancient Rome, the fasti (Latin plural) were chronological or calendar-based lists, or other diachronic records or plans of official and religiously sanctioned events.

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Flag of Belgium

The national flag of the kingdom of Belgium (Vlag van het koninkrijk België, Drapeau de la Belgique, Flagge Belgiens) is a tricolour of three bands of black, yellow, and red.

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Flag of Egypt

The flag of Egypt (علم مصر) is a tricolour consisting of the three equal horizontal red, white, and black bands of the Egyptian revolutionary flag dating back to the 1952 Egyptian Revolution.

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Flag of Estonia

The national flag of Estonia (Eesti lipp) is a tricolour featuring three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white.

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Flag of Germany

The flag of Germany or German Flag (Flagge Deutschlands) is a tricolour consisting of three equal horizontal bands displaying the national colours of Germany: black, red, and gold (Schwarz-Rot-Gold).

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Flag of South Africa

The flag of South Africa was designed in March 1994 and adopted on 27 April 1994, at the beginning of South Africa's 1994 general election, to replace the flag that had been used since 1928.

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Flag of the Arab Revolt

The Flag of the Arab Revolt was a flag used by the Arab nationalists during the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire during World War I.

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Flanders

Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.

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Florence

Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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Flowering plant

The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.

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Ford Model T

The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie, Leaping Lena, or flivver) is an automobile produced by Ford Motor Company from October 1, 1908, to May 26, 1927.

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Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse

The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse are described in the last book of the New Testament of the Bible, called the Book of Revelation of Jesus Christ to John of Patmos, at 6:1-8.

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Fra Angelico

Fra Angelico (born Guido di Pietro; February 18, 1455) was an Early Italian Renaissance painter described by Vasari in his Lives of the Artists as having "a rare and perfect talent".

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Francis Walsingham

Sir Francis Walsingham (1532 – 6 April 1590) was principal secretary to Queen Elizabeth I of England from 20 December 1573 until his death and is popularly remembered as her "spymaster".

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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Galaxy

A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.

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Gall wasp

Gall wasps, also called gallflies, are a family (Cynipidae) in the wasp superfamily Cynipoidea within the suborder Apocrita of the order Hymenoptera.

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General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

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Gentlemen's club

A gentlemen's club, or formerly traditional gentlemen's club, is a members-only private club originally set up by and for British upper-class men in the 18th century, and popularised by English upper middle-class men and women in the late 19th century and early 20th century.

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German Confederation

The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.

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Gianni Versace

Giovanni Maria "Gianni" Versace (2 December 1946 – 15 July 1997) was an Italian fashion designer and founder of Versace, an international fashion house that produces accessories, fragrances, make-up, home furnishings, and clothes.

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God

In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.

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Gospel of Nicodemus

The Gospel of Nicodemus, also known as the Acts of Pilate (Acta Pilati; Πράξεις Πιλάτου), is an apocryphal gospel claimed to have been derived from an original Hebrew work written by Nicodemus, who appears in the Gospel of John as an associate of Jesus.

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Goth subculture

The goth subculture is a music subculture that began in England during the early 1980s, where it developed from the audience of gothic rock, an offshoot of the post-punk genre.

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Gothic fashion

Gothic fashion is a clothing style marked by conspicuously dark, mysterious, antiquated and homogeneous features.

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Graphite

Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Grey

Grey (British English) or gray (American English; see spelling differences) is an intermediate color between black and white.

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Gum arabic

Gum arabic, also known as acacia gum, arabic gum, gum acacia, acacia, Senegal gum and Indian gum, and by other names, is a natural gum consisting of the hardened sap of various species of the acacia tree.

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Gustave Doré

Paul Gustave Louis Christophe Doré (6 January 1832 – 23 January 1883) was a French artist, printmaker, illustrator, comics artist, caricaturist and sculptor who worked primarily with wood engraving.

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Gutenberg Bible

The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, the Mazarin Bible or the B42) was the first major book printed using mass-produced movable metal type in Europe.

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Habsburg Monarchy

The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.

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Hades

Hades (ᾍδης Háidēs) was the ancient Greek chthonic god of the underworld, which eventually took his name.

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Hadith

Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Haematoxylum campechianum

Haematoxylum campechianum (blackwood, bloodwood tree, bluewood, campeachy tree, campeachy wood, campeche logwood, campeche wood, Jamaica wood, logwood or logwood tree) is a species of flowering tree in the legume family, Fabaceae, that is native to southern Mexico and northern Central America.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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Heinrich Himmler

Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.

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Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers

Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers (October 11, 1758 – March 2, 1840) was a German physician and astronomer.

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Hel (being)

In Norse mythology, Hel is a being who presides over a realm of the same name, where she receives a portion of the dead.

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Hells Angels

The Hells Angels Motorcycle Club (HAMC) is a worldwide one-percenter motorcycle club whose members typically ride Harley-Davidson motorcycles.

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Henri Matisse

Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship.

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Henry L. Stimson

Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, lawyer and Republican Party politician.

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Hinduism

Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Holy Roman Emperor

The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Hubert de Givenchy

Count Hubert James Marcel Taffin de Givenchy (pronounced; 20 February 1927 – 10 March 2018) was a French fashion designer who founded the house of Givenchy in 1952.

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Hue

Hue is one of the main properties (called color appearance parameters) of a color, defined technically (in the CIECAM02 model), as "the degree to which a stimulus can be described as similar to or different from stimuli that are described as red, green, blue, and yellow", (which in certain theories of color vision are called unique hues).

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Hussar

A hussar was a member of a class of light cavalry, originating in Eastern and Central Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries, originally Hungarian.

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Hymn

A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.

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Increase Mather

Increase Mather (June 21, 1639 O.S. – August 23, 1723 O.S.) was a major figure in the early history of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Province of Massachusetts Bay (now the Commonwealth of Massachusetts).

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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India ink

India ink (British English: Indian Ink; also Chinese ink) is a simple black or colored ink once widely used for writing and printing and now more commonly used for drawing and outlining, especially when inking comic books and comic strips.

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Indigo

Indigo is a deep and rich color close to the color wheel blue (a primary color in the RGB color space), as well as to some variants of ultramarine.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Infrared

Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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Ink

Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design.

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Ink brush

Ink brushes are used in Chinese calligraphy.

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Inkstick

Inksticks (Chinese: 墨; Japanese: 墨 Sumi; Korean: 먹 Meok) or Ink Cakes are a type of solid ink (India ink) used traditionally in several East Asian cultures for calligraphy and brush painting.

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Inkstone

An inkstone is a stone mortar for the grinding and containment of ink.

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International Court of Justice

The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).

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International Workingmen's Association

The International Workingmen's Association (IWA, 1864–1876), often called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing socialist, communist and anarchist political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle.

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Inuit

The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.

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Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Iron gall ink

Iron gall ink (also known as iron gall nut ink, oak gall ink, and common ink) is a purple-black or brown-black ink made from iron salts and tannic acids from vegetable sources.

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Iron oxide

Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islamic extremism

Islamic extremism has been defined by the British government as any form of Islam that opposes "democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs." Related terms include "Islamist extremism" and Islamism.

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Islamism

Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.

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Italian Fascism

Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Jackal

Jackals are medium-sized omnivorous mammals of the genus Canis, which also includes wolves, coyotes and the domestic dog.

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Jaguar

The jaguar (Panthera onca) is a wild cat species and the only extant member of the genus Panthera native to the Americas.

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James Abbott McNeill Whistler

James Abbott McNeill Whistler (July 10, 1834 – July 17, 1903) was an American artist, active during the American Gilded Age and based primarily in the United Kingdom.

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James Fisk (financier)

James Fisk, Jr. (April 1, 1835 – January 7, 1872) – known variously as "Big Jim", "Diamond Jim", and "Jubilee Jim" – was an American stockbroker and corporate executive who has been referred to as one of the "robber barons" of the Gilded Age.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jay Gould

Jason "Jay" Gould (May 27, 1836 – December 2, 1892) was a leading American railroad developer and speculator.

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Jesus

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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Jihad

Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.

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Jihadism

The term "Jihadism" (also "jihadist movement", "jihadi movement" and variants) is a 21st-century neologism found in Western languages to describe Islamist militant movements perceived as military movements "rooted in Islam" and "existentially threatening" to the West.

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John Calvin

John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.

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John F. Kennedy

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.

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John Milton

John Milton (9 December 16088 November 1674) was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell.

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Johnny Cash

John R. Cash (born J. R. Cash; February 26, 1932 – September 12, 2003) was an American singer-songwriter, guitarist, actor, and author.

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Joshua Bell

Joshua David Bell (born December 9, 1967) is an American Grammy award-winning violinist and conductor.

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Juliette Gréco

Juliette Gréco (born 7 February 1927) is a French actress and chanson singer.

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Kali

(काली), also known as (कालिका), is a Hindu goddess.

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Karl Lagerfeld

Karl Otto Lagerfeld (Hamburg, 10 September 1933) is a German creative director, artist, and photographer based in Paris.

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Kazimir Malevich

Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (// ЦГИАК Украины, ф. 1268, оп. 1, д. 26, л. 13об—14.–May 15, 1935) was a Russian avant-garde artist and art theorist, whose pioneering work and writing had a profound influence on the development of non-objective, or abstract art, in the 20th century.

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King Lear

King Lear is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare.

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Kingdom of England

The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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Kingdom of Italy

The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.

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Kiwi

Kiwi or kiwis are flightless birds native to New Zealand, in the genus Apteryx and family Apterygidae.

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Knight-errant

A knight-errant (or knight errant) is a figure of medieval chivalric romance literature.

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Kuperjanov Infantry Battalion

The Kuperjanov Infantry Battalion (Kuperjanovi jalaväepataljon) is a battalion of the Estonian Land Forces.

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La Loge

La Loge (The Theatre Box) is an 1874 oil painting by Pierre-Auguste Renoir.

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Larva

A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.

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Lascaux

Lascaux (Grotte de Lascaux, "Lascaux Cave") is the setting of a complex of caves near the village of Montignac, in the department of Dordogne in southwestern France.

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Last Judgment

The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday, or The Day of the Lord (Hebrew Yom Ha Din) (יום הדין) or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah (یوم القيامة) or Yawm ad-Din (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latrodectus

Latrodectus is a genus of spiders in the family Theridiidae, most of which are commonly known as widow spiders.

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Lützow Free Corps

Lützow Free Corps was a volunteer force of the Prussian army during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Legume

A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).

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Leopard

The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.

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LGBT culture

LGBT culture is a culture shared by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (and may also include lesser-known identities, such as pansexual).

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Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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List of Black Fridays

Black Friday is a term used to refer to certain events which occur on a Friday.

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Lists of colors

These are lists of colors.

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Literal and figurative language

Literal and figurative language is a distinction within some fields of language analysis, in particular stylistics, rhetoric, and semantics.

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Little black dress

A little black dress (LBD) is a black evening or cocktail dress, cut simply and often quite short.

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Lone Ranger

The Lone Ranger is a fictional masked former Texas Ranger who fought outlaws in the American Old West with his Native American friend, Tonto.

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Los Angeles Police Department

The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), officially the City of Los Angeles Police Department, is the police department of Los Angeles.

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Louis I, Duke of Orléans

Louis I of Orléans (13 March 1372 – 23 November 1407) was Duke of Orléans from 1392 to his death.

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Louis XIII of France

Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.

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Lucien van der Walt

Lucien van der Walt (born 8 September 1972) is a South African writer and professor of Sociology.

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Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.

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Magenta

Magenta is a color that is variously defined as purplish-red, reddish-purple, purplish, or mauvish-crimson.

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Mahdi

The Mahdi (مهدي, ISO 233:, literally "guided one") is an eschatological redeemer of Islam who will appear and rule for five, seven, nine or nineteen years (according to differing interpretations)Martin 2004: 421 before the Day of Judgment (literally "the Day of Resurrection") and will rid the world of evil.

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Man in Black (song)

"Man in Black" (or "The Man in Black") is a protest song written and recorded by singer-songwriter Johnny Cash, originally released on his 1971 album of the same name.

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Manganese oxide

Manganese oxide is any of a variety of manganese oxides and hydroxides.

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March on Rome

The March on Rome (Marcia su Roma) was an organized mass demonstration in October 1922, which resulted in Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, or PNF) acceding to power in the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia).

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Margaret Hamilton (actress)

Margaret Brainard Hamilton (December 9, 1902 – May 16, 1985) was an American film character actress best known for her portrayal of the Wicked Witch of the West in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's classic film The Wizard of Oz (1939).

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Marlon Brando

Marlon Brando Jr. (April 3, 1924 – July 1, 2004) was an American actor and film director.

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Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Mars Black (pigment)

Mars Black is an iron oxide pigment developed in the 20th century.

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Marten

The martens constitute the genus Martes within the subfamily Mustelinae, in the family Mustelidae.

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Mass

Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

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Median

The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.

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Medieval literature

Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (that is, the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. AD 500 to the beginning of the Florentine Renaissance in the late 15th century).

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Mein Kampf

Mein Kampf (My Struggle) is a 1925 autobiographical book by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler.

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Melancholia

Melancholia (from µέλαινα χολή),Burton, Bk.

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Melanin

Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.

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Melanism

Melanism is a development of the dark-colored pigment melanin in the skin or its appendages and is the opposite of albinism.

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Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States.

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Mexico

Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

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Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Monk

A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.

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Mourning

Mourning is, in the simplest sense, grief over someone's death.

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Muhammad

MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.

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Mulatto

Mulatto is a term used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent or to people born of a mulatto parent or parents.

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Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Napoleon

Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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National Security Agency

The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.

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Naval Infantry (Russia)

The Russian Naval Infantry (Marines, Морская пехота, Morskaya Pekhota), is the amphibious force of the Russian Navy.

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Nazi concentration camp badge

Nazi concentration camp badges, primarily triangles, were part of the system of identification in Nazi camps.

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Nazi concentration camps

Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.

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Nazi Party

The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.

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Nazism

National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

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Nótt

In Norse mythology, Nótt (Old Norse "night"Orchard (1997:120).) is night personified, grandmother of Thor.

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Negro

Negro (plural Negroes) is an archaic term traditionally used to denote persons considered to be of Negroid heritage.

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Negrophobia

Negrophobia is a fear or hatred toward negro peoples worldwide.

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Neolithic

The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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Nestor Makhno

Nestor Ivanovych Makhno or Bat'ko ("Father") Makhno (Не́стор Івáнович Махно́; October 26, 1888 (N.S. November 7) – July 25, 1934) was a Ukrainian anarcho-communist revolutionary and the commander of an independent anarchist army in Ukraine in 1917–22.

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New Testament

The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.

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New Zealand national cricket team

The New Zealand national cricket team, nicknamed the Black Caps, played their first Test in 1930 against England in Christchurch, becoming the fifth country to play Test cricket.

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New Zealand national rugby union team

The New Zealand national rugby union team, called the All Blacks, represents New Zealand in men's rugby union, which is known as the country's national sport.

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Nigrosin

Nigrosin (CI 50415, Solvent black 5) is a mixture of synthetic black dyes made by heating a mixture of nitrobenzene, aniline, and hydrochloric acid in the presence of a copper or iron.

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Nitrobenzene

Nitrobenzene is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5NO2.

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Oak

An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.

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Oak apple

Oak apple or oak gall is the common name for a large, round, vaguely apple-like gall commonly found on many species of oak.

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Oceania

Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.

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Ochre

Ochre (British English) (from Greek: ὤχρα, from ὠχρός, ōkhrós, pale) or ocher (American English) is a natural clay earth pigment which is a mixture of ferric oxide and varying amounts of clay and sand.

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Odin

In Germanic mythology, Odin (from Óðinn /ˈoːðinː/) is a widely revered god.

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Olbers' paradox

In astrophysics and physical cosmology, Olbers' paradox, named after the German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers (1758–1840), also known as the "dark night sky paradox", is the argument that the darkness of the night sky conflicts with the assumption of an infinite and eternal static universe.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old High German

Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.

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Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.

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Old Saxon

Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language and the earliest recorded form of Low German (spoken nowadays in Northern Germany, the northeastern Netherlands, southern Denmark, the Americas and parts of Eastern Europe).

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OMON

OMON (ОМОН — Отряд Мобильный Особого Назначения, previously Отряд Милиции Особого Назначения, Otryad Militsii Osobogo Naznacheniya, Special Purpose Police Unit) is a system of special police units of Federal Police within the National Guard of Russia, and previously Soviet and Russian Ministries of Internal Affairs.

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Optical properties of carbon nanotubes

Within materials science, the optical properties of carbon nanotubes refer specifically to the absorption, photoluminescence (fluorescence), and Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanotubes.

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Order of Saint Benedict

The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Outer space

Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.

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Palatine

A palatine or palatinus (in Latin; plural palatini; cf. derivative spellings below) is a high-level official attached to imperial or royal courts in Europe since Roman times.

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Paleolithic

The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.

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Panzerwaffe

Panzerwaffe, later also Panzertruppe (German for "Armoured Force", "Armoured Arm" or "Tank Force". Waffe: combat "arm") refers to a command within the Heer of the German Wehrmacht, responsible for the affairs of panzer (tank) and motorized forces shortly before and during the Second World War.

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Paradise Lost

Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton (1608–1674).

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Paramilitary

A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.

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Paul Gauguin

Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a French post-Impressionist artist.

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Peach

The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.

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Peach black

Peach black is a grey-black pigment originally obtained from burnt peach stones.

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Pedro I of Brazil

Dom Pedro I (English: Peter I; 12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834), nicknamed "the Liberator", was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil.

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Pedro II of Brazil

Dom Pedro II (English: Peter II; 2 December 1825 – 5 December 1891), nicknamed "the Magnanimous", was the second and last ruler of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years.

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Percy Bysshe Shelley

Percy Bysshe Shelley (4 August 17928 July 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets, and is regarded by some as among the finest lyric and philosophical poets in the English language, and one of the most influential.

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Peter Damian

Saint Peter Damian (Petrus Damianus; Pietro or Pier Damiani; – 21 or 22 February 1072 or 1073) was a reforming Benedictine monk and cardinal in the circle of Pope Leo IX.

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Peter Paul Rubens

Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.

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Petrus Christus

Petrus Christus (1410/1420 – 1475/1476) was an Early Netherlandish painter active in Bruges from 1444, where, along with Hans Memling, he became the leading painter after the death of Jan van Eyck.

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Philadelphia

Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.

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Philip II of Spain

Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).

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Philip IV of France

Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (Philippe le Bel) or the Iron King (le Roi de fer), was King of France from 1285 until his death.

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Philip Melanchthon

Philip Melanchthon (born Philipp Schwartzerdt; 16 February 1497 – 19 April 1560) was a German Lutheran reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation, and an influential designer of educational systems.

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Philip the Good

Philip the Good (Philippe le Bon, Filips de Goede; 31 July 1396 – 15 June 1467) was Duke of Burgundy as Philip III from 1419 until his death.

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Phosphorescence

Phosphorescence is a type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence.

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Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, commonly known as Auguste Renoir (25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919), was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style.

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Pigment

A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.

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Pinniped

Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.

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Pitch (resin)

Pitch is a name for any of a number of viscoelastic polymers.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Primary color

A set of primary colors is, most tangibly, a set of real colorants or colored lights that can be combined in varying amounts to produce a gamut of colors.

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Printing

Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Proto-Germanic language

Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

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Prussia

Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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Punk fashion

Punk fashion is the clothing, hairstyles, cosmetics, jewellery, and body modifications of the punk subculture.

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Punk subculture

Punk subculture includes a diverse array of ideologies, fashion, and other forms of expression, visual art, dance, literature and film.

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Qin Shi Huang

Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.

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Quadroon

Historically in the context of slave societies of the Americas, a quadroon or quarteron was a person with one quarter African and three quarters European ancestry (or in the context of Australia, one quarter aboriginal ancestry).

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Queen Victoria

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.

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Rationing

Rationing is the controlled distribution of scarce resources, goods, or services, or an artificial restriction of demand.

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Raven

A raven is one of several larger-bodied species of the genus Corvus.

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Rayleigh scattering

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Red-figure pottery

Red-figure vase painting is one of the most important styles of figural Greek vase painting.

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Referee (association football)

In association football, the referee is the person responsible for enforcing the Laws of the Game during the course of a match.

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Reflection (physics)

Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.

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Rembrandt

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker.

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Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or RPI, is a private research university and space-grant institution located in Troy, New York, with two additional campuses in Hartford and Groton, Connecticut.

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Reports on Progress in Physics

Reports on Progress in Physics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by IOP Publishing.

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Resin

In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.

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Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine

The Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine (Революційна Повстанська Армія України), also known as the Black Army or simply as Makhnovshchyna (Махновщина.), was an anarchist army formed largely of Ukrainian peasants and workers under the command of the famous anarchist Nestor Makhno during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922.

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Rich black

Rich black, in printing, is an ink mixture of solid black over one or more of the other CMYK colors, resulting in a darker tone than black ink alone generates in a printing process.

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Richard II of England

Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399.

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Riot control

Riot control refers to the measures used by police, military, or other security forces to control, disperse, and arrest people who are involved in a riot, demonstration, or protest.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Romani people

The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.

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Romanticism

Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Rugby union

Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.

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Russian Civil War

The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Sable

The sable (Martes zibellina) is a marten species, a small carnivorous mammal inhabiting forest environments, primarily in Russia from the Ural Mountains throughout Siberia, northern Mongolia.

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Sable (heraldry)

In heraldry, sable is the tincture black, and belongs to the class of dark tinctures, called "colours".

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Salem witch trials

The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693.

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Satan

Satan is an entity in the Abrahamic religions that seduces humans into sin.

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Schutzstaffel

The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.

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Secrecy

Secrecy (also called clandestinity or furtiveness) is the practice of hiding information from certain individuals or groups who do not have the "need to know", perhaps while sharing it with other individuals.

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Shades of black

Shades of black are colors that differ only slightly from pure black.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Sinhalese people

The Sinhalese (Sinhala: සිංහල ජාතිය Sinhala Jathiya, also known as Hela) are an Indo-Aryan-speaking ethnic group native to the island of Sri Lanka.

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Slip (ceramics)

A slip is a liquid mixture or slurry of clay and/or other materials suspended in water.

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Smoke

Smoke is a collection of airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass.

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Smoking jacket

A smoking jacket is an overgarment designed to be worn while smoking tobacco, usually in the form of pipes and cigars.

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Solar thermal collector

A solar thermal collector collects heat by absorbing sunlight.

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Soot

Soot is a mass of impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spacetime

In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Square academic cap

The square academic cap, graduate cap, cap, mortarboard (because of its similarity in appearance to the mortarboard used by brickmasons to hold mortar) or Oxford cap, is an item of academic dress consisting of a horizontal square board fixed upon a skull-cap, with a tassel attached to the centre.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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Standard Chinese

Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.

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Sting operation

In law enforcement, a sting operation is a deceptive operation designed to catch a person committing a crime.

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Stock market crash

A stock market crash is a sudden dramatic decline of stock prices across a significant cross-section of a stock market, resulting in a significant loss of paper wealth.

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Subtractive color

A subtractive color model explains the mixing of a limited set of dyes, inks, paint pigments or natural colorants to create a wider range of colors, each the result of partially or completely subtracting (that is, absorbing) some wavelengths of light and not others.

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Sumptuary law

Sumptuary laws (from Latin sumptuāriae lēgēs) are laws that attempt to regulate consumption; Black's Law Dictionary defines them as "Laws made for the purpose of restraining luxury or extravagance, particularly against inordinate expenditures in the matter of apparel, food, furniture, etc." Historically, they were laws that were intended to regulate and reinforce social hierarchies and morals through restrictions, often depending upon a person's social rank, on their permitted clothing, food, and luxury expenditures.

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Supermassive black hole

A supermassive black hole (SMBH or SBH) is the largest type of black hole, on the order of hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses, and is found in the centre of almost all currently known massive galaxies.

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Suprematism

Suprematism (Супремати́зм) is an art movement, focused on basic geometric forms, such as circles, squares, lines, and rectangles, painted in a limited range of colors.

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Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.

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Swastika

The swastika (as a character 卐 or 卍) is a geometrical figure and an ancient religious icon from the cultures of Eurasia, where it has been and remains a symbol of divinity and spirituality in Indian religions, Chinese religions, Mongolian and Siberian shamanisms.

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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Symbol

A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.

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Tamils

The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, Tamilans, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry, or the Northern, Eastern Province and Puttalam District of Sri Lanka.

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Tannic acid

Tannic acid is a specific form of tannin, a type of polyphenol.

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Tar

Tar is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation.

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Tartarus

In Greek mythology, Tartarus (Τάρταρος Tartaros) is the deep abyss that is used as a dungeon of torment and suffering for the wicked and as the prison for the Titans.

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Thanksgiving

Thanksgiving Day is a national holiday celebrated in Canada, the United States, some of the Caribbean islands, and Liberia.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Wild One

The Wild One is a 1953 American film directed by László Benedek and produced by Stanley Kramer.

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The Wizard of Oz (1939 film)

The Wizard of Oz is a 1939 American musical fantasy film produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

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Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

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Thetis

Thetis (Θέτις), is a figure from Greek mythology with varying mythological roles.

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Titian

Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.

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Torres Strait

The Torres Strait is a strait which lies between Australia and the Melanesian island of New Guinea.

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Totenkopf

Totenkopf (i.e. skull, literally dead's head) is the German word for the skull and crossbones and death's head symbols.

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Transmittance

Transmittance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in transmitting radiant energy.

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Tree

In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.

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Troy, New York

Troy is a city in the U.S. state of New York and the seat of Rensselaer County.

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Turpentine

Chemical structure of pinene, a major component of turpentine Turpentine (also called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine and colloquially turps) is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained from live trees, mainly pines.

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Tutankhamun

Tutankhamun (alternatively spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c. 1332–1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period.

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Tuxedo

A tuxedo (American English), or dinner suit (British English), is a semi-formal three or two piece suit for evening wear, distinguished primarily by satin or grosgrain jacket's lapels, and similar stripes along the outseam of the trousers.

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States Census

The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States...

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United States Census Bureau

The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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University of Minnesota

The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities (often referred to as the University of Minnesota, Minnesota, the U of M, UMN, or simply the U) is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota.

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Vampire

A vampire is a being from folklore that subsists by feeding on the vital force (generally in the form of blood) of the living.

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Vantablack

Vantablack is the trademarked name (owned by Surrey NanoSystems Limited) for a chemical substance made of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays and is the darkest artificial substance known, absorbing up to 99.965% of radiation in the visible spectrum.

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Venice

Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

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Victorian era

In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.

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Viktor Vasnetsov

Viktor Mikhaylovich Vasnetsov (Ви́ктор Миха́йлович Васнецо́в; May 15 (N.S.), 1848 – July 23, 1926) was a Russian artist who specialized in mythological and historical subjects.

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Vincent van Gogh

Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art.

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Visible spectrum

The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

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Vitruvius

Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura.

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Wall Street Crash of 1929

The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as Black Tuesday (October 29), the Great Crash, or the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began on October 24, 1929 ("Black Thursday"), and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its after effects.

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Walnut

A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans (Family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia.

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Walnut oil

Walnut oil is oil extracted from walnuts, Juglans regia.

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Warring States period

The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.

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Weimar Republic

The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.

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Western (genre)

The Western is a genre of various arts which tell stories set primarily in the later half of the 19th century in the American Old West, often centering on the life of a nomadic cowboy or gunfighter armed with a revolver and a rifle who rides a horse.

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Whistler's Mother

Arrangement in Grey and Black No.1, best known under its colloquial name Whistler's Mother, is a painting in oils on canvas created by the American-born painter James McNeill Whistler in 1871.

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White

White is the lightest color and is achromatic (having no hue), because it fully reflects and scatters all the visible wavelengths of light.

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White movement

The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.

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Wicked Witch of the West

The Wicked Witch of the West is a fictional character created by L. Frank Baum as the most significant antagonist in his classic children's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900).

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Wildfire

A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area.

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Wildfire suppression

Wildfire suppression is a range of firefighting tactics used to suppress wildfires.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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Witchcraft

Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yellow

Yellow is the color between orange and green on the spectrum of visible light.

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Yemen

Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Ypres

Ypres (Ieper) is a Belgian municipality in the province of West Flanders.

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Yves Saint Laurent (designer)

Yves Henri Donat Mathieu-Saint-Laurent (1 August 1936 – 1 June 2008), professionally known as Yves Saint-Laurent, was a French fashion designer who, in 1961, founded his eponymous fashion label.

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Zhou dynasty

The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.

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400th Missile Squadron

The 400th Missile Squadron is an inactive United States Air Force unit.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black

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