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Blood–brain barrier

Index Blood–brain barrier

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS). [1]

194 relations: Abscess, Acetamide, Acta Neuropathologica, Active transport, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, African trypanosomiasis, Albumin, Alpha-synuclein, Alzheimer's disease, Amino acid, Amphotericin B, Amyloid beta, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Aniline, Antibiotic, Antibody, Aquaporin 4, Arcuate nucleus, Area postrema, Astrocyte, ATP-binding cassette transporter, Autoantibody, Autoimmune disease, Bacteria, Bacteriology, Basement membrane, Benzyl alcohol, BioMed Central, Blood, Blood vessel, Blood-borne disease, Blood–air barrier, Blood–ocular barrier, Blood–retinal barrier, Blood–testis barrier, Blood–thymus barrier, Borrelia, Bradykinin, Brain, Brain abscess, Brain Structure and Function, Brain tumor, Butanol, Caffeine, Capillary, Casomorphin, Central nervous system, Cephalosporin, Cerebral edema, Cerebrospinal fluid, ..., Chemical Reviews, Chemistry Central, Chemotherapy, Choroid plexus, Circumventricular organs, Claudin, Cytosine, Cytotoxicity, Diencephalon, Dimer (chemistry), Dosage form, Drug delivery, Efflux (microbiology), Endocytosis, Endothelium, Epilepsy, Ethanol, Ethylene glycol, Extracellular fluid, Fourth ventricle, Glia limitans, Glucose, Glucose transporter, Glut1 deficiency, Glymphatic system, Haemophilus influenzae, Heroin, High-intensity focused ultrasound, Histology, HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, HIV/AIDS, Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, Hypothalamus, Hypoxia (medical), Immune system, Infection, Inflammation, Insulator (electricity), Insulin, JAM2, JC virus, Journal of Anatomy, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Lina Stern, Lipoic acid, Lipophilicity, Lipopolysaccharide, Liposome, Liver failure, Lyme disease, Lysis, Macrophage, Magnetic resonance imaging, Mannitol, Mast cell, Median eminence, Medical News Today, Melatonin, Meninges, Meningitis, Metabolism, Methanol, Microglia, Microvessel, Mobile phone radiation and health, Monocyte, Multiple sclerosis, Myelin, Nanoparticle, Nanotechnology, Nature Communications, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Neurobiology of Aging, Neurodegeneration, Neuroendocrine cell, Neuroimmune system, Neurological disorder, Neuromyelitis optica, Neuropharmacology (journal), Neurotoxin, Occludin, Organ (anatomy), Osmosis, Oxidative stress, P-glycoprotein, Papovavirus, Parkinson's disease, Passive transport, Pathogen, Paul Ehrlich, Pericyte, Peripheral nervous system, Phagocyte, Phenazone, Phenobarbital, Phenytoin, Pineal gland, Pituitary gland, Pneumolysin, Polyethylene glycol, Prion, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Propylene glycol, Protein, Protozoa, Rabies, Scientific American, Semipermeable membrane, Sickness behavior, Solitary nucleus, Spirochaete, Staining, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Subfornical organ, Synucleinopathy, Syphilis, Systemic disease, Systemic inflammation, T cell, Tau protein, Tauopathy, The American Journal of Pathology, Thiourea, Third ventricle, Tight junction, Tight junction protein 1, Toxin, Toxoplasma gondii, Toxoplasmosis, Transcytosis, Transferrin, Transferrin receptor, Transmembrane protein, Treponema pallidum, Trojan Horse, Trypanosomiasis, University of Arizona, Urea, Vascular organ of lamina terminalis, Vascular permeability, Ventricular system, White blood cell. Expand index (144 more) »


An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.

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Acetamide (systematic name: ethanamide) is an organic compound with the formula CH3CONH2.

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Acta Neuropathologica

Acta Neuropathologica is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of neuropathology published by Springer Science+Business Media.

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Active transport

Active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—in the direction against the concentration gradient.

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Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews

Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering research involving the controlled release and delivery of drugs and other biologically active agents.

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African trypanosomiasis

African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans and other animals.

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The albumins (formed from Latin: albumen "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins.

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Alpha-synuclein is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the SNCA gene.

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Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Amphotericin B

Amphotericin B is an antifungal medication used for serious fungal infections and leishmaniasis.

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Amyloid beta

Amyloid beta (Aβ or Abeta) denotes peptides of 36–43 amino acids that are crucially involved in Alzheimer's disease as the main component of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer patients.

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.

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Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Aquaporin 4

Aquaporin-4, also known as AQP4, is a water channel protein encoded by the AQP4 gene in humans.

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Arcuate nucleus

The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (also known as ARH, ARC, or infundibular nucleus) is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence.

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Area postrema

The area postrema is a medullary structure in the brain that controls vomiting.

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Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron.

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ATP-binding cassette transporter

ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are members of a transport system superfamily that is one of the largest and is possibly one of the oldest families with representatives in all extant phyla from prokaryotes to humans.

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An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individual's own proteins.

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Autoimmune disease

An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology that studies the morphology, ecology, genetics and biochemistry of bacteria as well as many other aspects related to them.

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Basement membrane

The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that separates the lining of an internal or external body surface from underlying connective tissue in metazoans.

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Benzyl alcohol

Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol with the formula C6H5CH2OH.

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BioMed Central

BioMed Central (BMC) is a United Kingdom-based, for-profit scientific open access publisher.

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Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Blood vessel

The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.

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Blood-borne disease

A bloodborne disease is a disease that can be spread through contamination by blood and other body fluids.

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Blood–air barrier

The blood–air barrier (alveolar–capillary barrier or membrane) exists in the gas exchanging region of the lungs.

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Blood–ocular barrier

The blood–ocular barrier is a barrier created by endothelium of capillaries of the retina and iris, ciliary epithelium and retinal pigment epithelium.

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Blood–retinal barrier

The blood–retinal barrier, or the BRB, is part of the blood–ocular barrier that consists of cells that are joined tightly together to prevent certain substances from entering the tissue of the retina.

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Blood–testis barrier

The blood–testis barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes.

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Blood–thymus barrier

The blood–thymus barrier regulates exchange of substances between the circulatory system and thymus, providing a sequestered environment for immature T cells to develop.

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Borrelia is a genus of bacteria of the spirochete phylum.

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Bradykinin is an inflammatory mediator.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Brain abscess

Brain abscess (or cerebral abscess) is an abscess caused by inflammation and collection of infected material, coming from local (ear infection, dental abscess, infection of paranasal sinuses, infection of the mastoid air cells of the temporal bone, epidural abscess) or remote (lung, heart, kidney etc.) infectious sources, within the brain tissue.

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Brain Structure and Function

Brain Structure and Function is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on brain structure-function relationships.

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Brain tumor

A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.

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Butanol (also called butyl alcohol (or βουτανόλη in Greek)) is a four-carbon alcohol with a formula of C4H9OH, which occurs in five isomeric structures, from a straight-chain primary alcohol to a branched-chain tertiary alcohol; all are a butyl or isobutyl group linked to a hydroxyl group (sometimes represented as BuOH, n-BuOH, and i-BuOH).

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Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.

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A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.

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Casomorphin is an opioid peptide (protein fragment) derived from the digestion of the milk protein casein.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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The cephalosporins (sg.) are a class of β-lactam antibiotics originally derived from the fungus Acremonium, which was previously known as "Cephalosporium".

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Cerebral edema

Cerebral edema is excess accumulation of fluid in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain.

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Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.

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Chemical Reviews

Chemical Reviews is peer-reviewed scientific journal published twice per month by the American Chemical Society.

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Chemistry Central

Chemistry Central was a scientific publisher specializing in open access publications in chemistry.

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Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

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Choroid plexus

The choroid plexus is a plexus of cells that produces the cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain.

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Circumventricular organs

Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are structures in the brain characterized by their extensive vasculature and highly permeable capillaries unlike those in the rest of the brain where there exists a blood brain barrier (BBB).

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Claudins are a family of proteins which, along with occludin, are the most important components of the tight junctions) (zonulae occludentes). Tight junctions establish the paracellular barrier that controls the flow of molecules in the intercellular space between the cells of an epithelium. They have four transmembrane domains, with the N-terminus and the C-terminus in the cytoplasm.

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Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.

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The diencephalon is a division of the forebrain (embryonic prosencephalon), and is situated between the telencephalon and the midbrain (embryonic mesencephalon).

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Dimer (chemistry)

A dimer (di-, "two" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer consisting of two monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular.

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Dosage form

Dosage forms (also called unit doses) are pharmaceutical drug products in the form in which they are marketed for use, with a specific mixture of active ingredients and inactive components (excipients), in a particular configuration (such as a capsule shell, for example), and apportioned into a particular dose.

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Drug delivery

Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect.

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Efflux (microbiology)

Active efflux is a mechanism responsible for moving compounds, like neurotransmitters, toxic substances, and antibiotics, out of the cell; this is considered to be a vital part of xenobiotic metabolism.

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Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.

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Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.

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Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.

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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Ethylene glycol

Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2.

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Extracellular fluid

Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.

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Fourth ventricle

The fourth ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain.

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Glia limitans

The glia limitans, or the glial limiting membrane, is a thin barrier of astrocyte foot processes associated with the parenchymal basal lamina surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Glucose transporter

Glucose transporters are a wide group of membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of glucose across the plasma membrane.

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Glut1 deficiency

GLUT1 deficiency, also known as De Vivo disease, is an autosomal dominant, genetic metabolic disorder associated with a deficiency of GLUT1, the protein that transports glucose across the blood brain barrier also known as Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS).

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Glymphatic system

The glymphatic system (or glymphatic clearance pathway, or paravascular system) is a functional waste clearance pathway for the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS).

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Haemophilus influenzae

Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.

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Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.

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High-intensity focused ultrasound

High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an early stage medical technology that is in various stages of development worldwide to treat a range of disorders.

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Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.

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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are neurological disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS.

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.

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In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.

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The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.

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Hypoxia (medical)

Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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Insulator (electricity)

An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.

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Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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Junctional adhesion molecule B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JAM2 gene.

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JC virus

The JC virus or John Cunningham virus is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly known as papovavirus).

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Journal of Anatomy

The Journal of Anatomy, originally between 1867 and 1916 known as the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

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Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (a.k.a. JPET) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering pharmacology.

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Lina Stern

Lina Solomonovna Stern (or Shtern; Лина Соломоновна Штерн; 26 August 1878 – 7 March 1968) was a Soviet biochemist, physiologist and humanist whose medical discoveries saved thousands of lives at the fronts of World War II.

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Lipoic acid

Lipoic acid (LA), also known as α-lipoic acid and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) and thioctic acid is an organosulfur compound derived from caprylic acid (octanoic acid).

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Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.

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Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.

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A liposome is a spherical vesicle having at least one lipid bilayer.

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Liver failure

Liver failure or hepatic insufficiency is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology.

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Lyme disease

Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type which is spread by ticks.

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Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.

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Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol which is also used as a medication.

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Mast cell

A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.

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Median eminence

The median eminence, part of the inferior boundary of the hypothalamus in the brain, is attached to the infundibulum.

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Medical News Today

Medical News Today is a web-based outlet for medical news, targeted to both physicians and the general public.

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Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.

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The meninges (singular: meninx, from membrane, adjectival: meningeal) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.

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Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).

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Microglia are a type of neuroglia (glial cell) located throughout the brain and spinal cord.

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Microvessel or microvasculature refers to the smallest systems of blood vessels in a body, including those responsible for microcirculation, the system of smaller blood vessels that distribute blood within tissues.

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Mobile phone radiation and health

The effect of mobile phone radiation on human health is a subject of interest and study worldwide, as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage throughout the world.

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Monocytes are a type of leukocyte, or white blood cell.

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Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.

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Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.

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Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometres (nm) in size with a surrounding interfacial layer.

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Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.

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Nature Communications

Nature Communications is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group since 2010.

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Nature Reviews Neuroscience

Nature Reviews Neuroscience is a leading review journal with one of the highest impact factors covering neuroscience, in particular.

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Neurobiology of Aging

Neurobiology of Aging is a peer-reviewed monthly scientific journal published by Elsevier.

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Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.

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Neuroendocrine cell

Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory cells) and, as a consequence of this input, release message molecules (hormones) to the blood.

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Neuroimmune system

The neuroimmune system is a system of structures and processes involving the biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the nervous system and immune system which protect neurons from pathogens.

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Neurological disorder

A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.

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Neuromyelitis optica

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), also known as Devic's disease or Devic's syndrome, is a heterogeneous condition consisting of the inflammation and demyelination of the optic nerve (optic neuritis) and the spinal cord (myelitis).

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Neuropharmacology (journal)

Neuropharmacology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of neuroscience.

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Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).

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Occludin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OCLN gene.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.

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Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.

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P-glycoprotein 1 (permeability glycoprotein, abbreviated as P-gp or Pgp) also known as multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) or ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) or cluster of differentiation 243 (CD243) is an important protein of the cell membrane that pumps many foreign substances out of cells.

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A papovavirus is any member of the former virus family of Papovaviridae.

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

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Passive transport

Passive transport is a movement of ions and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input.

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In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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Paul Ehrlich

Paul Ehrlich (14 March 1854 – 20 August 1915) was a German Jewish physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology, immunology, and antimicrobial chemotherapy.

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Pericytes are contractile cells that wrap around the endothelial cells that line the capillaries and venules throughout the body.

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Peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).

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Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.

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Phenazone (INN and BAN; also known as phenazon, antipyrine (USAN), or analgesine) is an analgesic, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and an antipyretic.

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Phenobarbital, also known as phenobarbitone or phenobarb, is a medication recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of certain types of epilepsy in developing countries.

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Phenytoin (PHT), sold under the brand name Dilantin among others, is an anti-seizure medication.

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Pineal gland

The pineal gland, also known as the conarium, kônarion or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain.

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Pituitary gland

An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.

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Pneumolysin is a putative virulence factor of the gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae.

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Polyethylene glycol

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.

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Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.

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Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare and usually fatal viral disease characterized by progressive damage (-pathy) or inflammation of the white matter (leuko-) of the brain (-encephalo-) at multiple locations (multifocal).

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Propylene glycol

Propylene glycol (IUPAC name: propane-1,2-diol) is a synthetic organic compound with the chemical formula C3H8O2.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.

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Rabies is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the brain in humans and other mammals.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Semipermeable membrane

A semipermeable membrane is a type of biological or synthetic, polymeric membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it by diffusion—or occasionally by more specialized processes of facilitated diffusion, passive transport or active transport.

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Sickness behavior

Ancher, Michael, "The Sick Girl", 1882, Statens Museum for Kunst. Sickness behavior is a coordinated set of adaptive behavioral changes that develop in ill individuals during the course of an infection.

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Solitary nucleus

In the human brainstem, the solitary nucleus (SN) (nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus solitarius, nucleus tractus solitarii) is a series of purely sensory nuclei (clusters of nerve cell bodies) forming a vertical column of grey matter embedded in the medulla oblongata.

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A spirochaete or spirochete is a member of the phylum Spirochaetes, which contains distinctive diderm (double-membrane) bacteria, most of which have long, helically coiled (corkscrew-shaped or spiraled, hence the name) cells.

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Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.

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Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.

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Subfornical organ

The subfornical organ (SFO), situated on the ventral surface of the fornix (the reasoning behind the organ's name), at the interventricular foramina (foramina of Monro), is one of the circumventricular organs of the brain, meaning that it is highly vascularized and does not have a blood-brain barrier, unlike the vast majority of regions in the brain.

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Synucleinopathies (also called α-Synucleinopathies) are neurodegenerative diseases characterised by the abnormal accumulation of aggregates of alpha-synuclein protein in neurons, nerve fibres or glial cells.

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Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.

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Systemic disease

A systemic disease is one that affects a number of organs and tissues, or affects the body as a whole.

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Systemic inflammation

Chronic systemic inflammation (SI) is the result of release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from immune-related cells and the chronic activation of the innate immune system.

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T cell

A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.

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Tau protein

Tau proteins (or τ proteins, after the Greek letter with that name) are proteins that stabilize microtubules.

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Tauopathy belongs to a class of neurodegenerative diseases associated with the pathological aggregation of tau protein in neurofibrillary or gliofibrillary tangles in the human brain.

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The American Journal of Pathology

The American Journal of Pathology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering pathology.

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Thiourea is an organosulfur compound with the formula SC(NH2)2.

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Third ventricle

The third ventricle is one of four connected fluid-filled cavities comprising the ventricular system within the mammalian brain.

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Tight junction

Tight junctions, also known as occluding junctions or zonulae occludentes (singular, zonula occludens) are multiprotein junctional complex whose general function is to prevent leakage of transported solutes and water and seals the paracellular pathway.

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Tight junction protein 1

Zonula occludens-1 ZO-1, also known as Tight junction protein-1 is a 220-kD peripheral membrane protein that is encoded by the TJP1 gene in humans.

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A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.

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Toxoplasma gondii

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular, parasitic alveolate that causes the disease toxoplasmosis.

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Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii.

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Transcytosis is a type of transcellular transport in which various macromolecules are transported across the interior of a cell.

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Transferrins are iron-binding blood plasma glycoproteins that control the level of free iron (Fe) in biological fluids.

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Transferrin receptor

Transferrin receptor (TfR) is a carrier protein for transferrin.

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Transmembrane protein

A transmembrane protein (TP) is a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached.

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Treponema pallidum

Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete bacterium with subspecies that cause the diseases syphilis, bejel, and yaws.

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Trojan Horse

The Trojan Horse is a tale from the Trojan War about the subterfuge that the Greeks used to enter the independent city of Troy and win the war.

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Trypanosomiasis or trypanosomosis is the name of several diseases in vertebrates caused by parasitic protozoan trypanosomes of the genus Trypanosoma.

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University of Arizona

The University of Arizona (also referred to as U of A, UA, or Arizona) is a public research university in Tucson, Arizona.

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Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.

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Vascular organ of lamina terminalis

The vascular organ of lamina terminalis (VOLT), organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), or supraoptic crest is one of the four sensory circumventricular organs of the brain, the others being the subfornical organ, the median eminence, and the area postrema in the brainstem.

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Vascular permeability

Vascular permeability, often in the form of capillary permeability or microvascular permeability, characterizes the capacity of a blood vessel wall to allow for the flow of small molecules (drugs, nutrients, water, ions) or even whole cells (lymphocytes on their way to the site of inflammation) in and out of the vessel.

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Ventricular system

The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced.

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood–brain_barrier

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