The black swan theory or theory of black swan events is a metaphor that describes an event that comes as a surprise, has a major effect, and is often inappropriately rationalized after the fact with the benefit of hindsight.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
An investment fund is a way of investing money alongside other investors in order to benefit from the inherent advantages of working as part of a group.
Mark Spitznagel (born March 5, 1971) is an American hedge fund manager, stocks and commodities trader, and author.
Nassim Nicholas Taleb (نسيم نقولا طالب., alternatively Nessim or Nissim, born 1960) is a Lebanese–American essayist, scholar, statistician, former trader, and risk analyst, whose work focuses on problems of randomness, probability, and uncertainty.