ALGOL (short for "Algorithmic Language") is a family of imperative computer programming languages, originally developed in the mid-1950s, which greatly influenced many other languages and was the standard method for algorithm description used by the ACM in textbooks and academic sources for more than thirty years.
ALGOL 58, originally known as IAL, is one of the family of ALGOL computer programming languages.
ALGOL 60 (short for Algorithmic Language 1960) is a member of the ALGOL family of computer programming languages.
ALGOL 68 (short for Algorithmic Language 1968) is an imperative computer programming language that was conceived as a successor to the ALGOL 60 programming language, designed with the goal of a much wider scope of application and more rigorously defined syntax and semantics.
Autocode is the name of a family of "simplified coding systems", later called programming languages, devised in the 1950s and 1960s for a series of digital computers at the Universities of Manchester, Cambridge and London.
BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.
In compiler construction, a basic block is a straight-line code sequence with no branches in except to the entry and no branches out except at the exit.
A batch file is a kind of script file in DOS, OS/2 and Microsoft Windows.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
In programming languages, a closure (also lexical closure or function closure) is a technique for implementing lexically scoped name binding in a language with first-class functions.
Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.
In computer science, control flow (or flow of control) is the order in which individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated.
In computer programming, a declaration is a language construct that specifies properties of an identifier: it declares what a word (identifier) "means".
Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (11 May 1930 – 6 August 2002) was a Dutch systems scientist, programmer, software engineer, science essayist, and early pioneer in computing science.
Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
GoTo (goto, GOTO, GO TO or other case combinations, depending on the programming language) is a statement found in many computer programming languages.
Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.
In computer programming, loop-invariant code consists of statements or expressions (in an imperative programming language) which can be moved outside the body of a loop without affecting the semantics of the program.
In computer programming, a nested function (or nested procedure or subroutine) is a function which is defined within another function, the enclosing function.
A computer programming language is said to adhere to the off-side rule if blocks in that language are expressed by their indentation.
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
In computing, s-expressions, sexprs or sexps (for "symbolic expression") are a notation for nested list (tree-structured) data, invented for and popularized by the programming language Lisp, which uses them for source code as well as data.
Scheme is a programming language that supports multiple paradigms, including functional programming and imperative programming, and is one of the two main dialects of Lisp.
In computer programming, the scope of a name binding – an association of a name to an entity, such as a variable – is the region of a computer program where the binding is valid: where the name can be used to refer to the entity.
In computing, source code is any collection of code, possibly with comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text.
In computer programming, a statement is a syntactic unit of an imperative programming language that expresses some action to be carried out.
Structured programming is a programming paradigm aimed at improving the clarity, quality, and development time of a computer program by making extensive use of the structured control flow constructs of selection (if/then/else) and repetition (while and for), block structures, and subroutines in contrast to using simple tests and jumps such as the go to statement, which can lead to "spaghetti code" that is potentially difficult to follow and maintain.
In computer programming, variable shadowing occurs when a variable declared within a certain scope (decision block, method, or inner class) has the same name as a variable declared in an outer scope.