187 relations: Acne, Acre, Israel, Aleppo, Alexandre Yersin, Alexandria, Algiers, Amsterdam, Anthrax, Antibiotic, Antioch, Armenia, Ashkelon, Askøy, Bacteria, Baghdad, Baldassarre Bonaiuti, Basque Country (greater region), BBC, Bergen, Bergen op Zoom, Biofilm, Black Death (film), Black Death in England, Black rat, Black Sea, Bremen, Bubo, Bubonic plague, Byzantine Empire, Cambridge University Press, Cargo ship, Casimir III the Great, CCR5, Central Asia, Clade, Cologne, Commensalism, Conjunction (astronomy), Constantinople, Crimea, Crisis of the Late Middle Ages, Cronaca fiorentina di Marchionne di Coppo Stefani, Damascus, Danse Macabre, David Herlihy, Death (personification), Defensive wall, Demographics of Europe, Disseminated intravascular coagulation, Domesday Book, ..., Doomsday Book (novel), Drug resistance, Dubrovnik, Early modern France, East Smithfield, Ebola virus disease, Endemic (epidemiology), Enzootic, Epidemic typhus, Epidemiology, Eurasia, Europe, Feodosia, Florence, Four thieves vinegar, Francis Aidan Gasquet, Freston, Suffolk, Gaza City, Geisslerlieder, Genome, Geoffrey the Baker, Gerbil, Gilles de Corbeil, Giovanni Boccaccio, Giovanni Colonna (cardinal, 1295–1348), Globalization and disease, Great Northern War plague outbreak, Great Plague of London, Great Plague of Marseille, Great Plague of Seville, Great Plague of Vienna, Habsburg Spain, Hamburg, Hanseatic League, Helsinki, Hematophagy, History of Europe, History of the Jews in the Middle Ages, History of the world, Homs, Host (biology), House of Stuart, House of Tudor, Iceland, Indiana University Press, Insecticide, Issyk-Kul, Jani Beg, Jerusalem, Johannes Isacius Pontanus, Justus Hecker, Kurdistan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Leprosy, Lodewijk Heyligen, London, Low Countries, Madagascar, Mainz, Malaise, Marmot, Marseille, Mecca, Mediterranean Basin, Mesopotamia, Miasma theory, Middle Ages, Midgut, Mongol conquest of China, Mongols, Mortality rate, Mosul, Muslim world, Naples, Nature (journal), Nausea, Nestorianism, Nicholas Wade, Norman Cantor, North India, Oriental rat flea, Oslo, Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, Palestine (region), Pandemic, Paul-Louis Simond, Philip Daileader, Philip VI of France, Pisa, Plague (disease), Plague doctor, Plague doctor costume, Plague of Justinian, Plague pit, PLOS Pathogens, Pneumonic plague, Polymerase chain reaction, Psoriasis, Public Health England, Purpura, Quarantine, Republic of Genoa, Ring a Ring o' Roses, Rodent, Romani people, San Francisco plague of 1900–1904, Septicemic plague, Seville, Sicily, Sidon, Silk Road, Smallpox, Species, Sputum, Stockholm, Strasbourg, Swedish Empire, Syria, Tartary, The Decameron, The Great Courses, The New York Times, The Seventh Seal, Thirty Years' War, Timeline of plague, Typhus, Uganda, Vector (epidemiology), Venice, Vomiting, Western Asia, World population, Yersinia pestis, 1629–31 Italian plague, 2017 Madagascar plague outbreak. Expand index (137 more) » « Shrink index
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Alexandre Emile Jean Yersin (22 September 1863 – 1 March 1943) was a Swiss and naturalized French physician and bacteriologist.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Ashkelon (also spelled Ashqelon and Ascalon; help; عَسْقَلَان) is a coastal city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, south of Tel Aviv, and north of the border with the Gaza Strip.
Askøy is a municipality in Hordaland county, Norway.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Baldassarre Bonaiuti, also known as Marchionne di Coppo Stefani (1336, in Florence – 1385, in Florence), was a chronicler (historian), statesman, politician, businessman and diplomat from Florence, Italy.
The Basque Country (Euskal Herria; Pays basque; Vasconia, País Vasco) is the name given to the home of the Basque people.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Bergen, historically Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality in Hordaland on the west coast of Norway.
Bergen op Zoom (called Berrege in the local dialect) is a municipality and a city located in the south of the Netherlands.
A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.
Black Death is a 2010 German-British action horror film directed by Christopher Smith from an original screenplay by Dario Poloni.
The Black Death was a bubonic plague pandemic, which reached England in June 1348.
The black rat (Rattus rattus), also known as the ship rat, roof rat, house rat, is a common long-tailed rodent of the genus Rattus (rats) in the subfamily Murinae.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.
A bubo (Greek βουβών, boubôn, "groin") (plural form: boubônes) is the swelling of the lymph nodes.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A cargo ship or freighter ship is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another.
Casimir III the Great (Kazimierz III Wielki; 30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370) reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370.
C-C chemokine receptor type 5, also known as CCR5 or CD195, is a protein on the surface of white blood cells that is involved in the immune system as it acts as a receptor for chemokines.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.
In astronomy, a conjunction occurs when two astronomical objects or spacecraft have either the same right ascension or the same ecliptic longitude, usually as observed from Earth.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
The crisis of the Late Middle Ages refers to a series of events in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that brought centuries of European prosperity and growth to a halt.
The Cronaca fiorentina di Marchionne di Coppo Stefani written by Baldassarre Bonaiuti is considered today as one of the best works written on the Black Death in Florence in the year 1348.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
The Danse Macabre (from the French language), also called the Dance of Death, is an artistic genre of allegory of the Late Middle Ages on the universality of death: no matter one's station in life, the Dance Macabre unites all.
David Herlihy (May 8, 1930 – February 15, 1991) was an American historian who wrote on medieval and renaissance life.
Death, due to its prominent place in human culture, is frequently imagined as a personified force, also known as the Grim Reaper.
A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.
Figures for the population of Europe vary according to how one defines the boundaries of Europe.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which blood clots form throughout the body, blocking small blood vessels.
Domesday Book (or; Latin: Liber de Wintonia "Book of Winchester") is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror.
Doomsday Book is a 1992 science fiction novel by American author Connie Willis.
Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition.
Dubrovnik (historically Ragusa) is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea.
The Kingdom of France in the early modern period, from the Renaissance (circa 1500–1550) to the Revolution (1789–1804), was a monarchy ruled by the House of Bourbon (a Capetian cadet branch).
East Smithfield is the name both a road and a street-side area in Greater London, England.
Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses.
In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is constantly maintained at a baseline level in a geographic area without external inputs.
Enzootic is the non-human equivalent of endemic and means, in a broad sense, "belonging to" or "native to", "characteristic of", or "prevalent in" a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; native to an area or scope.
Epidemic typhus is a form of typhus so named because the disease often causes epidemics following wars and natural disasters.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Feodosia (Феодо́сия, Feodosiya; Феодо́сія, Feodosiia; Crimean Tatar and Turkish: Kefe), also called Theodosia (from), is a port and resort, a town of regional significance in Crimea on the Black Sea coast.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Four thieves vinegar (also called Marseilles vinegar, Marseilles remedy, prophylactic vinegar, vinegar of the four thieves, camphorated acetic acid, vinaigre des quatre voleurs and acetum quator furum) is a concoction of vinegar (either from red wine, white wine, cider, or distilled white) infused with herbs, spices or garlic that was believed to protect users from the plague.
Francis Aidan Gasquet, O.S.B. (born Francis Neil Gasquet, 5 October 1846 – 5 April 1929) was an English Benedictine monk and historical scholar.
Freston is a small village and civil parish in Suffolk, England located on the Shotley peninsula.
Gaza (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998),, p. 761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory in Palestine, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". غزة,; Ancient Ġāzā), also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine.
In medieval music, the Geisslerlieder, or Flagellant songs, were the songs of the wandering bands of flagellants, who overspread Europe during two periods of mass hysteria: the first during the middle of the 13th century, and the second during the Black Death in 1349.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Geoffrey the Baker (d. c. 1360), English chronicler, is also called Walter of Swinbroke, and was probably a secular clerk at Swinbrook in Oxfordshire.
A gerbil is a small mammal of the subfamily Gerbillinae in the order Rodentia.
Gilles de Corbeil (Latin: Egidius de Corbolio or Egidius Corboliensis; also Aegidius) was a French royal physician, teacher, and poet.
Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.
Giovanni Colonna (1295, Arezzo, Tuscany, Italy – 3 July 1348, Avignon, France) was a Roman Catholic cardinal during the Avignon papacy and was a scion of the famous Colonna family that played an important role in Italian history.
Globalization, the flow of information, goods, capital, and people across political and geographic boundaries, allows infectious diseases to rapidly spread around the world, while also allowing the alleviation of factors such as hunger and poverty, which are key determinants of global health.
During the Great Northern War (1700–1721), many towns and areas of the Circum-Baltic and East-Central Europe suffered from a severe outbreak of the plague with a peak from 1708 to 1712.
The Great Plague, lasting from 1665 to 1666, was the last major epidemic of the bubonic plague to occur in England.
The Great Plague of Marseille was the last of the significant European outbreaks of bubonic plague.
The Great Plague of Seville (1647–1652) was a massive outbreak of disease in Spain that killed up to a quarter of Seville's population.
The Great Plague of Vienna occurred in 1679 in Vienna, Austria, the imperial residence of the Austrian Habsburg rulers.
Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe).
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Helsinki (or;; Helsingfors) is the capital city and most populous municipality of Finland.
Hematophagy (sometimes spelled haematophagy or hematophagia) is the practice by certain animals of feeding on blood (from the Greek words αἷμα haima "blood" and φάγειν phagein "to eat").
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present.
Jewish history in the Middle Ages covers the period from the 5th to the 15th century.
The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.
Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland.
The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
Issyk-Kul (also Ysyk Köl, Issyk-Kol: Ысык-Көл, Isıq-Köl, ىسىق-كۅل,; Иссык-Куль, Issyk-Kulj) is an endorheic lake in the northern Tian Shan mountains in eastern Kyrgyzstan.
Jani Beg (died 1357) also called Djanibek Khan was a khan of the Golden Horde from 1342 to 1357, succeeding his father Öz Beg Khan.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Johan Isaaksz Pontanus (21 January 1571–7 October 1639) was a Dutch historiographer.
Justus Friedrich Karl Hecker (5 January 1795, Erfurt – 11 May 1850, Berlin) was a German physician and medical writer, whose works appear in medical encyclopaedias and journals of the time.
Kurdistan (کوردستان; lit. "homeland of the Kurds") or Greater Kurdistan is a roughly defined geo-cultural historical region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population and Kurdish culture, languages and national identity have historically been based.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.
Lodewijk Heyligen (also known as Ludovicus Sanctus de Beeringhen, Lodewijk Heiligen, Ludovicus Sanctus, Heyliger of Beeringhen, Ludwig van Kempen and Louis van Campen) (1304, Beringen, Belgium – 1361, Avignon) was a Flemish Benedictine monk and music theorist who served as the master of music of cardinal Giovanni Colonna in Avignon, where he became one of the closest friends of the Italian poet Petrarch.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.
Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort, uneasiness or pain, often the first indication of an infection or other disease.
Marmots are large squirrels in the genus Marmota, with 15 species.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The miasma theory (also called the miasmatic theory) is an obsolete medical theory that held that diseases—such as cholera, chlamydia, or the Black Death—were caused by a miasma (μίασμα, ancient Greek: "pollution"), a noxious form of "bad air", also known as night air.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The midgut is the portion of the embryo from which most of the intestines develop.
The Mongol conquest of China was a series of major military efforts by the Mongol Empire to invade China proper.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.
Nicholas Wade (born 17 May 1942)"Nicholas Wade." Contemporary Authors Online.
Norman Frank Cantor (November 19, 1929 – September 18, 2004) was a Canadian-American historian who specialized in the medieval period.
North India is a loosely defined region consisting of the northern part of India.
The Oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis), also known as the tropical rat flea, is a parasite of rodents, primarily of the genus Rattus, and is a primary vector for bubonic plague and murine typhus.
Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.
Paul-Louis Simond (30 July 1858 – 3 March 1947) was a French physician, chief medical officer and biologist whose major contribution to science was his demonstration that the intermediates in the transmission of bubonic plague from rats to humans are the fleas Xenopsylla cheopis that dwell on infected rats.
Philip Daileader is a Professor of History at The College of William and Mary in Virginia.
Philip VI (Philippe VI) (1293 – 22 August 1350), called the Fortunate (le Fortuné) and of Valois, was the first King of France from the House of Valois.
Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
A plague doctor was a medical physician who treated victims of the bubonic plague.
The clothing worn by plague doctors was intended to protect them from airborne diseases.
The Plague of Justinian (541–542) was a pandemic that afflicted the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire, especially its capital Constantinople, the Sassanid Empire, and port cities around the entire Mediterranean Sea.
A plague pit is the informal term used to refer to mass graves in which victims of the Black Death were buried.
PLOS Pathogens is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal.
Pneumonic plague is a severe lung infection caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin.
Public Health England (PHE) is an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care in the United Kingdom that began operating on 1 April 2013.
Purpura is a condition of red or purple discolored spots on the skin that do not blanch on applying pressure.
A quarantine is used to separate and restrict the movement of people; it is a 'a restraint upon the activities or communication of persons or the transport of goods designed to prevent the spread of disease or pests', for a certain period of time.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
"Ring a Ring o' Roses" or "Ring Around the Rosie" or "Ring a Ring o' Rosie" is a nursery rhyme or folksong and playground singing game.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
The San Francisco plague of 1900–1904 was an epidemic of bubonic plague centered on San Francisco's Chinatown.
Septicemic plague is one of the three main forms of plague.
Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Sidon (صيدا, صيدون,; French: Saida; Phoenician: 𐤑𐤃𐤍, Ṣīdūn; Biblical Hebrew:, Ṣīḏōn; Σιδών), translated to 'fishery' or 'fishing-town', is the third-largest city in Lebanon.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Sputum is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways (trachea and bronchi).
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
The Swedish Empire (Stormaktstiden, "Great Power Era") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tartary (Latin: Tartaria) or Great Tartary (Latin: Tartaria Magna) was a name used from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to designate the great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, settled mostly by Turko-Mongol peoples after the Mongol invasion and the subsequent Turkic migrations.
The Decameron (Italian title: "Decameron" or "Decamerone"), subtitled "Prince Galehaut" (Old Prencipe Galeotto and sometimes nicknamed "Umana commedia", "Human comedy"), is a collection of novellas by the 14th-century Italian author Giovanni Boccaccio (1313–1375).
The Great Courses (TGC) is a series of college-level audio and video courses produced and distributed by The Teaching Company, an American company based in Chantilly, Virginia.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Seventh Seal (Det sjunde inseglet) is a 1957 Swedish epic historical fantasy film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
This is a timeline of plague, describing major events such as epidemics and key medical developments.
Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus and murine typhus.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.
Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis) is a Gram-negative, non-motile rod-shaped coccobacillus, with no spores.
The Italian Plague of 1629–31 was a series of outbreaks of bubonic plague which ravaged northern and central Italy.
An outbreak of plague in Madagascar began in August 2017 and expanded rapidly, with about two-thirds of cases transmitted person-to-person as pneumonic plague, the most dangerous form of the disease.