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Black body

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A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence. [1]

76 relations: Alloy, Annalen der Physik, Astronomy, Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Black hole, Black-body radiation, Boltzmann constant, Boson, Cambridge University Press, Camouflage, Carbon black, Carbon nanotube, Chromosphere, Color index, Convection zone, Cosmological principle, Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, Effective temperature, Electromagnetic radiation, Emissivity, Euler–Heisenberg Lagrangian, Event horizon, Ferdinand Kurlbaum, Fresnel equations, Gluon, Goddard Space Flight Center, Gravitational constant, Graviton, Gustav Kirchhoff, H-theorem, Heat capacity, Hohlraum, Isotropic radiator, John Wiley & Sons, Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation, Laws of thermodynamics, Metastability, MIT Press, NASA, Nickel, Otto Lummer, Oxford University Press, Phase transition, Philosophical Magazine, Phosphorus, Photon, Photosphere, Physical body, Planck constant, Planck's law, ..., Planckian locus, Planet, Power (physics), Princeton University Press, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Quantum fluctuation, Radiation-absorbent material, Refractive index, Relaxation (physics), Royal Society of Edinburgh, Spacetime, Spectral density, Speed of light, Springer Science+Business Media, Star, Stefan–Boltzmann constant, Stefan–Boltzmann law, Sun, Super black, Taylor & Francis, Temperature, Thermal equilibrium, Vantablack, Virtual particle, Weak interaction, World Scientific. Expand index (26 more) »


An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.

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Annalen der Physik

Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799.

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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities

The Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities (Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften), abbreviated BBAW, is the official academic society for the natural sciences and humanities for the German states of Berlin and Brandenburg.

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Black hole

A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.

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Black-body radiation

Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body).

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Boltzmann constant

The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.

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In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).

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Carbon black

Carbon black (subtypes are acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black and thermal black) is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as FCC tar, coal tar, ethylene cracking tar, with the addition of a small amount of vegetable oil.

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Carbon nanotube

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.

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The chromosphere (literally, "sphere of color") is the second of the three main layers in the Sun's atmosphere and is roughly 3,000 to 5,000 kilometers deep.

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Color index

In astronomy, the color index is a simple numerical expression that determines the color of an object, which in the case of a star gives its temperature.

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Convection zone

A convection zone, convective zone or convective region of a star is a layer which is unstable to convection.

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Cosmological principle

In modern physical cosmology, the cosmological principle is the notion that the spatial distribution of matter in the universe is homogeneous and isotropic when viewed on a large enough scale, since the forces are expected to act uniformly throughout the universe, and should, therefore, produce no observable irregularities in the large-scale structuring over the course of evolution of the matter field that was initially laid down by the Big Bang.

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Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft

The Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (DPG, "German Physical Society") is the world's largest organization of physicists.

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Effective temperature

The effective temperature of a body such as a star or planet is the temperature of a black body that would emit the same total amount of electromagnetic radiation.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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The emissivity of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in emitting energy as thermal radiation.

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Euler–Heisenberg Lagrangian

In physics, the Euler–Heisenberg Lagrangian describes the non-linear dynamics of electromagnetic fields in vacuum.

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Event horizon

In general relativity, an event horizon is a region in spacetime beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer.

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Ferdinand Kurlbaum

Ferdinand Kurlbaum (October 4, 1857 in Burg bei Magdeburg – July 29, 1927 in Berlin) was a German physicist.

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Fresnel equations

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel coefficients) describe the reflection and transmission of light (or electromagnetic radiation in general) when incident on an interface between different optical media.

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A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.

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Goddard Space Flight Center

The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory located approximately northeast of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland, United States.

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Gravitational constant

The gravitational constant (also known as the "universal gravitational constant", the "Newtonian constant of gravitation", or the "Cavendish gravitational constant"), denoted by the letter, is an empirical physical constant involved in the calculation of gravitational effects in Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation and in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.

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In theories of quantum gravity, the graviton is the hypothetical elementary particle that mediates the force of gravity.

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Gustav Kirchhoff

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (12 March 1824 – 17 October 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.

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In classical statistical mechanics, the H-theorem, introduced by Ludwig Boltzmann in 1872, describes the tendency to decrease in the quantity H (defined below) in a nearly-ideal gas of molecules.

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Heat capacity

Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.

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In radiation thermodynamics, a hohlraum (a non-specific German word for a "hollow space" or "cavity") is a cavity whose walls are in radiative equilibrium with the radiant energy within the cavity.

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Isotropic radiator

An isotropic radiator is a theoretical point source of electromagnetic or sound waves which radiates the same intensity of radiation in all directions.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation

In heat transfer, Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation refers to wavelength-specific radiative emission and absorption by a material body in thermodynamic equilibrium, including radiative exchange equilibrium.

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Laws of thermodynamics

The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium.

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In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.

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Otto Lummer

Otto Richard Lummer (July 17, 1860 – July 5, 1925) was a German physicist and researcher.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Phase transition

The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.

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Philosophical Magazine

The Philosophical Magazine is one of the oldest scientific journals published in English.

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Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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The photosphere is a star's outer shell from which light is radiated.

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Physical body

In physics, a physical body or physical object (or simply a body or object) is an identifiable collection of matter, which may be constrained by an identifiable boundary, and may move as a unit by translation or rotation, in 3-dimensional space.

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Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.

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Planck's law

Planck's law describes the spectral density of electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black body in thermal equilibrium at a given temperature T. The law is named after Max Planck, who proposed it in 1900.

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Planckian locus

In physics and color science, the Planckian locus or black body locus is the path or ''locus'' that the color of an incandescent black body would take in a particular chromaticity space as the blackbody temperature changes.

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A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

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Power (physics)

In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Quantum fluctuation

In quantum physics, a quantum fluctuation (or vacuum state fluctuation or vacuum fluctuation) is the temporary change in the amount of energy in a point in space, as explained in Werner Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.

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Radiation-absorbent material

Radiation-absorbent material, usually known as RAM, is a material which has been specially designed and shaped to absorb incident RF radiation (also known as non-ionising radiation), as effectively as possible, from as many incident directions as possible.

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Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

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Relaxation (physics)

In the physical sciences, relaxation usually means the return of a perturbed system into equilibrium.

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Royal Society of Edinburgh

The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotland's national academy of science and letters.

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In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.

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Spectral density

The power spectrum S_(f) of a time series x(t) describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal.

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Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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Stefan–Boltzmann constant

The Stefan–Boltzmann constant (also Stefan's constant), a physical constant denoted by the Greek letter ''σ'' (sigma), is the constant of proportionality in the Stefan–Boltzmann law: "the total intensity radiated over all wavelengths increases as the temperature increases", of a black body which is proportional to the fourth power of the thermodynamic temperature.

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Stefan–Boltzmann law

The Stefan–Boltzmann law describes the power radiated from a black body in terms of its temperature.

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The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Super black

Super black is a surface treatment developed at the National Physical Laboratory in the United Kingdom.

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Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.

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Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Thermal equilibrium

Two physical systems are in thermal equilibrium if there are no net flow of thermal energy between them when they are connected by a path permeable to heat.

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Vantablack is the trademarked name (owned by Surrey NanoSystems Limited) for a chemical substance made of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays and is the darkest artificial substance known, absorbing up to 99.965% of radiation in the visible spectrum.

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Virtual particle

In physics, a virtual particle is a transient fluctuation that exhibits some of the characteristics of an ordinary particle, but whose existence is limited by the uncertainty principle.

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Weak interaction

In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.

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World Scientific

World Scientific Publishing is an academic publisher of scientific, technical, and medical books and journals headquartered in Singapore.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_body

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