505 relations: A & C Black, Abstract expressionism, Additive color, Aerial perspective, Afghanistan, African Americans, Al-Andalus, Albert Einstein, Albrecht Dürer, Algae, Alkalai, Aluminium oxide, American football, American Revolution, Amiens, Amu Darya, Amun, Andrea del Sarto, Andrea della Robbia, Anthony van Dyck, Appalachia, Aquamarine (color), Argentina national football team, Ark of the Covenant, Art of Europe, Asian Football Confederation, Association football, Atmosphere, Aurochs, Autism, Autism Speaks, Azure (color), Azure (heraldry), Azurite, Ångström, École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr, İznik, Babylon, Bacchus and Ariadne, Badakhshan, Ball, Baltic Sea, Barbados, Basilica of St Denis, Basketball, Beau Brummell, Bhaisajyaguru, Black, Bleus de Bretagne, Blue (university sport), ..., Blue and white pottery, Blue chip (stock market), Blue Edwards, Blue flag, Blue Force Tracking, Blue giant, Blue House, Blue in Judaism, Blue law, Blue Line, Blue movie, Blue note, Blue Riband, Blue ribbon, Blue rose, Blue Rose (art group), Blue Screen of Death, Blue supergiant star, Blue-collar worker, Blue-ribbon panel, Blue–green distinction in language, Bluegrass music, Blues, Blueshirts, Bluestocking, Book of Exodus, Book of Numbers, Boscoreale, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brazilian Social Democracy Party, Brisbane, Brittany, Buff (colour), Buffalo Sabres, Byzantine Empire, Caillebotte, Caligula, Cambodia, Cannes, Cathedral, Catherine the Great, Catholic Church, Cave painting, Central Europe, Centre-right politics, Cerulean, Chad, Chakra, Chariot racing, Charles II of England, Charles James Fox, Chartres Cathedral, Chemiluminescence, China, Chinese opera, Chinoiserie, Christian Gmelin, Chrozophora tinctoria, Circus Maximus, Claude Monet, Coat of arms of Ireland, Cobalt, Cobalt blue, Cobalt glass, Cobalt oxide, Color, Color printing, Color term, Color theory, Columbus Blue Jackets, Commelina, Complementary colors, CONCACAF, Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party of Canada, Continental Army, Continental Congress, Continental Navy, Copper, Costa Rica, Council of Europe, Country music, Croatia, Cyan, Czech Republic, David Cameron, Delft, Delta Air Lines, Democratic Party (Luxembourg), Democratic Party (United States), Denim, Depression (mood), Der Blaue Reiter, Diode-pumped solid-state laser, DNA sequencing, Dodger blue, Dominant wavelength, Dominican Republic, Duccio, Dye, Eastern Europe, Edmonton Oilers, Egyptian blue, El Greco, Engineer's blue, Erfurt, Eros, Estonia, European Union, Eye color, Ezekiel, Faience, Federated States of Micronesia, FIFA, FIFA World Cup, Flag of Israel, Fleur-de-lis, Fra Angelico, France national football team, Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, French Revolution, Frequency, Friendly fire, Gabon, Gamut, Gardes Françaises, Gas laser, Gender, George IV of the United Kingdom, George Mason, George Washington, Germanic languages, Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, Giotto, Giovanni Bellini, Graphical user interface, Great Fire of London, Green, Guy Deutscher (linguist), Hagia Sophia, Haiti, Halo (optical phenomenon), Han dynasty, Han purple and Han blue, Hebrew language, Henan, Henri Matisse, Henry IV of France, Herat, Hinduism, Hippodrome of Constantinople, Hiroshige, Hokusai, Holography, Hopi, Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, House of Savoy, HSL and HSV, Hullin, Human eye, Humours of an Election, Hyperlink, Ice hockey, Imperial Porcelain Factory, Impressionism, Indanthrone blue, Indigo, Indigo carmine, Indigo dye, Indigofera tinctoria, International Klein Blue, Iran, Iris (anatomy), Irish traditional music, Isatis tinctoria, Isfahan, Ishtar Gate, Islam, Israelites, Istanbul, Italian Renaissance, Italy national football team, J. M. W. Turner, Jacob Christoph Le Blon, James Clerk Maxwell, Japanese language, Jazz, Jean-Antoine Watteau, Jeans, JetBlue, Jews, Johann Jacob Diesbach, John F. Kennedy, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, Joshua Reynolds, Justinian I, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, King Arthur, Knossos, Korean language, Kosovo, Krishna, Lakota people, Laos, Lapis lazuli, Laser, Laser diode, Levi Strauss, Liberalism, Liberals (Sweden), Liberia, Liechtenstein, Light, Lime (material), Linseed oil, List of G20 summits, Lists of colors, Livery, Louis IX of France, Louis Jacques Thénard, Louis XV of France, Louis XVI of France, Luminol, Luxembourg, Madame de Pompadour, Madonna del Prato (Raphael), Mahayana, Maimonides, Major League Baseball, Major scale, Malcolm McGregor, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, Mark Rothko, Mary, mother of Jesus, Mas Subramanian, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Melanin, Menorah (Temple), Mesopotamia, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Metropolitan Police Service, Middle Ages, Middle English, Mishneh Torah, Modern English, Moldova, Mouvement Réformateur, Muhammad, Munsell color system, Murad III, Myosotis, Nagasaki, Nanometre, Napoleon, National Basketball Association, National colours, National Football League, National Guard (France), National Hockey League, NATO, NATO Joint Military Symbology, Natron, Natural dye, Navy blue, Neon lighting, Nepal, Nero, New Progressive Party (Puerto Rico), New York City, New York City Police Department, New York Islanders, New York Rangers, New York Stock Exchange, New Zealand, Nicolas Lancret, Nika riots, Nobility, Non-photo blue, North Korea, Numbers Rabbah, Oceania Football Confederation, Oil painting, Old French, Old High German, Ontario, Open Vlaamse Liberalen en Democraten, Optical pumping, Optogenetics, Orange (colour), Organic compound, Ovarian cancer, Pablo Picasso, Padua, Palau, Paleolithic, Panama, Pantone, Paolo Veronese, Paraguay, Particle image velocimetry, Patriot (American Revolution), Pavel Kuznetsov, People's Liberation Army, People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, Persian miniature, Peter Paul Rubens, Photic zone, Phthalocyanine, Picasso's Blue Period, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Pigment, Pink, Pitch (music), Pliny the Elder, Poker, Pompeii, Pope Pius V, Porcelain, Pornographic film, President of South Korea, Primary color, Prussia, Prussian blue, Puerto Rico, Quran, Radiolab, Rama, Raman spectroscopy, Raphael, Rashi, Ravenna, Rayleigh scattering, Red, Red states and blue states, Regency era, Rembrandt, Renaissance, Republican Party (United States), RGB color model, Ribaldry, Richard II of England, Robert Peel, Roman Empire, Romania, Ron Chernow, Rouen, Royal Navy, Russia, Rwanda, RYB color model, Sahara, Saint Petersburg, Sainte-Chapelle, Samoa, Savoy, Scattering, Scottish folk music, Serbia, Sexual suggestiveness, Shiva, Sierra Leone, Silicon dioxide, Sky blue, Slovakia, Slovenia, Société d'encouragement pour l'industrie nationale, Soft-paste porcelain, Somalia, Something old, Southern Europe, Spanish language, SRGB, St. Louis Blues, St. Patrick's blue, Stained glass, Starry Night Over the Rhône, Storming of the Bastille, Story Bridge, Stroma of iris, Suger, Sunday shopping, Symbolism (arts), Tabernacle, Tagelmust, Tallit, Tampa Bay Lightning, Tang dynasty, Teal, Tempera, Terracotta, Thai language, Thai solar calendar, Thailand, The Great Wave off Kanagawa, The Old Guitarist, The U.S. Air Force (song), The Umbrellas (Renoir), Thuringia, Tile, Tintoretto, Titian, Topkapı Palace, Torah, Toronto, Toronto Blue Jays, Toronto Maple Leafs, Tory, Toulouse, Traffic sign, Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, Tuareg people, Turbidity, Turquoise (color), Tutankhamun, Tyndall effect, Tzitzit, UEFA, Ultramarine, Underwater, UNESCO, United Nations, United Nations peacekeeping, University of Copenhagen, Uruguay national football team, Vancouver Canucks, Vasco da Gama, Venstre (Denmark), Vincent van Gogh, Violet (color), Vishnu, Vishuddha, Visible spectrum, Vitruvius, Vogue (magazine), War in the Vendée, Washington: A Life, Wassily Kandinsky, Wavelength, Web colors, Whigs (British political party), White, White Americans, William Hogarth, Wilton Diptych, Winnipeg Jets, Women's National Basketball Association, Workers' Party (Brazil), World War I, World War II, World Wide Web, Yellow, YInMn Blue, Yves Klein. 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A & C Black is a British book publishing company, owned since 2002 by Bloomsbury Publishing.
Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York in the 1940s.
Additive color is a method to create color by mixing a number of different light colors, with shades of red, green, and blue being the most common primary colors used in additive color system.
Aerial perspective or atmospheric perspective refers to the effect the atmosphere has on the appearance of an object as it is viewed from a distance.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528)Müller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers, Walter de Gruyter.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Alkalai (אלקלעי) may refer to.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
Amiens is a city and commune in northern France, north of Paris and south-west of Lille.
The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.
Amun (also Amon, Ammon, Amen; Greek Ἄμμων Ámmōn, Ἅμμων Hámmōn) was a major ancient Egyptian deity who appears as a member of the Hermopolitan ogdoad.
Andrea del Sarto (1486–1530) was an Italian painter from Florence, whose career flourished during the High Renaissance and early Mannerism.
Andrea della Robbia (October 24, 1435August 4, 1525) was an Italian Renaissance sculptor, especially in ceramics.
Sir Anthony van Dyck (many variant spellings; 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy and the Southern Netherlands.
Appalachia is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York to northern Alabama, Mississippi and Georgia.
Aquamarine is a color that is a bluish tint of cerulean toned toward cyan.
The Argentina national football team (Selección de fútbol de Argentina) represents Argentina in football and is controlled by the Argentine Football Association (AFA), the governing body for football in Argentina.
The Ark of the Covenant, also known as the Ark of the Testimony, is a gold-covered wooden chest with lid cover described in the Book of Exodus as containing the two stone tablets of the Ten Commandments.
The art of Europe, or Western art, encompasses the history of visual art in Europe.
The Asian Football Confederation (AFC) is the governing body of association football in Asia and Australia.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The aurochs (or; pl. aurochs, or rarely aurochsen, aurochses), also known as urus or ure (Bos primigenius), is an extinct species of large wild cattle that inhabited Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
Autism Speaks is an autism advocacy organization in the United States that sponsors autism research and conducts awareness and outreach activities aimed at families, governments, and the public.
Azure is a variation of blue that is often described as the color of the sky on a clear day.
In heraldry, azure is the tincture with the colour blue, and belongs to the class of tinctures called "colours".
Azurite is a soft, deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits.
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
The École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr (ESM, literally the "Special Military School of Saint-Cyr") is the foremost French military academy.
İznik is a town and an administrative district in the Province of Bursa, Turkey.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Bacchus and Ariadne (1522–1523) is an oil painting by Titian.
Badakhshan (Pashto/بدخشان, Badaxšân; Бадахшон, Badaxşon;;, Dungan: Бадахәшон, Xiao'erjing: بَا دَا کْ شًا, Ming dynasty era Chinese name- 巴丹沙) is a historic region comprising parts of what is now northeastern Afghanistan and southeastern Tajikistan.
A ball is a round object (usually spherical but sometimes ovoid) with various uses.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.
The Basilica of Saint Denis (Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
George Bryan "Beau" Brummell (7 June 1778 – 30 March 1840) was an iconic figure in Regency England and for many years the arbiter of men's fashion.
Bhaiṣajyaguru, formally Bhaiṣajya-guru-vaiḍūrya-prabhā-rāja ("King of Medicine Master and Lapis Lazuli Light"), is the Buddha of healing and medicine in Mahāyāna Buddhism.
Black is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of visible light.
The Ligue des bleus de Bretagne (League of Breton Blues) was a liberal organisation in Brittany founded in 1899, dedicated to promoting the ideals of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution in Brittany, and combating the influence of the aristocracy and clergy.
A blue is an award earned by athletes at a university and some schools for competition at the highest level.
"Blue and white pottery" covers a wide range of white pottery and porcelain decorated under the glaze with a blue pigment, generally cobalt oxide.
A blue chip is stock in a corporation with a national reputation for quality, reliability, and the ability to operate profitably in good times and bad.
Theodore "Blue" Edwards (born October 31, 1965) is a retired American professional basketball player who played in the National Basketball Association (NBA).
Blue flag or Blue Flag may refer to:;Sport and recreation.
Blue force tracking is a United States military term for a GPS-enabled capability that provides military commanders and forces with location information about friendly (and despite its name, also hostile) military forces.
In astronomy, a blue giant is a hot star with a luminosity class of III (giant) or II (bright giant).
The Blue House (청와대; Hanja: 靑瓦臺; Cheong Wa Dae; literally "pavilion of blue tiles") is the executive office and official residence of the South Korean head of state, the President of the Republic of Korea, and is located in the capital city of Seoul.
Blue in Judaism is used to symbolise divinity, because blue is the color of the sky and sea.
Blue laws, also known as Sunday laws, are laws designed to restrict or ban some or all Sunday activities for religious reasons, particularly to promote the observance of a day of worship or rest.
Blue Line may refer to.
Blue movie may refer to.
In jazz and blues, a blue note (also "worried" note) is a note that—for expressive purposes—is sung or played at a slightly different pitch than standard.
The Blue Riband is an unofficial accolade given to the passenger liner crossing the Atlantic Ocean in regular service with the record highest speed.
The blue ribbon is a symbol of high quality.
A blue rose is a flower of the genus Rosa (family Rosaceae) that presents blue-to-violet pigmentation instead of the more common red, white, or yellow.
Blue Rose (Голубая роза - Blaue Rose) was a Symbolist artist association in Moscow from 1906 to 1908.
A stop error, better known as a Blue Screen of Death (also known as a blue screen or BSOD) is an error screen displayed on a Windows computer system after a fatal system error, also known as a system crash: when the operating system reaches a condition where it can no longer operate safely.
Blue supergiant stars are hot luminous stars, referred to scientifically as OB supergiants.
In the United States and (at least some) other English-speaking countries, a blue-collar worker is a working class person who performs manual labor.
In the United States, a blue-ribbon panel (or blue ribbon commission) is a group of exceptional people appointed to investigate, study or analyze a given question.
Many languages do not distinguish between what in English are described as "blue" and "green" and instead use a cover term spanning both.
Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music named after Kentucky mandolin player and songwriter Bill Monroe's band, the Bluegrass Boys 1939-96, and furthered by musicians who played with him, including 5-string banjo player Earl Scruggs and guitarist Lester Flatt, or who simply admired the high-energy instrumental and vocal music Monroe's group created, and carried it on into new bands, some of which created subgenres (Progressive Bluegrass, Newgrass, Dawg Music etc.). Bluegrass is influenced by the music of Appalachia and other styles, including gospel and jazz.
Blues is a music genre and musical form originated by African Americans in the Deep South of the United States around the end of the 19th century.
The Army Comrades Association (ACA), later the National Guard, then Young Ireland and finally League of Youth, but better known by the nickname The Blueshirts (Na Léinte Gorma), was a Right-wing movement in the Irish Free State in the early 1930s.
A bluestocking is an educated, intellectual woman, originally a member of the 18th-century Blue Stockings Society led by the hostess and critic Elizabeth Montagu (1720–1800), the "Queen of the Blues", including Elizabeth Vesey (1715–91), Hester Chapone (1727–1801) and the classicist Elizabeth Carter (1717–1806).
The Book of Exodus or, simply, Exodus (from ἔξοδος, éxodos, meaning "going out"; וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת, we'elleh shəmōṯ, "These are the names", the beginning words of the text: "These are the names of the sons of Israel" וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמֹות בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל), is the second book of the Torah and the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) immediately following Genesis.
The Book of Numbers (from Greek Ἀριθμοί, Arithmoi; בְּמִדְבַּר, Bəmiḏbar, "In the desert ") is the fourth book of the Hebrew Bible, and the fourth of five books of the Jewish Torah.
Boscoreale (Vuoscoriàlë) is an Italian comune and town in the Metropolitan City of Naples, Campania, with a population of 27,457 in 2011.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Brazilian Social Democracy Party (Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira, PSDB, also translated as "Party of Brazilian Social Democracy" or "Brazilian Social Democratic Party") is a centrist political party in Brazil.
Brisbane is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
Buff is the pale yellow-brown colour of the undyed leather of several animals.
The Buffalo Sabres are a professional ice hockey team based in Buffalo, New York.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Caillebotte is a French surname that may refer to.
Caligula (Latin: Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 31 August 12 – 24 January 41 AD) was Roman emperor from AD 37 to AD 41.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Cannes (Canas) is a city located on the French Riviera.
A cathedral is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Cave paintings, also known as parietal art, are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, beginning roughly 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Centre-right politics or center-right politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-right politics, are politics that lean to the right of the left–right political spectrum, but are closer to the centre than other right-wing variants.
Cerulean, also spelled caerulean, is a colour term that may be applied to certain colours with the hue ranging roughly between blue and azure overlapping with both.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Chakras (Sanskrit: चक्र, IAST: cakra, Pali: cakka, lit. wheel, circle) are the various focal points in the subtle body used in a variety of ancient meditation practices, collectively denominated as Tantra, or the esoteric or inner traditions of Indian religion, Chinese Taoism, Tibetan Buddhism, as well as Japanese Esoteric Buddhism, and in postmodernity, in new age medicine, and originally psychologically adopted to the western mind through the assistance of Carl G. Jung.
Chariot racing (harmatodromia, ludi circenses) was one of the most popular ancient Greek, Roman, and Byzantine sports.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charles James Fox (24 January 1749 – 13 September 1806), styled The Honourable from 1762, was a prominent British Whig statesman whose parliamentary career spanned 38 years of the late 18th and early 19th centuries and who was the arch-rival of William Pitt the Younger.
Chartres Cathedral, also known as the Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres (Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres), is a Roman Catholic church of the Latin Church located in Chartres, France, about southwest of Paris.
Chemiluminescence (also chemoluminescence) is the emission of light (luminescence), as the result of a chemical reaction.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Traditional Chinese opera, or Xiqu, is a popular form of drama and musical theatre in China with roots going back to the early periods in China.
Chinoiserie (loanword from French chinoiserie, from chinois, "Chinese") is the European interpretation and imitation of Chinese and East Asian artistic traditions, especially in the decorative arts, garden design, architecture, literature, theatre, and music.
Christian Gottlob Gmelin (12 October 1792 – 13 May 1860) was a German chemist.
Chrozophora tinctoria (commonly known as dyer's croton, giradol, or turnsole) is a plant species native to the Mediterranean, the Middle East, India, Pakistan, and Central Asia.
The Circus Maximus (Latin for greatest or largest circus; Italian: Circo Massimo) is an ancient Roman chariot-racing stadium and mass entertainment venue located in Rome, Italy.
Oscar-Claude Monet (14 November 1840 – 5 December 1926) was a founder of French Impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein air landscape painting.
The coat of arms of Ireland is blazoned as Azure a Celtic Harp Or, stringed Argent (a gold harp with silver strings on a blue background).
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Cobalt blue is a blue pigment made by sintering cobalt(II) oxide with alumina at 1200 °C.
Cobalt glass—known as "smalt" when ground as a pigment—is a deep blue colored glass prepared by including a cobalt compound, typically cobalt oxide or cobalt carbonate, in a glass melt.
Cobalt oxide may refer to.
Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
Color printing or colour printing is the reproduction of an image or text in color (as opposed to simpler black and white or monochrome printing).
A color term (or color name) is a word or phrase that refers to a specific color.
In the visual arts, color theory or colour theory is a body of practical guidance to color mixing and the visual effects of a specific color combination.
The Columbus Blue Jackets are a professional ice hockey team based in Columbus, Ohio.
Commelina is a genus of approximately 170 species commonly called dayflowers due to the short lives of their flowers.
Complementary colors are pairs of colors which, when combined, cancel each other out.
The Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF,; typeset for branding purposes since 2018 as Concacaf) is the continental governing body for association football (soccer) in North America, which includes Central America and the Caribbean region.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
The Conservative Party of Canada (Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a political party in Canada.
The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America.
The Continental Congress, also known as the Philadelphia Congress, was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies.
The Continental Navy was the navy of the United States during the American Revolutionary War, and was formed in 1775.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
Country music, also known as country and western or simply country, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Cyan is a greenish-blue color.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.
Delft is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.
Delta Air Lines, Inc., commonly referred to as Delta, is a major United States airline, with its headquarters and largest hub at Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport in Atlanta, Georgia.
The Democratic Party (Demokratesch Partei, Parti Démocratique, Demokratische Partei), abbreviated to DP, is the major liberal political party in Luxembourg.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
Denim is a sturdy cotton warp-faced textile in which the weft passes under two or more warp threads.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) was a group of artists united in rejection of the Neue Künstlervereinigung München in Munich, Germany.
Diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSLs) are solid-state lasers made by pumping a solid gain medium, for example, a ruby or a neodymium-doped YAG crystal, with a laser diode.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
Dodger blue is a rich bright tone of the color azure named for its use in the uniform of the Los Angeles Dodgers.
In color science, the dominant wavelength (and the corresponding complementary wavelength) are ways of characterizing any light mixture in terms of the monochromatic spectral light that evokes an identical (and the corresponding opposite) perception of hue.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
Duccio di Buoninsegna (c. 1255–1260 – c. 1318–1319) was an Italian painter active in Siena, Tuscany, in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Edmonton Oilers are a professional ice hockey team based in Edmonton, Alberta.
Egyptian blue, also known as calcium copper silicate (CaCuSi4O10 or CaOCuO(SiO2)4 (calcium copper tetrasilicate)) or cuprorivaite, is a pigment used in ancient Egypt for thousands of years.
Doménikos Theotokópoulos (Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος; October 1541 7 April 1614), most widely known as El Greco ("The Greek"), was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance.
Engineer's blue is a highly pigmented paste used to assist in the mating of two or more components.
Erfurt is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany.
In Greek mythology, Eros (Ἔρως, "Desire") was the Greek god of sexual attraction.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eye color is a polygenic phenotypic character determined by two distinct factors: the pigmentation of the eye's iris and the frequency-dependence of the scattering of light by the turbid medium in the stroma of the iris.
Ezekiel (יְחֶזְקֵאל Y'ḥezqēl) is the central protagonist of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible.
Faience or faïence is the conventional name in English for fine tin-glazed pottery on a delicate pale buff earthenware body.
The Federated States of Micronesia (abbreviated FSM and also known simply as Micronesia) is an independent sovereign island nation and a United States associated state consisting of four states from west to east, Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosraethat are spread across the Western Pacific Ocean.
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
The flag of Israel (דגל ישראל Degel Yisra'el; علم إسرائيل ʿAlam Israʼīl) was adopted on 28 October 1948, five months after the establishment of the State of Israel.
The fleur-de-lis/fleur-de-lys (plural: fleurs-de-lis/fleurs-de-lys) or flower-de-luce is a stylized lily (in French, fleur means "flower", and lis means "lily") that is used as a decorative design or motif, and many of the Catholic saints of France, particularly St. Joseph, are depicted with a lily.
Fra Angelico (born Guido di Pietro; February 18, 1455) was an Early Italian Renaissance painter described by Vasari in his Lives of the Artists as having "a rare and perfect talent".
The France national football team (Équipe de France de football) represents France in international football and is controlled by the French Football Federation, also known as FFF, or in Fédération française de football.
Frederick William (Friedrich Wilhelm) (16 February 1620 – 29 April 1688) was Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia, thus ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia, from 1640 until his death in 1688.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
Friendly fire is an attack by a military force on non-enemy, own, allied or neutral, forces while attempting to attack the enemy, either by misidentifying the target as hostile, or due to errors or inaccuracy.
Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa.
In color reproduction, including computer graphics and photography, the gamut, or color gamut, is a certain complete subset of colors.
The French Guards (Régiment des Gardes françaises) were an infantry regiment of the Military Household of the King of France (Maison militaire du roi de France) under the Ancien Régime.
A gas laser is a laser in which an electric current is discharged through a gas to produce coherent light.
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later.
George Mason (sometimes referred to as George Mason IV; October 7, 1792) was a Virginia planter, politician and delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, one of three delegates, together with fellow Virginian Edmund Randolph and Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts, who refused to sign the Constitution.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette (6 September 1757 – 20 May 1834), in the United States often known simply as Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War.
Giotto di Bondone (1267 – January 8, 1337), known mononymously as Giotto and Latinised as Giottus, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence during the Late Middle Ages.
Giovanni Bellini (c. 1430 – 26 November 1516) was an Italian Renaissance painter, probably the best known of the Bellini family of Venetian painters.
The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London from Sunday, 2 September to Thursday, 6 of September 1666.
Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum.
Guy Deutscher (גיא דויטשר; born 1969 in Tel Aviv) is an Israeli linguist.
Hagia Sophia (from the Greek Αγία Σοφία,, "Holy Wisdom"; Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Ayasofya) is a former Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal basilica (church), later an Ottoman imperial mosque and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul, Turkey.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Halo (from Greek ἅλως, halōs) is the name for a family of optical phenomena produced by sunlight interacting with ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Han purple and Han blue (also called Chinese purple and Chinese blue) are synthetic barium copper silicate pigments developed in China and used in ancient and imperial China from the Western Zhou period (1045–771 BC) until the end of the Han dynasty (circa 220 AD).
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship.
Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.
Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The Hippodrome of Constantinople (Hippódromos tēs Kōnstantinoupóleōs) was a circus that was the sporting and social centre of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire.
Utagawa Hiroshige (歌川 広重), also Andō Hiroshige (安藤 広重; 1797 – 12 October 1858), was a Japanese ukiyo-e artist, considered the last great master of that tradition.
was a Japanese artist, ukiyo-e painter and printmaker of the Edo period.
Holography is the science and practice of making holograms.
The Hopi are a Native American tribe, who primarily live on the Hopi Reservation in northeastern Arizona.
Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy.
The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia) is a royal family that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps of northern Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720 (exchanged for Sardinia). Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.
HSL (hue, saturation, lightness) and HSV (hue, saturation, value) are two alternative representations of the RGB color model, designed in the 1970s by computer graphics researchers to more closely align with the way human vision perceives color-making attributes.
Hullin or Chullin (lit. "Ordinary" or "Mundane") is the third tractate of the Mishnah in the Order of Kodashim and deals with the laws for the slaughtering of animals and birds for meat for ordinary as opposed to sacred use, and with the Jewish dietary laws in general.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
The Humours of an Election is a series of four oil paintings and later engravings by William Hogarth that illustrate the election of a member of parliament in Oxfordshire in 1754.
In computing, a hyperlink, or simply a link, is a reference to data that the reader can directly follow either by clicking, tapping, or hovering.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
The Imperial Porcelain Factory (Imperatorskii Farforovyi Zavod), also known as the Imperial Porcelain Manufactory (abbreviated as IPM), is a producer of hand-painted ceramics in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
Indanthrone blue, also called indanthrene, is an organic dye made from 2-aminoanthraquinone treated with potassium hydroxide in the presence of a potassium salt.
Indigo is a deep and rich color close to the color wheel blue (a primary color in the RGB color space), as well as to some variants of ultramarine.
Indigo carmine, or 5,5′-indigodisulfonic acid sodium salt, is an organic salt derived from indigo by sulfonation, which renders the compound soluble in water.
Indigo dye is an organic compound with a distinctive blue color (see indigo).
Indigofera tinctoria, also called true indigo, is a species of plant from the bean family that was one of the original sources of indigo dye.
International Klein Blue (IKB) is a deep blue hue first mixed by the French artist Yves Klein.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
In humans and most mammals and birds, the iris (plural: irides or irises) is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina.
Irish traditional music (also known as Irish trad, Irish folk music, and other variants) is a genre of folk music that developed in Ireland.
Isatis tinctoria, also called woad, dyer's woad, or glastum, is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae.
Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.
The Ishtar Gate (بوابة عشتار) was the eighth gate to the inner city of Babylon.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.
The Italy national football team (Nazionale di calcio dell'Italia) represents Italy in association football and is controlled by the Italian Football Federation (FIGC), the governing body for football in Italy.
Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 177519 December 1851), known as J. M. W. Turner and contemporarily as William Turner, was an English Romantic painter, printmaker and watercolourist, known for his expressive colourisation, imaginative landscapes and turbulent, often violent marine paintings.
Jacob Christoph Le Blon, or Jakob Christoffel Le Blon, (2 May 1667 – 16 May 1741) was a painter and engraver from Frankfurt who invented the system of three- and four-colour printing, using an RYBK color model similar to the modern CMYK system.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jean-Antoine Watteau (baptised October 10, 1684 – died July 18, 1721),Wine, Humphrey, and Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies.
Jeans are a type of trousers, typically made from denim or dungaree cloth.
JetBlue Airways Corporation, stylized as jetBlue, is an American low cost airline headquartered in New York City.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Johann Jacob Diesbach was a Swiss pigment and dye producer known for first synthesizing a blue pigment known as Prussian blue (i.e. iron blue or Berlin blue).
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, (12 November 1842 – 30 June 1919) was a physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904.
Sir Joshua Reynolds (16 July 1723 – 23 February 1792) was an English painter, specialising in portraits.
Justinian I (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; 482 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.
King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.
Knossos (also Cnossos, both pronounced; Κνωσός, Knōsós) is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and has been called Europe's oldest city.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.
The Lakota (pronounced, Lakota language: Lakȟóta) are a Native American tribe.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Lapis lazuli, or lapis for short, is a deep blue metamorphic rock used as a semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
A laser diode, (LD), injection laser diode (ILD), or diode laser is a semiconductor device similar to a light-emitting diode in which the laser beam is created at the diode's junction.
Levi Strauss (born Löb Strauß,; February 26, 1829 – September 26, 1902) was a German-American businessman who founded the first company to manufacture blue jeans.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
The Liberals (Liberalerna, L) is a liberal and social-liberal political party in Sweden.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral in which oxides, and hydroxides predominate.
Linseed oil, also known as flaxseed oil or flax oil, is a colourless to yellowish oil obtained from the dried, ripened seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum).
The following list of G20 summits summarizes all G20 conferences held at various different levels: summits of heads of state or heads of government, and ministerial-level meetings, and others.
These are lists of colors.
A livery is a uniform, insignia or symbol adorning, in a non-military context, a person, an object or a vehicle that denotes a relationship between the wearer of the livery and an individual or corporate body.
Louis IX (25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270), commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France and is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint.
Louis Jacques Thénard (4 May 1777 – 21 June 1857) was a French chemist.
Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.
Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.
Luminol (C8H7N3O2) is a chemical that exhibits chemiluminescence, with a blue glow, when mixed with an appropriate oxidizing agent.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, Marquise de Pompadour (29 December 1721 – 15 April 1764), commonly known as Madame de Pompadour, was a member of the French court and was the official chief mistress of Louis XV from 1745 to 1751, and remained influential as court favourite until her death.
The Madonna del Prato (Madonna of the Meadow), formally Madonna with the Christ Child and Saint John the Baptist, is a 1506 painting by Raphael, now held in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada.
The major scale (or Ionian scale) is one of the most commonly used musical scales, especially in Western music.
Malcolm McGregor (October 13, 1892 – April 29, 1945) was an American actor of the silent era.
The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) is a document issued by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) of the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) to specify the standards by which traffic signs, road surface markings, and signals are designed, installed, and used.
Mark Rothko, born Markus Yakovlevich Rothkowitz (Ма́ркус Я́ковлевич Ротко́вич, Markuss Rotkovičs; September 25, 1903 – February 25, 1970), was an American painter of Russian Jewish descent.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
Mas Subramanian (born 28 February 1954), born Munirpallam Appadorai Subramanian and his research also often credited under M. A. Subramanian or Munirpallam Subramanian, is a solid-state chemist at Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon, and currently holds the Milton Harris Chair Professor of Materials Science in the Department of Chemistry.
The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia is a Roman building in Ravenna, Italy.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
The menorah (מְנוֹרָה) is described in the Bible as the seven-lamp (six branches) ancient Hebrew lampstand made of pure gold and used in the portable sanctuary set up by Moses in the wilderness and later in the Temple in Jerusalem.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States.
The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), commonly known as the Metropolitan Police and informally as the Met, is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement in Greater London, excluding the "square mile" of the City of London, which is the responsibility of the City of London Police.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
The Mishneh Torah (מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה, "Repetition of the Torah"), subtitled Sefer Yad ha-Hazaka (ספר יד החזקה "Book of the Strong Hand"), is a code of Jewish religious law (Halakha) authored by Maimonides (Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, also known as RaMBaM or "Rambam").
Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 14th century and was completed in roughly 1550.
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
The Reformist Movement (Mouvement Réformateur, MR) is a liberal and conservative-liberal French-speaking political party in Belgium.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
In colorimetry, the Munsell color system is a color space that specifies colors based on three color dimensions: hue, value (lightness), and chroma (color purity).
Murad III (Ottoman Turkish: مراد ثالث Murād-i sālis, Turkish: III.Murat) (4 July 1546 – 15/16 January 1595) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death in 1595.
Myosotis (from the Greek: μυοσωτίς "mouse's ear", which the foliage is thought to resemble) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Boraginaceae.
() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
National colours are frequently part of a country's set of national symbols.
The National Football League (NFL) is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided equally between the National Football Conference (NFC) and the American Football Conference (AFC).
The National Guard (la Garde nationale) is a French gendarmerie that existed from 1789 to 1872, including a period of official dissolution from 1827 to 1830, re-founded in 2016.
The National Hockey League (NHL; Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) is a professional ice hockey league in North America, currently comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
NATO Joint Military Symbology is the NATO standard for military map marking symbols.
Natron is a naturally occurring mixture of sodium carbonate decahydrate (Na2CO3·10H2O, a kind of soda ash) and around 17% sodium bicarbonate (also called baking soda, NaHCO3) along with small quantities of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate.
Natural dyes are dyes or colorants derived from plants, invertebrates, or minerals.
Navy blue is a very dark shade of the color blue.
Neon lighting consists of brightly glowing, electrified glass tubes or bulbs that contain rarefied neon or other gases.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
The New Progressive Party (Partido Nuevo Progresista, PNP or NPP) is a political party in Puerto Rico that advocates for the island to become a state of the United States.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The City of New York Police Department, commonly known as the NYPD, is the primary law enforcement and investigation agency within the five boroughs of New York City.
The New York Islanders are a professional ice hockey team based in New York City.
The New York Rangers are a professional ice hockey team based in New York City.
The New York Stock Exchange (abbreviated as NYSE, and nicknamed "The Big Board"), is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nicolas Lancret (22 January 1690 – 14 September 1743), French painter, was born in Paris, and became a brilliant depicter of light comedy which reflected the tastes and manners of French society under the regent Orleans.
The Nika riots (Στάσις τοῦ Νίκα Stásis toû Níka), or Nika revolt, took place against Emperor Justinian I in Constantinople over the course of a week in AD 532.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
Non-photo blue (or non-repro blue) is a common tool used in the graphic design and print industry.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Numbers Rabbah (or Bamidbar Rabbah in Hebrew) is a religious text holy to classical Judaism.
The Oceania Football Confederation (OFC) is one of the six continental confederations of international association football, consisting of New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Tonga, and other Pacific Island countries.
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
Optical pumping is a process in which light is used to raise (or "pump") electrons from a lower energy level in an atom or molecule to a higher one.
Optogenetics is a biological technique which involves the use of light to control cells in living tissue, typically neurons, that have been genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion channels.
Orange is the colour between yellow and red on the spectrum of visible light.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in or on an ovary.
Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.
Padua (Padova; Pàdova) is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy.
Palau (historically Belau, Palaos, or Pelew), officially the Republic of Palau (Beluu er a Belau), is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
Pantone Inc. is a U.S. corporation headquartered in Carlstadt, New Jersey.
Paolo Caliari, known as Paolo Veronese (1528 – 19 April 1588), was an Italian Renaissance painter, based in Venice, known for large-format history paintings of religion and mythology, such as The Wedding at Cana (1563) and The Feast in the House of Levi (1573).
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is an optical method of flow visualization used in education and research.
Patriots (also known as Revolutionaries, Continentals, Rebels, or American Whigs) were those colonists of the Thirteen Colonies who rejected British rule during the American Revolution and declared the United States of America as an independent nation in July 1776.
Pavel Varfolomevich Kunetsov (1878–1968) was a Russian painter and graphic artist.
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
The People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie, VVD) is a conservative-liberal political party in the Netherlands.
A Persian miniature (Persian:نگارگری ایرانی) is a small painting on paper, whether a book illustration or a separate work of art intended to be kept in an album of such works called a muraqqa.
Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.
The photic zone, euphotic zone (Greek for "well lit": εὖ "well" + φῶς "light"), or sunlight or (sunlit) zone is the uppermost layer of water in a lake or ocean that is exposed to intense sunlight.
Phthalocyanine (H2Pc) is a large, aromatic, macrocyclic, organic compound with the formula (C8H4N2)4H2 and is of theoretical or specialized interest.
The Blue Period (Período Azul) is a term used to define the works produced by Spanish painter Pablo Picasso between 1901 and 1904 when he painted essentially monochromatic paintings in shades of blue and blue-green, only occasionally warmed by other colors.
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, commonly known as Auguste Renoir (25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919), was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Pink is a pale red color that is named after a flower of the same name.
Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Poker is a family of card games that combines gambling, strategy, and skill.
Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
Pope Saint Pius V (17 January 1504 – 1 May 1572), born Antonio Ghislieri (from 1518 called Michele Ghislieri, O.P.), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 January 1566 to his death in 1572.
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.
Pornographic films, or sex films, are films that present sexually explicit subject matter for the purpose of sexual arousal and erotic satisfaction of the viewer.
The President of the Republic of Korea is, according to the South Korean constitution, the chairperson of the cabinet, the chief executive of the government, commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and the head of state of South Korea.
A set of primary colors is, most tangibly, a set of real colorants or colored lights that can be combined in varying amounts to produce a gamut of colors.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Prussian blue is a dark blue pigment produced by oxidation of ferrous ferrocyanide salts.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Radiolab is a radio program produced by WNYC, a public radio station in New York City, and broadcast on public radio stations in the United States.
Rama or Ram (Sanskrit: राम, IAST: Rāma), also known as Ramachandra, is a major deity of Hinduism.
Raman spectroscopy (named after Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28 or April 6, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
Shlomo Yitzchaki (רבי שלמה יצחקי; Salomon Isaacides; Salomon de Troyes, 22 February 1040 – 13 July 1105), today generally known by the acronym Rashi (רש"י, RAbbi SHlomo Itzhaki), was a medieval French rabbi and author of a comprehensive commentary on the Talmud and commentary on the ''Tanakh''.
Ravenna (also locally; Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.
Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.
Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet.
Since the 2000 United States presidential election, red states and blue states have referred to states of the United States whose voters predominantly choose either the Republican Party (red) or Democratic Party (blue) presidential candidates.
The Regency in Great Britain was a period when King George III was deemed unfit to rule and his son ruled as his proxy as Prince Regent.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors.
Ribaldry, or blue comedy, is humorous entertainment that ranges from bordering on indelicacy to gross indecency.
Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399.
Sir Robert Peel, 2nd Baronet, (5 February 17882 July 1850) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served twice as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1834–35 and 1841–46) and twice as Home Secretary (1822–27 and 1828–30).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Ronald "Ron" Chernow (born March 3, 1949) is an American writer, journalist, historian, and biographer.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
RYB (an abbreviation of red–yellow–blue) is a historical set of colors used in subtractive color mixing and is one commonly used set of primary colors.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
The Sainte-Chapelle (Holy Chapel) is a royal chapel in the Gothic style, within the medieval Palais de la Cité, the residence of the Kings of France until the 14th century, on the Île de la Cité in the River Seine in Paris, France.
Samoa, officially the Independent State of Samoa (Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa; Sāmoa) and, until 4 July 1997, known as Western Samoa, is a unitary parliamentary democracy with eleven administrative divisions.
Savoy (Savouè,; Savoie; Savoia) is a cultural region in Western Europe.
Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
Scottish folk music (also Scottish traditional music) is music that uses forms that are identified as part of the Scottish musical tradition.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Sexual suggestiveness is visual, verbal, written or behavioral material or action with sexual undertones implying sexual intent in order to provoke sexual arousal.
Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव, IAST: Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Sky blue is the name of a colour that resembles the colour of the sky at noon.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
The Société d'encouragement pour l'industrie nationale (Society for Encouraging National Industry) is an organization established in 1801 to encourage French industry.
Soft-paste porcelain (sometimes simply "soft paste") is a type of a ceramic material.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
"Something old" is the first line of a traditional rhyme that details what a bride should wear at her wedding for good luck: Something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue, and a silver sixpence in her shoe.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
sRGB (standard Red Green Blue) is an RGB color space that HP and Microsoft created cooperatively in 1996 to use on monitors, printers, and the Internet.
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it.
Starry Night Over the Rhône (September 1888, Nuit étoilée sur le Rhône) is one of Vincent van Gogh's paintings of Arles at nighttime.
The Storming of the Bastille (Prise de la Bastille) occurred in Paris, France, on the afternoon of 14 July 1789.
The Story Bridge is a heritage-listed steel cantilever bridge spanning the Brisbane River that carries vehicular, bicycle and pedestrian traffic between the northern and the southern suburbs of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
The stroma of the iris is a fibrovascular layer of tissue.
Suger (Sugerius; 1081 – 13 January 1151) was a French abbot, statesman, and historian.
Sunday shopping or Sunday trading refers to the ability of retailers to operate stores on Sunday, a day that Christian tradition typically recognises as a day of rest.
Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts.
The Tabernacle (מִשְׁכַּן, mishkan, "residence" or "dwelling place"), according to the Tanakh, was the portable earthly dwelling place of God amongst the children of Israel from the time of the Exodus from Egypt through the conquering of the land of Canaan.
The tagelmust (also known as cheich, cheche and litham) is an indigo-dyed cotton garment, with the appearance of both a veil and a turban.
A tallit (טַלִּית talit in Modern Hebrew; tālēt in Sephardic Hebrew and Ladino; tallis in Ashkenazic Hebrew and Yiddish) (pl. tallitot, talleisim, tallism in Ashkenazic Hebrew and Yiddish; ṭālēth/ṭelāyōth in Tiberian Hebrew) is a fringed garment traditionally worn by religious Jews.
The Tampa Bay Lightning are a professional ice hockey team based in Tampa, Florida.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Teal is a medium blue-green (primarily blue) color, similar to cyan.
Tempera, also known as egg tempera, is a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigments mixed with a water-soluble binder medium (usually glutinous material such as egg yolk or some other size).
Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
The Thai solar calendar (ปฏิทินสุริยคติ,, "solar calendar") was adopted by King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) in AD 1888 as the Siamese version of the Gregorian calendar, replacing the Thai lunar calendar as the legal calendar in Thailand (though the latter is still also used, especially for traditional and religious events).
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
, also known as The Great Wave or simply The Wave, is a woodblock print by the Japanese ukiyo-e artist Hokusai.
The Old Guitarist is an oil painting by Pablo Picasso created late 1903early 1904.
"The U.S. Air Force" is the official song of the United States Air Force.
The Umbrellas (French: Les Parapluies) is an oil-on-canvas painting by Pierre-Auguste Renoir, painted in two phases in the 1880s.
The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state in central Germany.
A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, metal, or even glass, generally used for covering roofs, floors, walls, showers, or other objects such as tabletops.
Tintoretto (born Jacopo Comin, late September or early October, 1518 – May 31, 1594) was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Venetian school.
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.
The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı or in طوپقپو سرايى, Ṭopḳapu Sarāyı), or the Seraglio, is a large museum in Istanbul, Turkey.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
The Toronto Blue Jays are a Canadian professional baseball team based in Toronto, Ontario.
The Toronto Maple Leafs (officially the Toronto Maple Leaf Hockey Club) are a professional ice hockey team based in Toronto, Ontario.
A Tory is a person who holds a political philosophy, known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history.
Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.
Traffic signs or road signs are signs erected at the side of or above roads to give instructions or provide information to road users.
The Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry or Très Riches Heures, (The Very Rich Hours of the Duke of Berry), is the most famous and possibly the best surviving example of French Gothic manuscript illumination, showing the late International Gothic phase of the style.
The Tuareg people (also spelt Twareg or Touareg; endonym: Kel Tamasheq, Kel Tagelmust) are a large Berber ethnic confederation.
Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air.
Turquoise is the name of a blue color, based on the gem of the same name.
Tutankhamun (alternatively spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c. 1332–1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period.
The Tyndall effect, also known as Willis–Tyndall scattering, is light scattering by particles in a colloids or in a very fine suspension.
Tzitzit (plural tsitsiyot) are specially knotted ritual fringes, or tassels, worn in antiquity by Israelites and today by observant Jews and Samaritans.
The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA; Union des Associations Européennes de Football; Vereinigung Europäischer Fußballverbände) is the administrative body for association football in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia.
Ultramarine is a deep blue color and a pigment which was originally made by grinding lapis lazuli into a powder.
Underwater refers to the region below the surface of water where the water exists in a natural feature (called a body of water) such as an ocean, sea, lake, pond, or river.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace." It is distinguished from peacebuilding, peacemaking, and peace enforcement although the United Nations does acknowledge that all activities are "mutually reinforcing" and that overlap between them is frequent in practice.
The University of Copenhagen (UCPH) (Københavns Universitet) is the oldest university and research institution in Denmark.
The Uruguay national football team represents Uruguay in international association football and is controlled by the Uruguayan Football Association, the governing body for football in Uruguay.
The Vancouver Canucks are a professional ice hockey team based in Vancouver, British Columbia.
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.
VenstreThe party name is officially not translated into any other language, but is in English often referred to as the Liberal Party.
Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art.
Violet is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light between blue and the invisible ultraviolet.
Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु, IAST) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism tradition.
The god of vishuddha is Lord Radhe Krishna Vishuddha (विशुद्ध, IAST:, "especially pure"), or Vishuddhi, or throat chakra is the fifth primary chakra according to the Hindu tradition of tantra.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura.
Vogue is a fashion and lifestyle magazine covering many topics including fashion, beauty, culture, living, and runway.
The War in the Vendée (1793; Guerre de Vendée) was an uprising in the Vendée region of France during the French Revolution.
Washington: A Life is a 2010 biography of George Washington, the first President of the United States, written by American historian and biographer Ron Chernow.
Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky (Vasily Vasilyevich Kandinsky) (– 13 December 1944) was a Russian painter and art theorist.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Web colors are colors used in displaying web pages, and the methods for describing and specifying those colors.
The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.
White is the lightest color and is achromatic (having no hue), because it fully reflects and scatters all the visible wavelengths of light.
White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry.
William Hogarth FRSA (10 November 1697 – 26 October 1764) was an English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, social critic, and editorial cartoonist.
The Wilton Diptych is a small portable diptych of two hinged panels, painted on both sides, now in the National Gallery, London.
The Winnipeg Jets are a professional ice hockey team based in Winnipeg, Manitoba.
The Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) is a women's professional basketball league in the United States.
The Workers' Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores, PT) is a political party in Brazil.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
Yellow is the color between orange and green on the spectrum of visible light.
YInMn Blue (for yttrium, indium, manganese) is an inorganic blue pigment that was accidentally discovered by Professor Mas Subramanian and his then graduate student Andrew E. Smith at Oregon State University in 2009.
Yves Klein (28 April 1928 – 6 June 1962) was a French artist considered an important figure in post-war European art.
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