287 relations: A Brief History of Time, A K Peters, Absolute zero, Accretion disk, Active galactic nucleus, ADM formalism, Albert Einstein, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Journal of Physics, Andrew Strominger, Andromeda Galaxy, Angular momentum, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, APM 08279+5255, Arthur Eddington, Astronomical unit, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Astrophysical jet, Baryon number, Big Bang, Binary star, Birkhoff's theorem (relativity), Black body, Black brane, Black hole complementarity, Black hole information paradox, Black Hole Initiative, Black hole starship, Black hole thermodynamics, Black Holes and Time Warps, Black holes in fiction, Black star (semiclassical gravity), Black string, Black-body radiation, Boltzmann constant, Brandon Carter, Brane cosmology, BTZ black hole, Bulge (astronomy), Causality (physics), CERN, Chandrasekhar limit, Charge (physics), Charged black hole, Closed timelike curve, Communications in Mathematical Physics, Compact star, Conservation law, Coordinate singularity, Cosmic censorship hypothesis, ..., Cosmic dust, Cosmic microwave background, Cosmic ray, Cumrun Vafa, Cygnus X-1, Dark-energy star, David Finkelstein, Degenerate matter, Density, Dimensionless quantity, Dissipative system, Don Page (physicist), Earth radius, Eddington–Finkelstein coordinates, Einstein field equations, Electric charge, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetism, Energy condition, Entropy, Equivalence principle, Escape velocity, European Space Agency, Event horizon, Event Horizon Telescope, Evgeny Lifshitz, Exotic matter, Extremal black hole, Ezra T. Newman, Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, Field (physics), First law of thermodynamics, First observation of gravitational waves, Frame of reference, Frame-dragging, Free fall, Fuzzball (string theory), Galaxy, Gauss's law, General relativity, Georges Lemaître, Gerard 't Hooft, Globular cluster, Goddard Space Flight Center, Grandfather paradox, Gravastar, Gravitational collapse, Gravitational constant, Gravitational field, Gravitational lens, Gravitational redshift, Gravitational singularity, Gravitational time dilation, Gravitational wave, Gravitoelectromagnetism, Gravity, Gravity well, GRS 1915+105, GW170817, Hawking radiation, Haystack Observatory, Hendrik Lorentz, History of general relativity, Holographic principle, Instability, Intensive and extensive properties, Intermediate-mass black hole, International Journal of Theoretical Physics, Interstellar medium, Isaak Markovich Khalatnikov, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Jacob Bekenstein, James M. Bardeen, John Archibald Wheeler, John C. Baez, John Michell, Journal of Mathematical Physics, Karl Schwarzschild, Kepler orbit, Kerr metric, Kerr–Newman metric, Kip Thorne, Kruskal–Szekeres coordinates, Kugelblitz (astrophysics), Large Hadron Collider, Laws of thermodynamics, Lens (optics), Leonard Susskind, Lepton, Lepton number, Lev Landau, Light, Light cone, Light-year, LIGO, LIGO Scientific Collaboration, List of black holes, List of gravitational wave observations, List of nearest black holes, Loop quantum gravity, Martin David Kruskal, Mass, Matter, Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, M–sigma relation, Membrane paradigm, Messier 106, Messier 32, Messier 87, Micro black hole, Milky Way, Minute and second of arc, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Moon, Naked singularity, NASA, Nature (journal), Neutron, Neutron star, Newton's law of universal gravitation, NGC 1277, NGC 3115, NGC 3377, NGC 4889, No-hair theorem, OJ 287, Orders of magnitude (temperature), Outline of black holes, Paradox, Particle, Particle accelerator, Particle physics, Pauli exclusion principle, Penrose process, Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems, Phase (matter), Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Photon, Physical information, Physical Review, Physical Review Letters, Physics Today, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Planck constant, Planck mass, Planck units, Planetary nebula, Point particle, Preon, Preon star, Pressure, Primordial black hole, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Proper motion, Pulsar, Q star, Quantum entanglement, Quantum field theory, Quantum field theory in curved spacetime, Quantum gravity, Quantum mechanics, Quantum number, Quark, Quark star, Quasar, Quasi-periodic oscillation, Reissner–Nordström metric, Reports on Progress in Physics, Richard H. Price, Ring singularity, Ringdown, Roger Penrose, Rotating black hole, Rotational symmetry, Roy Kerr, S2 (star), Sagittarius A*, Scalar field, Scholarpedia, Schwarzschild coordinates, Schwarzschild metric, Schwarzschild radius, Scientific American, Second law of thermodynamics, Singularity (mathematics), Sky & Telescope, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Solar mass, Solutions of the Einstein field equations, Sombrero Galaxy, Sonic black hole, Spacetime, Spaghettification, Spectral line, Speed of light, Spherically symmetric spacetime, Spheroid, Standard Model, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Star, Star formation, Stationary spacetime, Statistical mechanics, Stellar black hole, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Stephen Hawking, String theory, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Sun, Supermassive black hole, Supersymmetry, Surface gravity, T-symmetry, Tangent, Temperature, Test particle, The New York Times, Thermal radiation, Thorne–Hawking–Preskill bet, Tidal force, Timeline of black hole physics, Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit, Tom Bolton (astronomer), Ultraluminous X-ray source, Unitarity (physics), V404 Cygni, Vacuum solution (general relativity), Virgo interferometer, Vladimir Belinski, Werner Israel, White dwarf, White hole, World line, Wormhole, X-ray, X-ray binary. Expand index (237 more) » « Shrink index
A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes is a popular-science book on cosmology (the study of the universe) by British physicist Stephen Hawking.
A K Peters, Ltd. was a publisher of scientific and technical books, specializing in mathematics and in computer graphics, robotics, and other fields of computer science.
Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.
An accretion disk is a structure (often a circumstellar disk) formed by diffused material in orbital motion around a massive central body.
An active galactic nucleus (AGN) is a compact region at the center of a galaxy that has a much higher than normal luminosity over at least some portion—and possibly all—of the electromagnetic spectrum, with characteristics indicating that the excess luminosity is not produced by stars.
The ADM formalism (named for its authors Richard Arnowitt, Stanley Deser and Charles W. Misner) is a Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity that plays an important role in canonical quantum gravity and numerical relativity.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.
The American Journal of Physics is a monthly, peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Institute of Physics.
Andrew Eben Strominger (born 1955) is an American theoretical physicist who is the Director of Harvard's Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature.
The Andromeda Galaxy, also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224, is a spiral galaxy approximately 780 kiloparsecs (2.5 million light-years) from Earth, and the nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way.
In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.
The Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics is an annual peer reviewed scientific journal published by Annual Reviews.
APM 08279+5255 is a very distant, broad absorption line quasar located in the constellation Lynx.
Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington (28 December 1882 – 22 November 1944) was an English astronomer, physicist, and mathematician of the early 20th century who did his greatest work in astrophysics.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Astronomy & Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical, observational, and instrumental astronomy and astrophysics.
An astrophysical jet is an astronomical phenomenon where outflows of ionised matter are emitted as an extended beam along the axis of rotation.
In particle physics, the baryon number is a strictly conserved additive quantum number of a system.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter.
In general relativity, Birkhoff's theorem states that any spherically symmetric solution of the vacuum field equations must be static and asymptotically flat.
A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.
In general relativity, a black brane is a solution of the equations that generalizes a black hole solution but it is also extended—and translationally symmetric—in p additional spatial dimensions.
Black hole complementarity is a conjectured solution to the black hole information paradox, proposed by Leonard Susskind and Larus Thorlacius, and Gerard 't Hooft.
The black hole information paradox is a puzzle resulting from the combination of quantum mechanics and general relativity.
The Black Hole Initiative (BHI) is an interdisciplinary program at Harvard University that includes the fields of Astronomy, Physics and Philosophy, and is claimed to be the first center in the world to focus on the study of black holes.
A black hole starship is a theoretical idea for enabling interstellar travel by propelling a starship by using a black hole as the energy source.
In physics, black hole thermodynamics is the area of study that seeks to reconcile the laws of thermodynamics with the existence of black-hole event horizons.
Black Holes & Time Warps: Einstein's Outrageous Legacy is a 1994 popular science book by physicist Kip Thorne.
The study of black holes, gravitational sources so massive that even light cannot escape from them, goes back to the late 18th century.
A black star is a gravitational object composed of matter.
A black string is a higher dimensional (D>4) generalization of a black hole in which the event horizon is topologically equivalent to S2 × S1 and spacetime is asymptotically Md−1 × S1.
Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body).
The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.
Brandon Carter, FRS (born 1942) is an Australian theoretical physicist, best known for his work on the properties of black holes and for being the first to name and employ the anthropic principle in its contemporary form.
Brane cosmology refers to several theories in particle physics and cosmology related to string theory, superstring theory and M-theory.
The BTZ black hole, named after Máximo Bañados, Claudio Teitelboim, and Jorge Zanelli, is a black hole solution for (2+1)-dimensional topological gravity with a negative cosmological constant.
In astronomy, a bulge is a tightly packed group of stars within a larger formation.
Causality is the relationship between causes and effects.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
The Chandrasekhar limit is the maximum mass of a stable white dwarf star.
In physics, a charge may refer to one of many different quantities, such as the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics.
A charged black hole is a black hole that possesses electric charge.
In mathematical physics, a closed timelike curve (CTC) is a world line in a Lorentzian manifold, of a material particle in spacetime that is "closed", returning to its starting point.
Communications in Mathematical Physics is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Springer.
In astronomy, the term "compact star" (or "compact object") refers collectively to white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes.
In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time.
A coordinate singularity occurs when an apparent singularity or discontinuity occurs in one coordinate frame, which can be removed by choosing a different frame.
The weak and the strong cosmic censorship hypotheses are two mathematical conjectures about the structure of singularities arising in general relativity.
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.
The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
Cumrun Vafa (کامران وفا; born 1960) is an Iranian-American string theorist from Harvard University, which he first joined as a Harvard Junior Fellow.
Cygnus X-1 (abbreviated Cyg X-1) is a galactic X-ray source in the constellation Cygnus, and the first such source widely accepted to be a black hole.
A dark-energy star is a hypothetical compact astrophysical object, which a minority of physicists think might constitute an alternative explanation for observations of astronomical black hole candidates.
David Ritz Finkelstein (July 19, 1929 – January 24, 2016) was an emeritus professor of physics at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
Degenerate matter is a highly dense state of matter in which particles must occupy high states of kinetic energy in order to satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless quantity is a quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned.
A dissipative system is a thermodynamically open system which is operating out of, and often far from, thermodynamic equilibrium in an environment with which it exchanges energy and matter.
Don Nelson Page,, (born December 31, 1948) is an American-born Canadian theoretical physicist at the University of Alberta, Canada.
Earth radius is the approximate distance from Earth's center to its surface, about.
In general relativity, Eddington–Finkelstein coordinates are a pair of coordinate systems for a Schwarzschild geometry (i.e. a spherically symmetric black hole) which are adapted to radial null geodesics.
The Einstein field equations (EFE; also known as Einstein's equations) comprise the set of 10 equations in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity that describe the fundamental interaction of gravitation as a result of spacetime being curved by mass and energy.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
In relativistic classical field theories of gravitation, particularly general relativity, an energy condition is one of various alternative conditions which can be applied to the matter content of the theory, when it is either not possible or desirable to specify this content explicitly.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
In the theory of general relativity, the equivalence principle is any of several related concepts dealing with the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and to Albert Einstein's observation that the gravitational "force" as experienced locally while standing on a massive body (such as the Earth) is the same as the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference.
In physics, escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
In general relativity, an event horizon is a region in spacetime beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer.
The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a project to create a large telescope array consisting of a global network of radio telescopes and combining data from several very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) stations around the Earth.
Evgeny Mikhailovich Lifshitz (Евге́ний Миха́йлович Ли́фшиц; February 21, 1915, Kharkov, Russian Empire – October 29, 1985, Moscow, Russian SFSR) was a leading Soviet physicist and the brother of physicist Ilya Mikhailovich Lifshitz.
In physics, exotic matter is matter that somehow deviates from normal matter and has "exotic" properties.
In theoretical physics, an extremal black hole is a black hole with the minimal possible mass that can be compatible with a given charge and angular momentum.
Ezra Theodore Newman (born October 17, 1929) is an American physicist, known for his many contributions to general relativity theory.
The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST), formerly called the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), is a space observatory being used to perform gamma-ray astronomy observations from low Earth orbit.
In physics, a field is a physical quantity, represented by a number or tensor, that has a value for each point in space and time.
The first law of thermodynamics is a version of the law of conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic systems.
The first observation of gravitational waves was made on 14 September 2015 and was announced by the LIGO and Virgo collaborations on 11 February 2016.
In physics, a frame of reference (or reference frame) consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of physical reference points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the coordinate system and standardize measurements.
Frame-dragging is an effect on spacetime, predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity, that is due to non-static stationary distributions of mass–energy.
In Newtonian physics, free fall is any motion of a body where gravity is the only force acting upon it.
Fuzzballs are theorized by some superstring theory scientists to be the true quantum description of black holes.
A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.
In physics, Gauss's law, also known as Gauss's flux theorem, is a law relating the distribution of electric charge to the resulting electric field.
General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
Georges Henri Joseph Édouard Lemaître, RAS Associate (17 July 1894 – 20 June 1966) was a Belgian Catholic Priest, astronomer and professor of physics at the Catholic University of Leuven.
Gerardus (Gerard) 't Hooft (born July 5, 1946) is a Dutch theoretical physicist and professor at Utrecht University, the Netherlands.
A globular cluster is a spherical collection of stars that orbits a galactic core as a satellite.
The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory located approximately northeast of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland, United States.
The grandfather paradox is a paradox of time travel in which inconsistencies emerge through changing the past.
A gravastar is an object hypothesized in astrophysics as an alternative to the black hole theory by Pawel O. Mazur and Emil Mottola.
Gravitational collapse is the contraction of an astronomical object due to the influence of its own gravity, which tends to draw matter inward toward the center of gravity.
The gravitational constant (also known as the "universal gravitational constant", the "Newtonian constant of gravitation", or the "Cavendish gravitational constant"), denoted by the letter, is an empirical physical constant involved in the calculation of gravitational effects in Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation and in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.
In physics, a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body.
A gravitational lens is a distribution of matter (such as a cluster of galaxies) between a distant light source and an observer, that is capable of bending the light from the source as the light travels towards the observer.
In astrophysics, gravitational redshift or Einstein shift is the process by which electromagnetic radiation originating from a source that is in a gravitational field is reduced in frequency, or redshifted, when observed in a region at a higher gravitational potential.
A gravitational singularity or spacetime singularity is a location in spacetime where the gravitational field of a celestial body becomes infinite in a way that does not depend on the coordinate system.
Gravitational time dilation is a form of time dilation, an actual difference of elapsed time between two events as measured by observers situated at varying distances from a gravitating mass.
Gravitational waves are the disturbance in the fabric ("curvature") of spacetime generated by accelerated masses and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light.
Gravitoelectromagnetism, abbreviated GEM, refers to a set of formal analogies between the equations for electromagnetism and relativistic gravitation; specifically: between Maxwell's field equations and an approximation, valid under certain conditions, to the Einstein field equations for general relativity.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
A gravity well or gravitational well is a conceptual model of the gravitational field surrounding a body in space – the more massive the body, the deeper and more extensive the gravity well associated with it.
GRS 1915+105 or V1487 Aquilae is an X-ray binary star system which features a regular star and a black hole.
GW170817 was a gravitational wave (GW) signal observed by the LIGO and Virgo detectors on 17 August 2017.
Hawking radiation is blackbody radiation that is predicted to be released by black holes, due to quantum effects near the event horizon.
Haystack Observatory is an astronomical observatory owned by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (18 July 1853 – 4 February 1928) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect.
General relativity (GR) is a theory of gravitation that was developed by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915, with contributions by many others after 1915.
The holographic principle is a principle of string theories and a supposed property of quantum gravity that states that the description of a volume of space can be thought of as encoded on a lower-dimensional boundary to the region—preferably a light-like boundary like a gravitational horizon.
In numerous fields of study, the component of instability within a system is generally characterized by some of the outputs or internal states growing without bounds.
Physical properties of materials and systems can often be categorized as being either intensive or extensive quantities, according to how the property changes when the size (or extent) of the system changes.
An intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) is a class of black hole with mass in the range 102-105 solar masses: significantly more than stellar black holes but less than the 105-109 solar mass supermassive black holes.
The International Journal of Theoretical Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of physics published by Springer Science+Business Media since 1968.
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.
Isaak Markovich Khalatnikov (Исаак Маркович Халатников; born 17 October 1919) is a Soviet-born physicist known for his role in developing the BKL conjecture in general relativity.
Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.
Jacob David Bekenstein (יעקב בקנשטיין; May 1, 1947 – August 16, 2015) was a Mexican-born Israeli-American theoretical physicist who made fundamental contributions to the foundation of black hole thermodynamics and to other aspects of the connections between information and gravitation.
James Maxwell Bardeen (born May 9, 1939) is an American physicist, well known for his work in general relativity, particularly his role in formulating the laws of black hole mechanics. He also discovered the Bardeen vacuum, an exact solution of the Einstein field equation.
John Archibald Wheeler (July 9, 1911 – April 13, 2008) was an American theoretical physicist.
John Carlos Baez (born June 12, 1961) is an American mathematical physicist and a professor of mathematics at the University of California, Riverside (UCR) in Riverside, California.
John Michell (25 December 1724 – 29 April 1793) was an English natural philosopher and clergyman who provided pioneering insights in a wide range of scientific fields, including astronomy, geology, optics, and gravitation.
The Journal of Mathematical Physics is a peer-reviewed journal published monthly by the American Institute of Physics devoted to the publication of papers in mathematical physics.
Karl Schwarzschild (October 9, 1873 – May 11, 1916) was a German physicist and astronomer.
In celestial mechanics, a Kepler orbit (or Keplerian orbit) is the motion of one body relative to another, as an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola, which forms a two-dimensional orbital plane in three-dimensional space.
The Kerr metric or Kerr geometry describes the geometry of empty spacetime around a rotating uncharged axially-symmetric black hole with a spherical event horizon.
The Kerr–Newman metric is a solution of the Einstein–Maxwell equations in general relativity that describes the spacetime geometry in the region surrounding a charged, rotating mass.
Kip Stephen Thorne (born June 1, 1940) is an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate, known for his contributions in gravitational physics and astrophysics.
In general relativity Kruskal–Szekeres coordinates, named after Martin Kruskal and George Szekeres, are a coordinate system for the Schwarzschild geometry for a black hole.
In theoretical physics, a kugelblitz (German: "ball lightning") is a concentration of light or radiation so intense that its energy forms an event horizon and becomes self-trapped: according to general relativity and the equivalence of mass and energy, if enough radiation is aimed into a region, the concentration of energy can warp spacetime enough for the region to become a black hole (although this would be a black hole whose original mass-energy had been in the form of radiant energy rather than matter).
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, the most complex experimental facility ever built and the largest single machine in the world.
The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium.
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.
Leonard Susskind (born 1940)his 60th birthday was celebrated with a special symposium at Stanford University.
In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.
In particle physics, lepton number (historically also called lepton charge) is a conserved quantum number representing the difference between the number of leptons and the number of antileptons in an elementary particle reaction.
Lev Davidovich Landau (22 January 1908 - April 1968) was a Soviet physicist who made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
In special and general relativity, a light cone is the path that a flash of light, emanating from a single event (localized to a single point in space and a single moment in time) and traveling in all directions, would take through spacetime.
The light-year is a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.5 trillion kilometres or 5.9 trillion miles.
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is a large-scale physics experiment and observatory to detect cosmic gravitational waves and to develop gravitational-wave observations as an astronomical tool.
The LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) is a scientific collaboration of international physics institutes and research groups dedicated to the search for gravitational waves.
This is a list of black holes (and stars considered probable candidates) organized by size (including black holes of undetermined mass); some items in this list are galaxies or star clusters that are believed to be organized around a black hole.
This is a list of observed gravitational wave events.
This list contains all known black holes relatively near the Solar System (within our Milky Way galaxy).
Loop quantum gravity (LQG) is a theory of quantum gravity, merging quantum mechanics and general relativity.
Martin David Kruskal (September 28, 1925 – December 26, 2006) was an American mathematician and physicist.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
The Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute) is a Max Planck Institute whose research is aimed at investigating Einstein’s theory of relativity and beyond: Mathematics, quantum gravity, astrophysical relativity, and gravitational wave astronomy.
The M–sigma (or M–σ) relation is an empirical correlation between the stellar velocity dispersion σ of a galaxy bulge and the mass M of the supermassive black hole at its center.
In black hole theory, the black hole membrane paradigm is a simplified model, useful for visualising and calculating the effects predicted by quantum mechanics for the exterior physics of black holes, without using quantum-mechanical principles or calculations.
Messier 106 (also known as NGC 4258) is an intermediate spiral galaxy in the constellation Canes Venatici.
Messier 32 (also known as NGC 221) is a dwarf "early-type" galaxy located about 2.65 million light-years from Earth, appearing in the constellation Andromeda.
Messier 87 (also known as Virgo A or NGC 4486, generally abbreviated to M87) is a supergiant elliptical galaxy in the constellation Virgo.
Micro black holes, also called quantum mechanical black holes or mini black holes, are hypothetical tiny black holes, for which quantum mechanical effects play an important role.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
In general relativity, a naked singularity is a gravitational singularity without an event horizon.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.
Newton's law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.
NGC 1277 is a lenticular galaxy in the constellation of Perseus.
NGC 3115 (also called the Spindle Galaxy or Caldwell 53) is a field lenticular (S0) galaxy in the constellation Sextans.
NGC 3377 is an elliptical galaxy in the constellation Leo.
NGC 4889 (also known as Coma B) is an E4 supergiant elliptical galaxy.
The no-hair theorem postulates that all black hole solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations of gravitation and electromagnetism in general relativity can be completely characterized by only three externally observable classical parameters: mass, electric charge, and angular momentum.
OJ 287 is a BL Lac object located 3.5 billion light-years away that has produced quasi-periodic optical outbursts going back approximately 120 years, as first apparent on photographic plates from 1891.
Most ordinary human activity takes place at temperatures of this order of magnitude.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to black holes: Black hole – mathematically defined region of spacetime exhibiting such a strong gravitational pull that no particle or electromagnetic radiation can escape from it.
A paradox is a statement that, despite apparently sound reasoning from true premises, leads to an apparently self-contradictory or logically unacceptable conclusion.
In the physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.
The Penrose process (also called Penrose mechanism) is a process theorised by Roger Penrose wherein energy can be extracted from a rotating black hole.
The Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems are a set of results in general relativity that attempt to answer the question of when gravitation produces singularities.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
In physics, physical information refers generally to the information that is contained in a physical system.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.
Physics Today is the membership magazine of the American Institute of Physics that was established in 1948.
Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics and astronomy.
The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.
In physics, the Planck mass, denoted by mP, is the unit of mass in the system of natural units known as Planck units.
In particle physics and physical cosmology, Planck units are a set of units of measurement defined exclusively in terms of five universal physical constants, in such a manner that these five physical constants take on the numerical value of 1 when expressed in terms of these units.
A planetary nebula, abbreviated as PN or plural PNe, is a type of emission nebula consisting of an expanding, glowing shell of ionized gas ejected from red giant stars late in their lives.
A point particle (ideal particle or point-like particle, often spelled pointlike particle) is an idealization of particles heavily used in physics.
In particle physics, preons are point particles, conceived of as subcomponents of quarks and leptons.
A preon star is a theoretical type of compact star made of preons, which are "point-like" particles conceived to be subcomponents of quarks and leptons.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Primordial black holes are a hypothetical type of black hole that formed soon after the Big Bang.
Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.
Proper motion is the astronomical measure of the observed changes in the apparent places of stars or other celestial objects in the sky, as seen from the center of mass of the Solar System, compared to the abstract background of the more distant stars.
A pulsar (from pulse and -ar as in quasar) is a highly magnetized rotating neutron star or white dwarf that emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation.
A Q-Star, also known as a grey hole, is a hypothetical type of a compact, heavy neutron star with an exotic state of matter.
Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole.
In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.
In particle physics, quantum field theory in curved spacetime is an extension of standard, Minkowski space quantum field theory to curved spacetime.
Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics, and where quantum effects cannot be ignored, such as near compact astrophysical objects where the effects of gravity are strong.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Quantum numbers describe values of conserved quantities in the dynamics of a quantum system.
A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
A quark star is a hypothetical type of compact exotic star, where extremely high temperature and pressure has forced nuclear particles to form a continuous state of matter that consists primarily of free quarks, which can be modeled using the Calabi–Yau manifold.
A quasar (also known as a QSO or quasi-stellar object) is an extremely luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN).
In X-ray astronomy, quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) is the manner in which the X-ray light from an astronomical object flickers about certain frequencies.
In physics and astronomy, the Reissner–Nordström metric is a static solution to the Einstein-Maxwell field equations, which corresponds to the gravitational field of a charged, non-rotating, spherically symmetric body of mass M. The metric was discovered by Hans Reissner, Hermann Weyl, Gunnar Nordström and G. B. Jeffery.
Reports on Progress in Physics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by IOP Publishing.
Richard H. Price (born March 1, 1943) is an American physicist specializing in general relativity.
A ring singularity or ringularity is the gravitational singularity of a rotating black hole, or a Kerr black hole, that is shaped like a ring.
In telephony, ringdown is a method of signaling an operator in which telephone ringing current is sent over the line to operate a lamp or cause the operation of a self-locking relay known as a drop.
Sir Roger Penrose (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist, mathematician and philosopher of science.
A rotating black hole is a black hole that possesses angular momentum.
Rotational symmetry, also known as radial symmetry in biology, is the property a shape has when it looks the same after some rotation by a partial turn.
Roy Patrick Kerr (born 16 May 1934) is a New Zealand mathematician who discovered the Kerr geometry, an exact solution to the Einstein field equation of general relativity.
Source 2 (abbreviated S2), also known as S0–2, is a star that is located close to the radio source Sagittarius A*, orbiting it with an orbital period of 15.56 ± 0.35 years, a semi-major axis of about 970 AU, and a pericenter distance of 17 light hours (18 Tm or 120 AU)—an orbit with a period only about 30% longer than that of Jupiter around the Sun, but coming no closer than about four times the distance of Neptune from the Sun.
Sagittarius A* (pronounced "Sagittarius A-star", standard abbreviation Sgr A*) is a bright and very compact astronomical radio source at the center of the Milky Way, near the border of the constellations Sagittarius and Scorpius.
In mathematics and physics, a scalar field associates a scalar value to every point in a space – possibly physical space.
Scholarpedia is an English-language online wiki-based encyclopedia with features commonly associated with open-access online academic journals, which aims to have quality content.
In the theory of Lorentzian manifolds, spherically symmetric spacetimes admit a family of nested round spheres.
In Einstein's theory of general relativity, the Schwarzschild metric (also known as the Schwarzschild vacuum or Schwarzschild solution) is the solution to the Einstein field equations that describes the gravitational field outside a spherical mass, on the assumption that the electric charge of the mass, angular momentum of the mass, and universal cosmological constant are all zero.
The Schwarzschild radius (sometimes historically referred to as the gravitational radius) is a physical parameter that shows up in the Schwarzschild solution to Einstein's field equations, corresponding to the radius defining the event horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.
In mathematics, a singularity is in general a point at which a given mathematical object is not defined, or a point of an exceptional set where it fails to be well-behaved in some particular way, such as differentiability.
Sky & Telescope (S&T) is a monthly American magazine covering all aspects of amateur astronomy, including the following.
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, originally named Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is a United States Department of Energy National Laboratory operated by Stanford University under the programmatic direction of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science and located in Menlo Park, California.
The solar mass is a standard unit of mass in astronomy, equal to approximately.
Solutions of the Einstein field equations are spacetimes that result from solving the Einstein field equations (EFE) of general relativity.
The Sombrero Galaxy (also known as Messier Object 104, M104 or NGC 4594) is a spiral galaxy in the constellation Virgo located from Earth.
A sonic black hole, sometimes called a dumb hole, is a phenomenon in which phonons (sound perturbations) are unable to escape from a fluid that is flowing more quickly than the local speed of sound.
In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.
In astrophysics, spaghettification (sometimes referred to as the noodle effect) is the vertical stretching and horizontal compression of objects into long thin shapes (rather like spaghetti) in a very strong non-homogeneous gravitational field; it is caused by extreme tidal forces.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
A spherically symmetric spacetime is a spacetime whose isometry group contains a subgroup which is isomorphic to the rotation group SO(3) and the orbits of this group are 2-spheres (ordinary 2-dimensional spheres in 3-dimensional Euclidean space).
A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.
The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", collapse and form stars.
In general relativity, specifically in the Einstein field equations, a spacetime is said to be stationary if it admits a Killing vector that is asymptotically timelike.
Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.
A stellar black hole (or stellar-mass black hole) is a black hole formed by the gravitational collapse of a massive star.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.
In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar FRS (19 October 1910 – 21 August 1995) was an Indian American astrophysicist who spent his professional life in the United States.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A supermassive black hole (SMBH or SBH) is the largest type of black hole, on the order of hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses, and is found in the centre of almost all currently known massive galaxies.
In particle physics, supersymmetry (SUSY) is a theory that proposes a relationship between two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued spin, and fermions, which have a half-integer spin.
The surface gravity, g, of an astronomical or other object is the gravitational acceleration experienced at its surface.
T-symmetry or time reversal symmetry is the theoretical symmetry of physical laws under the transformation of time reversal: T-symmetry can be shown to be equivalent to the conservation of entropy, by Noether's Theorem.
In geometry, the tangent line (or simply tangent) to a plane curve at a given point is the straight line that "just touches" the curve at that point.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
In physical theories, a test particle is an idealized model of an object whose physical properties (usually mass, charge, or size) are assumed to be negligible except for the property being studied, which is considered to be insufficient to alter the behavior of the rest of the system.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.
The Thorne–Hawking–Preskill bet was a public bet on the outcome of the black hole information paradox made in 1997 by physics theorists Kip Thorne and Stephen Hawking on the one side, and John Preskill on the other, according to the document they signed February 6, 1997, as shown in Hawking's The Universe in a Nutshell.
The tidal force is an apparent force that stretches a body towards the center of mass of another body due to a gradient (difference in strength) in gravitational field from the other body; it is responsible for the diverse phenomena, including tides, tidal locking, breaking apart of celestial bodies and formation of ring systems within Roche limit, and in extreme cases, spaghettification of objects.
Timeline of black hole physics.
The Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit (or TOV limit) is an upper bound to the mass of cold, nonrotating neutron stars, analogous to the Chandrasekhar limit for white dwarf stars.
Charles Thomas Bolton (born 1943) is an American astronomer who was one of the first astronomers to present strong evidence of the existence of a stellar-mass black hole.
An ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) is an astronomical source of X-rays that is less luminous than an active galactic nucleus but is more consistently luminous than any known stellar process (over 1039 erg/s, or 1032 watts), assuming that it radiates isotropically (the same in all directions).
In quantum physics, unitarity is a restriction on the allowed evolution of quantum systems that ensures the sum of probabilities of all possible outcomes of any event always equals 1.
V404 Cygni is a microquasar and a binary system in the constellation of Cygnus.
In general relativity, a vacuum solution is a Lorentzian manifold whose Einstein tensor vanishes identically.
The Virgo interferometer is a large interferometer designed to detect gravitational waves predicted by the general theory of relativity.
Vladimir Alekseevich Belinski (last name is also spelled Belinsky, Владимир Алексеевич Белинский; born 26 March 1941) is a Russian and Italian theoretical physicist involved in research in cosmology and general relativity.
Werner Israel, (born October 4, 1931) is a physicist, author, researcher, and professor at the University of Victoria.
A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.
In general relativity, a white hole is a hypothetical region of spacetime which cannot be entered from the outside, although matter and light can escape from it.
The world line (or worldline) of an object is the path that object traces in -dimensional spacetime.
A wormhole is a concept that represents a solution of the Einstein field equations: a non-trivial resolution of the Ehrenfest paradox structure linking separate points in spacetime.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
X-ray binaries are a class of binary stars that are luminous in X-rays.
BLACK HOLES, Black Hole, Black Holes, Black hol, Black hole spin parameter, Black holes, Black whole, Black-hole, Blackhole, Blackholes, Central black hole, Cosmic vacuum cleaners, Creation of a Black Hole, Creation of a black hole, Dimensionless spin parameter, Frozen star, Gravitationally completely collapsed star, History of black holes, Hypermass, Parts of a black hole, Spatial singularity, The formation of a black hole.