142 relations: ACE inhibitor, Addison's disease, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal gland, Adult, Aldosterone, American Heart Association, Angiotensin, Angiotensin II receptor blocker, Angiotensin-converting enzyme, Anorexia nervosa, Antimineralocorticoid, Aorta, Aortic arch, Aortic dissection, Aortic insufficiency, Arterial stiffness, Arterial tree, Arteriole, Artery, Atheroma, Atrium (heart), Autonomic nervous system, Baroreceptor, Baroreflex, Bleeding, Blood, Blood plasma, Blood pressure, Blood vessel, Blood volume, Breathing, Bulimia nervosa, Capillary, Cardiac cycle, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac output, Cardiovascular disease, Carotid sinus, Catheter, Central venous pressure, Cerebrovascular disease, Chronic kidney disease, Circadian rhythm, Circulatory system, Coarctation of the aorta, Diastole, Distal convoluted tubule, Diuretic, Drag (physics), ..., Eating disorder, Edema, Embolism, Endocrine system, Endogeny (biology), Frank–Starling law, G-force, Hagen–Poiseuille equation, Heart, Heart failure, Heart rate, Heart valve, High pressure receptors, Hormone, Hydrostatics, Hypertension, Hypertensive emergency, Hypotension, Intensive care medicine, Jugular venous pressure, Juxtaglomerular cell, Kidney, Kidney failure, Leukoaraiosis, Life expectancy, Low pressure receptors, Macula densa, Mean arterial pressure, Medication, Medulla oblongata, Mercury (element), Millimeter of mercury, Mitral insufficiency, Myocardial infarction, Nephron, Nervous system, Nitroglycerin, Orthostatic hypotension, Osmosis, Oxygen saturation, Pathology, Percentile, Perfusion, Portal vein, Portal venous pressure, Potassium, Pregnancy, Prehypertension, Pressure, Pulmonary artery, Pulmonary circulation, Pulmonary edema, Pulmonary hypertension, Pulmonary vein, Pulse, Pulse pressure, Reference range, Renal function, Renin, Renin–angiotensin system, Respiratory disease, Respiratory rate, Rostral ventrolateral medulla, Sepsis, Sex, Shock (circulatory), Sodium, Sphygmomanometer, Spironolactone, Stenosis, Steroid hormone, Stress (biology), Stroke, Stroke volume, Syncope (medicine), Systole, Systolic hypertension, Thermoregulation, Thrombosis, Toronto General Hospital, Toxin, United Kingdom, Vascular resistance, Vasoconstriction, Vasodilation, Vasopressin, Vein, Venae cavae, Ventricle (heart), Viscosity, Vital signs, Volumetric flow rate. Expand index (92 more) » « Shrink index
An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.
Addison's disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency and hypocortisolism, is a long-term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones.
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, such as aldosterone and cortisol, respectively.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Biologically, an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity.
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke.
Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure.
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists, AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin–angiotensin system.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme, or ACE, is a central component of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), which controls blood pressure by regulating the volume of fluids in the body.
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.
An antimineralocorticoid, MCRA, or an aldosterone antagonist, is a diuretic drug which antagonizes the action of aldosterone at mineralocorticoid receptors.
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).
The aortic arch, arch of the aorta, or transverse aortic arch is the part of the aorta between the ascending and descending aorta.
Aortic dissection (AD) occurs when an injury to the innermost layer of the aorta allows blood to flow between the layers of the aortic wall, forcing the layers apart.
Aortic insufficiency (AI), also known as aortic regurgitation (AR), is the leaking of the aortic valve of the heart that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction during ventricular diastole, from the aorta into the left ventricle.
Arterial stiffness occurs as a consequence of biological aging and arteriosclerosis.
In anatomy, arterial tree is used to refer to all arteries and/or the branching pattern of the arteries.
An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
An atheroma is a reversible accumulation of degenerative material in the inner layer of an artery wall.
The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
Baroreceptors (or archaically, pressoreceptors) are sensors located in the blood vessels of all vertebrate animals.
The baroreflex or baroreceptor reflex is one of the body's homeostatic mechanisms that helps to maintain blood pressure at nearly constant levels.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Blood volume is the volume of blood (both red blood cells and plasma) in the circulatory system of any individual.
Breathing (or respiration, or ventilation) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment, mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide.
Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
The cardiac cycle is the performance of the human heart from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by the left or right ventricle, per unit time.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
In human anatomy, the carotid sinus is a dilated area at the base of the internal carotid artery just superior to the bifurcation of the internal carotid and external carotid at the level of the superior border of thyroid cartilage.
In medicine, a catheter is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions.
Central venous pressure (CVP) is the blood pressure in the venae cavae, near the right atrium of the heart.
Cerebrovascular disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Coarctation of the aorta (CoA or CoAo), also called aortic narrowing, is a congenital condition whereby the aorta is narrow, usually in the area where the ductus arteriosus (ligamentum arteriosum after regression) inserts.
Diastole is the part of the cardiac cycle during which the heart refills with blood after the emptying done during systole (contraction).
The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is a portion of kidney nephron between the loop of Henle and the collecting tubule.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
An embolism is the lodging of an embolus, a blockage-causing piece of material, inside a blood vessel.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
The Frank–Starling law of the heart (also known as Starling's law and the Frank–Starling mechanism) represents the relationship between stroke volume and end diastolic volume.
The gravitational force, or more commonly, g-force, is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight.
In nonideal fluid dynamics, the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, also known as the Hagen–Poiseuille law, Poiseuille law or Poiseuille equation, is a physical law that gives the pressure drop in an incompressible and Newtonian fluid in laminar flow flowing through a long cylindrical pipe of constant cross section.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
A heart valve normally allows blood to flow in only one direction through the heart.
High pressure receptors are the baroreceptors found within the aortic arch and carotid sinus.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids at rest.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
A hypertensive emergency, also known as malignant hypertension, is high blood pressure with potentially life-threatening symptoms and signs indicative of acute impairment of one or more organ systems (especially the central nervous system, cardiovascular system or the kidneys).
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Intensive care medicine, or critical care medicine, is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions that may require sophisticated life support and monitoring.
The jugular venous pressure (JVP, sometimes referred to as jugular venous pulse) is the indirectly observed pressure over the venous system via visualization of the internal jugular vein.
The juxtaglomerular cells (JG cells, or granular cells) are cells in the kidney that synthesize, store, and secrete the enzyme renin.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Leukoaraiosis is a particular abnormal change in appearance of white matter near the lateral ventricles.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Low pressure receptors are baroreceptors located in large systemic veins, in the pulmonary arteries, in the walls of the atria, and ventricles of the heart.
In the kidney, the macula densa is an area of closely packed specialized cells lining the wall of the distal tubule, at the point where the thick ascending limb meets the distal convoluted tubule.
In medicine, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) is an average blood pressure in an individual during a single cardiac cycle.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A millimeter of mercury is a manometric unit of pressure, formerly defined as the extra pressure generated by a column of mercury one millimetre high and now defined as precisely pascals.
Mitral insufficiency (MI), mitral regurgitation or mitral incompetence is a disorder of the heart in which the mitral valve does not close properly when the heart pumps out blood.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin (TNG), trinitroglycerine, nitro, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ester.
Orthostatic hypotension, also known as postural hypotension, occurs when a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position.
Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
Oxygen saturation (symbol SO2) is a relative measure of the concentration of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium as a proportion of the maximal concentration that can be dissolved in that medium.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
A percentile (or a centile) is a measure used in statistics indicating the value below which a given percentage of observations in a group of observations fall.
Perfusion is the passage of fluid through the circulatory system or lymphatic system to an organ or a tissue, usually referring to the delivery of blood to a capillary bed in tissue.
The portal vein or hepatic portal vein is a blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen to the liver.
Portal venous pressure is the blood pressure in the hepatic portal vein, and is normally between 5-10 mmHg.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Prehypertension, also known as high normal blood pressure, is an American medical classification for cases where a person's blood pressure is elevated above normal, but not to the level considered hypertension (high blood pressure).
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
A pulmonary artery is an artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.
The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.
Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH or PHTN) is a condition of increased blood pressure within the arteries of the lungs.
The pulmonary veins are the veins that transfer oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
In medicine, a pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips.
Pulse pressure is the difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
In health-related fields, a reference range or reference interval is the range of values for a physiologic measurement in healthy persons (for example, the amount of creatinine in the blood, or the partial pressure of oxygen).
Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.
Renin (etymology and pronunciation), also known as an angiotensinogenase, is an aspartic protease protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys that participates in the body's renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS)—also known as the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone axis—that mediates the volume of extracellular fluid (blood plasma, lymph and interstitial fluid), and arterial vasoconstriction.
The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) or the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.
Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing.
The respiratory rate is the rate at which breathing occurs.
The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), also known as the pressor area of the medulla, is a brain region that is responsible for basal and reflex control of sympathetic activity associated with cardiovascular function.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex. Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
A sphygmomanometer, also known as a blood pressure meter, blood pressure monitor, or blood pressure gauge, is a device used to measure blood pressure, composed of an inflatable cuff to collapse and then release the artery under the cuff in a controlled manner, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure.
Spironolactone, sold under the brand name Aldactone among others, is a medication that is primarily used to treat fluid build-up due to heart failure, liver scarring, or kidney disease.
A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure.
A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
In cardiovascular physiology, stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood pumped from the left ventricle per beat.
Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.
The systole is that part of the cardiac cycle during which some chambers of the heart muscle contract after refilling with blood.
In medicine, systolic hypertension is defined as an elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP).
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.
The Toronto General Hospital (TGH), is a major teaching hospital in downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and a part of the University Health Network.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Vascular resistance is the resistance that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create flow.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
The venae cavae (from the Latin for "hollow veins", singular "vena cava") are two large veins (venous trunks) that return deoxygenated blood from the body into the heart.
A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Vital signs (often shortened to just vitals) are a group of the 4 to 6 most important signs that indicate the status of the body’s vital (life-sustaining) functions.
In physics and engineering, in particular fluid dynamics and hydrometry, the volumetric flow rate (also known as volume flow rate, rate of fluid flow or volume velocity) is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time; usually represented by the symbol (sometimes). The SI unit is m3/s (cubic metres per second).
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