379 relations: Adolf Hitler, Akiba Rubinstein, Alexander Alekhine, Alexander Koblencs, Alexander Kotov, Allen Kaufman, Althing, American Chess Quarterly, Anatoly Karpov, Andrew Soltis, Anthony Saidy, Arnold Denker, Aron Nimzowitsch, Arthur Bisguier, Arthur Cherep-Spiridovich, Arthur Feuerstein, Asbury Park, New Jersey, Asperger syndrome, Baguio, Barbra Streisand, Bard (Soviet Union), Bay City, Michigan, Bedford–Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, Belgrade, Ben Klassen, Benny Andersson, Benoni Defense, Bent Larsen, Biophysics, Bishop (chess), Björk, Björn Ulvaeus, Bled, Bob Hope, Bobby Fischer Against the World, Bobby Fischer Teaches Chess, Bogdan Śliwa, Bombo Radyo Philippines, Boris Spassky, Borislav Ivkov, Boys' Life, Brooklyn, Brooklyn Eagle, Budapest, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Canada, Canadian Open Chess Championship, Candidates Tournament, Capablanca Memorial, Carmine Nigro, ..., Caro–Kann Defence, Catchphrase, Certificate of identity, Cheri Oteri, Chess, Chess (musical), Chess clock, Chess endgame, Chess Informant, Chess Life, Chess Olympiad, Chess Oscar, Chess prodigy, Chess Review, Chess title, Chess960, ChessBase, Chessgames.com, Chessmetrics, Chicago, Circumcision, Cleveland, Cold War, Colin Powell, Collusion, Combination (chess), Communism, Comparison of top chess players throughout history, Confectionery store, Copenhagen, Coup d'état, Creativity (religion), Crown Publishing Group, Cuba, Curaçao, Dan Jacobo Beninson, David Bronstein, David Vincent Hooper, Deep Blue (chess computer), DNA profiling, Donald Byrne, Dover Publications, Dragoljub Janošević, Dwight D. Eisenhower, East Germany, EBay, Economic sanctions, Edmar Mednis, Edward Winter (chess historian), Efim Geller, Elo rating system, Emanuel Lasker, Encyclopaedia Judaica, Erasmus Hall High School, Eskimo, Eugenio Torre, Everyman Chess, Evgeni Vasiukov, Executive order, Fast chess, Father, Federal Bureau of Investigation, FIDE, FIDE titles, FIDE world rankings, Fischer–Spassky (1992 match), Florin Gheorghiu, Foreign policy, Frank Brady (writer), French Defence, Friðrik Ólafsson, Friedrich Nietzsche, Gambit Publications, Garner Ted Armstrong, Garry Kasparov, George H. W. Bush, George Koltanowski, Glossary of chess, Grace Communion International, Grandmaster (chess), Grünfeld Defence, Guðlaugur Kristinn Óttarsson, Hans Berliner, Hans Kmoch, Hans Ree, Harper's Magazine, Herbert W. Armstrong, Herceg Novi, Hermann Helms, Hermann Joseph Muller, Hermann Pilnik, History of the Jews in Poland, Holocaust denial, Howard Staunton, I've Got a Secret, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Icelandic króna, Illinois, IMDb, Internet Chess Club, Interzonal, Iron Curtain, Israel Albert Horowitz, Jacqueline Piatigorsky, James Sherwin, Jan Hein Donner, Jan Timman, Japan Airlines, Jeremy Silman, Jim Slater (accountant), Joan Rodker, Joan Targ, John Bosnitch, John Lindsay, John W. Collins, José Raúl Capablanca, Joseph G. Ponterotto, Joseph Henry Blackburne, Joseph Stalin, Joshua Waitzkin, Judit Polgár, Karsten Müller, Ken Whyld, Kidney failure, King's Gambit, King's Gambit, Fischer Defense, King's Indian Defence, Klaus Darga, Knight (chess), Kukl (band), Landspítali, Larissa Volpert, Larry Evans (chess grandmaster), Laugardælir, Leipzig, Leonard Barden, Lessing J. Rosenwald, Lev Alburt, Lev Polugaevsky, Liev Schreiber, Life (magazine), Lily Rabe, List of books and documentaries by or about Bobby Fischer, List of chess variants, List of FIDE chess world number ones, Ljubomir Ljubojević, Los Angeles Times, Lothar Schmid, Luděk Pachman, Madame Bovary, Manhattan Chess Club, Manila, Mar del Plata chess tournament, Mark Spitz, Mark Taimanov, Marshall Chess Club, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mathematician, Matrilineality in Judaism, Max Euwe, Max Pavey, McCarthyism, Me and Bobby Fischer, Mein Kampf, Michael Reese Hospital, Miguel Najdorf, Mikhail Botvinnik, Mikhail Chigorin, Mikhail Tal, Milan Matulović, Miyoko Watai, Mohegan Lake, New York, Monte Carlo, Montenegro, Moscow, My 60 Memorable Games, My Great Predecessors, Narita International Airport, Neil Diamond, Netanya, New York Post, Newsweek, Nice, Nicolas Rossolimo, Nigel Short, Nikita Khrushchev, Nikolai Krogius, Nimzo-Indian Defence, Ninoy Aquino International Airport, Nobel Prize, Norman T. Whitaker, Oklahoma City, Orange, New Jersey, Pal Benko, Palma de Mallorca, Paranoid personality disorder, Paris, Pasadena, California, Passport, Patchogue, New York, Paul Keres, Paul Morphy, Paul Nemenyi, Pavilion Books, Pawn (chess), Pawn Sacrifice, Pepsi, Peter Biyiasas, Peter Leko, Peter Nemenyi, Peter Sarsgaard, Philippine Daily Inquirer, Philippines, Physicist, Piatigorsky Cup, Poisoned Pawn Variation, Portorož, Poughkeepsie, New York, Prostate, Ralph Ginzburg, Rapture, Recurring Saturday Night Live characters and sketches introduced 1995–1996, Relinquishment of United States nationality, Reuben Fine, Rex Sinquefield, Reykjavík, Richard Greenblatt (programmer), Robert Hübner, Robert Wade (chess player), Rodolfo Tan Cardoso, Rook (chess), Round-robin tournament, Rovinj, Russell Targ, Russia (USSR) vs Rest of the World, Ruy Lopez, Ruy Lopez, Exchange Variation, Sabbath in seventh-day churches, Salo Flohr, Saltsjöbaden, Samuel Reshevsky, Santa Monica, California, Santiago, Saturday Night Live, Schizophrenia, Searching for Bobby Fischer, Selfoss (town), September 11 attacks, Serbia and Montenegro, Seven Days in May, Sicilian Defence, Sicilian Defence, Najdorf Variation, Siegbert Tarrasch, Simultaneous exhibition, Single-elimination tournament, Skopje, Sofia Polgar, Sousse, Sports Illustrated, St. Louis, Steve Giddins, Stockholm, Susan Polgar, Sveti Stefan, Svetozar Gligorić, Teleprinter, Tennis, The Atlantic, The Game of the Century (chess), The New York Times, The Oxford Companion to Chess, The Philadelphia Inquirer, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The Sunday Telegraph, The Wall Street Journal, Tie-breaking in Swiss-system tournaments, Tigran Petrosian, Tim Rice, Time (magazine), Title 50 of the United States Code, Tobey Maguire, Touch-move rule, Tunisia, U.S. Chess Championship, U.S. Open Chess Championship, UBS, Ulf Andersson, United Nations, United Nations Security Council, United States Chess Federation, United States Code, United States Department of State, United States Department of the Treasury, United States Secretary of State, Vancouver, Vasily Smyslov, Viktor Korchnoi, Vinkovci, Viswanathan Anand, Vladimir Alatortsev, Vladimir Vysotsky, Vlastimil Hort, Washington, D.C., White and Black in chess, White House, Wilhelm Steinitz, Will Ferrell, William Hartston, William Lombardy, Winning streak (sports), World Chess Championship, World Chess Championship 1966, World Chess Championship 1969, World Chess Championship 1972, World Chess Championship 1975, World Festival of Youth and Students, World Junior Chess Championship, Yasser Seirawan, Yugoslavia, Yuri Averbakh, Zagreb, Zürich, 13th Chess Olympiad, 14th Chess Olympiad, 15th Chess Olympiad, 16th Chess Olympiad, 17th Chess Olympiad, 18th Chess Olympiad, 19th Chess Olympiad. 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Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Akiba Kiwelowicz Rubinstein (1 December 1880 – 14 March 1961) was a Polish chess grandmaster who is considered to have been one of the strongest players never to have become World Chess Champion.
Alexander Alekhine (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Але́хин, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Alekhin;; March 24, 1946) was a Russian and French chess player and the fourth World Chess Champion.
Alexander Koblencs (Aleksandrs Koblencs, Александр Кобленц; 3 September 1916, Riga – 9 December 1993, Berlin) was a Latvian chess master, trainer, and writer.
Alexander Alexandrovich Kotov (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Ко́тов; – 8 January 1981) was a Soviet chess grandmaster and author.
Allen Kaufman (1933) is an American chess master and the former Executive Director of the American Chess Foundation and Chess-in-the-Schools.
The Alþingi (parliament (Icelandic) and anglicised as Althingi or Althing) is the national parliament of Iceland.
The American Chess Quarterly was a chess magazine that was published in the United States from Fall 1961 to 1965 by Nature Food Centres.
Anatoly Yevgenyevich Karpov (Анато́лий Евге́ньевич Ка́рпов; born May 23, 1951) is a Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion.
Andrew Eden Soltis (born May 28, 1947 in Hazleton, Pennsylvania) is an American chess grandmaster, author and columnist.
Anthony Saidy (born May 16, 1937) is an International Master of chess, a retired physician and author.
Arnold Sheldon Denker (February 20, 1914 – January 2, 2005) was an American chess player, Grandmaster, and chess author.
Aron Nimzowitsch (Ārons Nimcovičs, Аро́н Иса́евич Нимцо́вич, Aron Isayevich Nimtsovich; born Aron Niemzowitsch; 7 November 1886 – 16 March 1935) was a Russian-born, Danish leading chess grandmaster and influential chess writer.
Arthur Bernard Bisguier (October 8, 1929April 5, 2017) was an American chess grandmaster, chess promoter, and writer.
Arthur Cherep-Spiridovich (8 September 1867 – 22 October 1926) was a Russian count who moved to the United States following the Bolshevik Revolution.
Arthur William Feuerstein (born December 20, 1935) is an American chess player and winner of the first U.S. Armed Forces Chess Championship.
Asbury Park is a city in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States, located on the Jersey Shore and part of the New York City Metropolitan Area.
Asperger syndrome (AS), also known as Asperger's, is a developmental disorder characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests.
, officially the (Ibaloi: Ciudad ne Bagiw; Siudad ti Baguio; Lungsod ng Baguio) and popularly referred to as Baguio City, is a mountain resort city located in Northern Luzon, Philippines.
Barbara Joan "Barbra" Streisand (born April 24, 1942) is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and filmmaker.
The term bard (bard) came to be used in the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, and continues to be used in Russia today, to refer to singer-songwriters who wrote songs outside the Soviet establishment, similarly to folk singers of the American folk music revival.
Bay City is a city in Bay County, Michigan, located near the base of the Saginaw Bay on Lake Huron.
Bedford–Stuyvesant (colloquially known as Bed–Stuy and Bedford-Stuy) is a neighborhood of 153,000 inhabitants in the north central portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Bernhardt (or Bernhard) "Ben" Klassen (O.S. February 7, 1918) &ndash) was a self-described white separatist and an American religious leader who founded the Church of the Creator with the publication of his book Nature's Eternal Religion in 1973. At one point, Klassen was also a Republican Florida state legislator, as well as a supporter of George Wallace's presidential campaign. In addition to his religious and political work, Klassen was an electrical engineer and he was also the inventor of a wall-mounted electric can-opener...
Göran Bror Benny Andersson (born 16 December 1946) is a Swedish musician, composer, member of the Swedish music group ABBA, and co-composer of the musicals Chess, Kristina från Duvemåla, and Mamma Mia!.
The Benoni Defense is a chess opening characterized by the moves: Black can then sacrifice a pawn with 3...b5 (the Benko Gambit), otherwise 3...e6 is the most common move (although 3...d6 or 3...g6 are also seen, typically transposing to main lines).
Jørgen Bent Larsen (4 March 19359 September 2010) was a Danish chess grandmaster and author.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.
A bishop (♗,♝) is a piece in the board game of chess.
Björk Guðmundsdóttir (born 21 November 1965) is an Icelandic singer, songwriter, actress, record producer, and DJ.
Björn Kristian Ulvaeus (credited as Björn Ulvæus; born 25 April 1945) is a Swedish songwriter, producer, a member of the Swedish musical group ABBA, and co-composer of the musicals Chess, Kristina från Duvemåla, and Mamma Mia!.
Bled (Veldes,Leksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol. 6: Kranjsko. 1906. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, p. 146. in older sources also Feldes) is a town on Lake Bled in the Upper Carniolan region of northwestern Slovenia.
Sir Leslie Townes Hope, KBE, KC*SG, KSS (May 29, 1903 – July 27, 2003) known professionally as Bob Hope, was an English-American stand-up comedian, vaudevillian, actor, singer, dancer, athlete, and author.
Bobby Fischer Against the World is a documentary feature film that explores the life of chess Grandmaster and 11th World Champion Bobby Fischer.
Bobby Fischer Teaches Chess is a chess puzzle book written by Bobby Fischer and co-authored by Stuart Margulies and Don Mosenfelder.
Bogdan Śliwa (4 February 1922 in Kraków – 16 May 2003) was a Polish chess master.
Bombo Radyo Philippines is one of the largest radio networks in the Philippines spanning across 24 major areas in the country.
Boris Vasilievich Spassky (Бори́с Васи́льевич Спа́сский; born January 30, 1937) is a Russian chess grandmaster.
Borislav Ivkov (born November 12, 1933 in Belgrade) is a Serbian chess Grandmaster.
Boys' Life is the monthly magazine of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA).
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.
The Brooklyn Eagle, originally The Brooklyn Eagle, and Kings County Democrat, was a daily newspaper published in the city and later borough of Brooklyn, in New York City, for 114 years from 1841 to 1955.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canadian Open Chess Championship is Canada's Open chess championship, first held in 1956, and held annually since 1973, usually in mid-summer.
The Candidates Tournament is a chess tournament organized by FIDE, chess' international governing body, since 1950, as the final contest to determine the challenger for the World Chess Championship.
The Capablanca Memorial is a chess tournament that has been held annually in Cuba since 1962.
Carmine Nigro (January 2, 1910 – August 16, 2001) was former World Champion Bobby Fischer's first chess teacher, from 1951–1956.
The Caro–Kann Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: The Caro–Kann is a common defence against the King's Pawn Opening and is classified as a "Semi-Open Game" like the Sicilian Defence and French Defence, although it is thought to be more solid and less dynamic than either of those openings.
A catchphrase (alternatively spelled catch phrase) is a phrase or expression recognized by its repeated utterance.
A certificate of identity, sometimes called an alien's passport, is a travel document issued by a country to non-citizens (also called aliens) residing within their borders who are stateless persons or otherwise unable to obtain a passport from their state of nationality (generally refugees).
Cheri Oteri (born Cheryl Ann Oteri; September 19, 1962) is an American comic actress and a cast member on Saturday Night Live from 1995 to 2000.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
Chess is a musical with music by Benny Andersson and Björn Ulvaeus of the pop group ABBA, lyrics by Tim Rice, and a book by Richard Nelson based on an idea by Rice.
A chess clock consists of two adjacent clocks with buttons to stop one clock while starting the other, so that the two clocks never run simultaneously.
In chess and chess-like games, the endgame (or end game or ending) is the stage of the game when few pieces are left on the board.
Chess Informant (Šahovski Informator) is a publishing company from Belgrade (Serbia, former Yugoslavia) that periodically (since 2012, four volumes per year) produces a book entitled Chess Informant, as well as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings, Encyclopaedia of Chess Endings, Opening Monographs, other print publications, and software (including electronic editions of most print publications).
The monthly Chess Life and bi-monthly Chess Life Kids (formerly School Mates and Chess Life for Kids) are the official magazines published by the United States Chess Federation (US Chess).
The Chess Olympiad is a biennial chess tournament in which teams from all over the world compete.
Chess Oscar was an international award given annually to the best chess player.
Chess prodigies are children who can beat experienced adult players and even Masters at chess.
Chess Review is a U.S. chess magazine that was published from January 1933 until October 1969 (Volume 37 Number 10).
A chess title is a title created by a chess governing body and bestowed upon players based on their performance and rank.
Chess960, also called Fischer Random Chess (originally Fischerandom), is a variant of chess invented and advocated by former world chess champion Bobby Fischer, announced publicly on June 19, 1996, in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
ChessBase GmbH is a German company that markets chess software, maintains a chess news site, and operates servers for online chess.
Chessgames.com is an Internet chess community with over 224,000 members.
Chessmetrics is a system for rating chess players devised by Jeff Sonas.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.
Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colin Luther Powell (born April 5, 1937) is an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army.
Collusion is an agreement between two or more parties, sometimes illegal–but always secretive–to limit open competition by deceiving, misleading, or defrauding others of their legal rights, or to obtain an objective forbidden by law typically by defrauding or gaining an unfair market advantage.
In chess, a combination is a sequence of moves, often initiated by a sacrifice, which leaves the opponent few options and results in tangible gain.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
This article presents a number of methodologies that have been suggested for the task of comparing the greatest chess players in history.
A confectionery store (more commonly referred to as a sweet shop in the United Kingdom, a candy store in North America, or a lolly shop in Australia) sells confectionery and the intended market is usually children.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Creativity (formerly known as The Church of the Creator and World Church of the Creator) is a pantheistic white separatist, white supremacist, antisemitic, anti-Christian religion which has been classified as a Neo-Nazi hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center.
The Crown Publishing Group is a subsidiary of Random House that publishes across several categories including fiction, non-fiction, biography, autobiography and memoir, cooking, health, business, and lifestyle.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.
Dan Jacobo Beninson (1931–2003) was an Argentine radiation expert who worked for the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) since 1955 holding different posts.
David Ionovich Bronstein (Дави́д Ио́нович Бронште́йн; February 19, 1924 – December 5, 2006) was a Soviet chess grandmaster, who narrowly missed becoming World Chess Champion in 1951.
David Vincent Hooper (31 August 1915 – May 1998), born in Reigate, was a British chess player and writer.
Deep Blue was a chess-playing computer developed by IBM.
DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.
Donald Byrne (June 12, 1930 – April 8, 1976) was one of the strongest American chess players during the 1950s and 1960s.
Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.
Dragoljub Janošević (Janosevic) (8 July 1923 – 20 May 1993) was a Yugoslav chess Grandmaster.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
eBay Inc. is a multinational e-commerce corporation based in San Jose, California that facilitates consumer-to-consumer and business-to-consumer sales through its website.
Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.
Edmar John Mednis (Edmārs Mednis) (March 22, 1937 – February 13, 2002) was an American International Grandmaster of chess (awarded in 1980) born in Riga, Latvia.
Edward Winter (born 1955) is an English chess journalist, archivist, historian, collector and author.
Efim Petrovich Geller (Ефим Петрович Геллер, Юхим Петрович Геллер; 8 March 1925 – 17 November 1998) was a Soviet chess player and world-class grandmaster at his peak.
The Elo rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of players in zero-sum games such as chess.
Emanuel Lasker (December 24, 1868 – January 11, 1941) was a German chess player, mathematician, and philosopher who was World Chess Champion for 27 years (from 1894 to 1921).
The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 26-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and of Judaism.
Erasmus Hall High School was a four-year public high school located at 899-925 Flatbush Avenue between Church and Snyder Avenues in the Flatbush neighborhood of the New York City borough of Brooklyn.
Eskimo is an English term for the indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the northern circumpolar region from eastern Siberia (Russia) to across Alaska (of the United States), Canada, and Greenland.
Eugenio Torre (born November 4, 1951) is a chess grandmaster (GM).
Everyman Chess, formerly known as Cadogan Chess, is a major publisher of books and CDs about chess.
Evgeni Andreyevich Vasiukov (Евгений Андреевич Васюко́в, March 5, 1933 – May 10, 2018) was a Russian chess grandmaster, one of the strongest players in the world during his peak.
In the United States, an executive order is a directive issued by the President of the United States that manages operations of the federal government and has the force of law.
Fast chess (also known as speed chess) is a variation of chess in which each side is given less time to make their moves than under normal tournament time controls.
A father is the male parent of a child.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
The Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation is an international organization that connects the various national chess federations around the world and acts as the governing body of international chess competition.
The World Chess Federation, FIDE (Fédération Internationale des Échecs), awards several performance-based titles to chess players, up to and including the highly prized Grandmaster title.
The Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE) is the organization that governs international chess competition.
The 1992 match between former World Chess Champions Bobby Fischer and Boris Spassky was billed as a World Chess Championship, but was unofficial.
Florin Gheorghiu (born 6 April 1944) is a Romanian chess player and university lecturer in foreign languages.
A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
Frank Brady (born March 15, 1934, Brooklyn, New York), is an American writer, editor, biographer and educator.
The French Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: This is most commonly followed by 2.d4 d5, with Black intending...c5 at a later stage, attacking White's and gaining on the.
Friðrik Ólafsson (born 26 January 1935) is an Icelandic chess grandmaster.
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.
Gambit Publications is a major publisher of chess books.
Garner Ted Armstrong (February 9, 1930 – September 15, 2003) was an American evangelist and the son of Herbert W. Armstrong, founder of the Worldwide Church of God, at the time a Sabbatarian organization that taught observance of seventh-day Sabbath, and annual Sabbath days based on Leviticus 23.
Garry Kimovich Kasparov (Га́рри Ки́мович Каспа́ров,; Armenian: Գարրի Կիմովիչ Կասպարով; born Garik Kimovich Weinstein, 13 April 1963) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former world chess champion, writer, and political activist, who many consider to be the greatest chess player of all time.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
George Koltanowski (also "Georges"; 17 September 1903 – 5 February 2000) was a Belgian-born American chess player, promoter, and writer.
This page explains commonly used terms in chess in alphabetical order.
Grace Communion International (GCI), formerly the Worldwide Church of God (WCG) (still registered as Worldwide Church of God in the UK and some other regions) and the Radio Church of God, is an evangelical Christian denomination based in Charlotte, North Carolina, U.S.A., with the former mentioned organizations having had an often controversial influence on 20th century religious broadcasting and publishing in the United States and Europe.
The title Grandmaster (GM) is awarded to chess players by the world chess organization FIDE.
The Grünfeld Defence (ECO codes D70–D99) is a chess opening characterised by the moves: Black offers White the possibility of cxd5, when after Nxd5 White further gets the opportunity to kick the Black Knight around with e4, leading to an imposing central pawn duo for White.
Guðlaugur Kristinn Óttarsson (born December 11, 1954) is an Icelandic musician.
Hans Jack Berliner (January 27, 1929 – January 13, 2017) was a Professor of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University, and was the World Correspondence Chess Champion, from 1965–1968.
Johann "Hans" Joseph Kmoch (July 25, 1894 in Vienna – February 13, 1973 in New York City) was an Austrian-Dutch-American chess International Master (1950), International Arbiter (1951), and a chess journalist and author, for which he is best known.
Hans Ree (born 15 September 1944 in Amsterdam) is a Dutch chess grandmaster and writer.
Harper's Magazine (also called Harper's) is a monthly magazine of literature, politics, culture, finance, and the arts.
Herbert W. Armstrong (July 31, 1892 – January 16, 1986) founded the Radio Church of God which was incorporated October 21, 1933 and was renamed Worldwide Church of God on June 1, 1968, as well as starting Ambassador College (later Ambassador University) October 8, 1947.
Herceg Novi (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Херцег Нови) is a coastal town in Montenegro located at the entrance to the Bay of Kotor and at the foot of Mount Orjen.
Hermann Helms (1870, Hamburg, USA – 1963, Brooklyn) was an American chess player, writer, and promoter.
Hermann Joseph Muller (December 21, 1890 – April 5, 1967) was an American geneticist, educator, and Nobel laureate best known for his work on the physiological and genetic effects of radiation (mutagenesis) as well as his outspoken political beliefs.
Hermann Pilnik (8 January 1914, Stuttgart, Germany – 12 November 1981, Caracas, Venezuela) was a German Argentine chess Grandmaster.
The history of the Jews in Poland dates back over 1,000 years.
Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in the Holocaust during World War II.
Howard Staunton (1810 – 22 June 1874) was an English chess master who is generally regarded as having been the world's strongest player from 1843 to 1851, largely as a result of his 1843 victory over Pierre Charles Fournier de Saint-Amant.
I've Got a Secret is a panel game show produced by Mark Goodson and Bill Todman for CBS television.
I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (1st MSMU) is a medical higher educational institution in the Russian Federation.
The króna (plural krónur) (sign: kr; code: ISK) is the currency of Iceland.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
IMDb, also known as Internet Movie Database, is an online database of information related to world films, television programs, home videos and video games, and internet streams, including cast, production crew and personnel biographies, plot summaries, trivia, and fan reviews and ratings.
The Internet Chess Club (ICC) is a commercial Internet chess server devoted to the play and discussion of chess and chess variants.
Interzonal chess tournaments were tournaments organized by the World Chess Federation FIDE from the 1950s to the 1990s.
The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.
Israel Albert Horowitz (often known as I. A. Horowitz or Al Horowitz) (November 15, 1907 in Brooklyn, New York – January 18, 1973) was a Jewish-American International Master of chess.
Jacqueline Piatigorsky (November 6, 1911 – July 15, 2012) was a French-born American chess player, author, sculptor, philanthropist, and arts patron.
James Terry Sherwin (born October 25, 1933) is an American corporate executive and International Master in chess.
Johannes Hendrikus (Hein) Donner (July 6, 1927 – November 27, 1988) was a Dutch chess grandmaster (GM) and writer.
Jan Timman (born 14 December 1951) is a Dutch chess Grandmaster who was one of the world's leading players from the late 1970s to the early 1990s.
, also known as, is the flag carrier airline of Japan. It is headquartered in Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan; and its main hubs are Tokyo's Narita International Airport and Tokyo International Airport (Haneda Airport), as well as Osaka's Kansai International Airport and Osaka International Airport.
Jeremy Silman (born August 28, 1954) is an American International Master of chess and writer.
James Derrick Slater (13 March 1929 – 18 November 2015) was a British accountant, investor and business writer.
Joan M Rodker (1 May 1915, Kensington, London – 27 December 2010) was an English political activist and television producer.
Joan Fischer Targ (July 8, 1937 – June 2, 1998) was an American educator who was an early proponent of computer literacy and initiated peer tutoring programs for students of all ages.
John Bosnitch (born February 15, 1961 in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada) is a Canadian journalist, consultant, and political activist of Serbian descent.
John Vliet Lindsay (November 24, 1921 – December 19, 2000) was an American politician, lawyer, and broadcaster.
John William "Jack" Collins (September 23, 1912 – December 2, 2001) was an American chess master, author, and teacher.
José Raúl Capablanca y Graupera (19 November 1888 – 8 March 1942) was a Cuban chess player who was world chess champion from 1921 to 1927.
Joseph G. Ponterotto is an American psychologist, author and professor.
Joseph Henry Blackburne (10 December 1841 – 1 September 1924), nicknamed "The Black Death", dominated British chess during the latter part of the 19th century.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Joshua Waitzkin (born December 4, 1976) is an American chess player, martial arts competitor, and author.
Judit Polgár (born 23 July 1976) is a Hungarian chess grandmaster.
Karsten Müller (born November 23, 1970 in Hamburg, West Germany) is a German chess Grandmaster and author.
Kenneth Whyld (6 March 1926 – 11 July 2003) was a British chess author and researcher, best known as the co-author (with David Hooper) of The Oxford Companion to Chess, a single-volume chess reference work in English.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
The King's Gambit is a chess opening that begins with the moves: White offers a pawn to divert the black e-pawn.
The Fischer Defense to the King's Gambit is a chess opening variation that begins with the moves: Although 3...d6 was previously known, it did not become a major variation until Fischer advocated it in a famous 1961 article in the first issue of the American Chess Quarterly.
The King's Indian Defence is a common chess opening.
Klaus Viktor Darga (born 24 February 1934) is a German chess grandmaster.
The knight (♘ ♞) is a piece in the game of chess, representing a knight (armored cavalry).
Kukl (often stylized as KUKL or K.U.K.L.) was an Icelandic post-punk group in the 1980s, most notable for being one of Björk's first bands.
The National University Hospital of Iceland (Landspítali) offers a wide range of clinical services in outpatient clinics, day patient units, inpatient wards, clinical laboratories and other divisions.
Larisa Ilinichna Volpert (Лариса Ильинична Вольперт; 30 March 1926 – 1 October 2017) was a Soviet chess Woman Grandmaster and Russian and Estonian philologist.
Larry Melvyn Evans (March 22, 1932 – November 15, 2010) was an American chess grandmaster, author, and journalist.
Laugardælir is a small settlement in SW Iceland, near the town of Selfoss.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Leonard William Barden (born 20 August 1929, in Croydon, London) is an English chess master, writer, broadcaster, organizer and promoter.
Lessing Julius Rosenwald (February 10, 1891 – June 24, 1979) was an American businessman, a collector of rare books and art, a chess patron, and a philanthropist.
Lev Osipovich Alburt (born August 21, 1945) is a chess grandmaster, chess writer and chess coach.
Lev Abramovich Polugaevsky (Лев Абрамович Полугаевский; 20 November 1934 – 30 August 1995) was an International Grandmaster of chess and frequent contender for the World Championship, although he never achieved that title.
Isaac Liev Schreiber (born October 4, 1967) is an American actor, director, screenwriter, and producer.
Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.
Lily Rabe (born June 29, 1982) is an American actress.
This list of books and documentaries by or about Bobby Fischer is a bibliography using APA style citations.
A chess variant (or unorthodox chess) is a game "related to, derived from, or inspired by chess".
A total of seven chess players have been the chess world number one on the official FIDE rating list since it was first published in July 1971.
Ljubomir Ljubojević is a Serbian chess grandmaster.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Lothar Maximilian Lorenz Schmid (10 May 1928 – 18 May 2013) was a German chess grandmaster.
Luděk Pachman (German: Ludek Pachmann, May 11, 1924 in Bělá pod Bezdězem, today Czech Republic – March 6, 2003 in Passau, Germany) was a Czechoslovak-German chess grandmaster, chess writer, and political activist.
Madame Bovary (full French title: Madame Bovary. Mœurs de province) is the debut novel of French writer Gustave Flaubert, published in 1856.
The Manhattan Chess Club in Manhattan was the second-oldest chess club in the United States (next to the Mechanics' Institute Chess Club in San Francisco) before it closed.
Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.
Mar del Plata has a rich history of chess tournaments, including their international chess tournament and open tournament.
Mark Andrew Spitz (born February 10, 1950) is an American former competitive swimmer, nine-time Olympic champion, and former world record-holder in 7 events.
Mark Evgenievich Taimanov (Марк Евгеньевич Тайманов; 7 February 1926 – 28 November 2016) was one of the leading Soviet and Russian chess players, among the world's top 20 players from 1946 to 1971.
The Marshall Chess Club, in Greenwich Village, New York City, is one of the oldest chess clubs in the United States.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.
Matrilineality in Judaism or matrilineal descent in Judaism is the tracing of Jewish descent through the maternal line.
Machgielis "Max" Euwe, PhD (May 20, 1901 – November 26, 1981) was a Dutch chess Grandmaster, mathematician, author, and chess administrator.
Max Pavey (March 5, 1918 – September 4, 1957) was an American chess master and medical doctor.
McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence.
Me & Bobby Fischer is a documentary about Bobby Fischer's last years as his old friend Saemundur Palsson gets him out of jail in Japan and helps him settle in Iceland.
Mein Kampf (My Struggle) is a 1925 autobiographical book by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler.
Michael Reese Hospital and Medical Center was an American hospital located in the Bronzeville neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois.
Miguel Najdorf (born Mojsze Mendel Najdorf) (15 April 1910 – 4 July 1997) was a Polish-Argentine chess grandmaster.
Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik (Михаи́л Моисе́евич Ботви́нник,; – May 5, 1995) was a Soviet and Russian International Grandmaster and World Chess Champion for most of 1948 to 1963.
Mikhail Ivanovich Chigorin (also Tchigorin; Михаи́л Ива́нович Чиго́рин; –) was a leading Russian chess player.
Mikhail Nekhemyevich Tal (Mihails Tāls; Михаил Нехемьевич Таль, Mikhail Nekhem'evich Tal,; sometimes transliterated Mihails Tals or Mihail Tal; 9 November 1936 – 28 June 1992) was a Soviet Latvian chess Grandmaster and the eighth World Chess Champion (from 1960 to 1961).
Milan Matulović (10 June 1935 – 9 October 2013) was a chess grandmaster who was the second or third strongest Yugoslav player for much of the 1960s and 1970s behind Svetozar Gligorić and possibly Borislav Ivkov.
is a Japanese women's chess champion, and the general secretary of the Japan Chess Association.
Mohegan Lake, or, rarely, Lake Mohegan, is a census-designated place (CDP) located in the Town of Cortlandt and partially in the Town of Yorktown, both in Westchester County, New York.
Monte Carlo (Monte-Carlo, or colloquially Monte-Carl; Monégasque: Monte-Carlu) officially refers to an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco, specifically the ward of Monte Carlo/Spélugues, where the Monte Carlo Casino is located.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
My 60 Memorable Games is a chess book by Bobby Fischer, first published in 1969.
My Great Predecessors is a series of chess books written by former World Champion Garry Kasparov et al.
, also known as Tokyo Narita Airport, formerly and originally known as, is an international airport serving the Greater Tokyo Area of Japan.
Neil Leslie Diamond (born January 24, 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, musician and actor.
Netanya (נְתַנְיָה, lit., "God gave"; نتانيا) is a city in the Northern Central District of Israel, and is the capital of the surrounding Sharon plain.
The New York Post is the fourth-largest newspaper in the United States and a leading digital media publisher that reached more than 57 million unique visitors in the U.S. in January 2017.
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.
Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.
Nicolas Rossolimo (Николай Спиридонович Россоли́мо; February 28, 1910, Kiev – July 24, 1975, New York) was an American-French-Greek-Russian chess Grandmaster.
Nigel David Short (born 1 June 1965) is an English chess grandmaster, chess columnist, chess coach and chess commentator.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nikolai Vladimirovich Krogius (first name sometimes written Nikolay) (born July 22, 1930 in Saratov) is a Russian Chess Grandmaster, International Arbiter (1985), psychologist, chess coach, chess administrator, and author.
The Nimzo-Indian Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: Other move orders, such as 1.c4 e6 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.d4 Bb4, are also feasible.
The Ninoy Aquino International Airport (Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Ninoy Aquino) or NAIA, formerly known and still commonly referred to as Manila International Airport as well as its codename Nichols Field (Nichols), is the airport serving Manila and its surrounding metropolitan area.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
Norman Tweed Whitaker (April 9, 1890 – May 20, 1975) was an American International Master of chess, a lawyer, a civil servant, and a chess author.
Oklahoma City, often shortened to OKC, is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
The City of Orange is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States.
Pal Benko (Benkő Pál; born July 14, 1928) is a Hungarian–American chess grandmaster, author, and composer of endgame studies and chess problems.
Palma de Mallorca, frequently used name for the city of Palma, is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands in Spain.
Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is a mental disorder characterized by paranoia and a pervasive, long-standing suspiciousness and generalized mistrust of others.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States, located 10 miles (16 kilometers) northeast of Downtown Los Angeles.
A passport is a travel document, usually issued by a country's government, that certifies the identity and nationality of its holder primarily for the purpose of international travel.
Patchogue is a village on the south shore of Long Island in Suffolk County, New York, United States.
Paul Keres (January 7, 1916June 5, 1975) was an Estonian chess grandmaster and chess writer.
Paul Charles Morphy (June 22, 1837 – July 10, 1884) was an American chess player.
Paul Felix Nemenyi (June 5, 1895 – March 1, 1952) was a Hungarian mathematician and physicist who specialized in continuum mechanics.
Pavilion Books Holdings Ltd is an English publishing company based in London.
The pawn (♙,♟) is the most numerous piece in the game of chess, and in most circumstances, also the weakest.
Pawn Sacrifice is a 2014 American biographical drama film.
Pepsi is a carbonated soft drink produced and manufactured by PepsiCo.
Peter Biyiasas (born November 19, 1950) is a Canadian chess grandmaster.
Peter Leko ('Lékó Péter'; Петер Леко; born September 8, 1979 in Subotica, Yugoslavia) is a Hungarian chess grandmaster.
Peter Björn Nemenyi (April 14, 1927 – May 20, 2002) was an American mathematician, who worked in statistics and probability theory.
John Peter Sarsgaard (born March 7, 1971) is an American actor.
The Philippine Daily Inquirer, popularly known as the Inquirer, is a newspaper in the Philippines.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
The Piatigorsky Cup was a triennial series of double round-robin grandmaster chess tournaments held in the United States in the 1960s.
The Poisoned Pawn Variation is any of several series of opening moves in chess in which a pawn is said to be "poisoned" because its capture can result in a positional disadvantage or loss of material.
Portorož (Portorose, literally "Port of Roses") is a Slovenian Adriatic seaside resort and spa town located in the Municipality of Piran in southwestern Slovenia.
Poughkeepsie, officially the City of Poughkeepsie, is a city in the state of New York, United States, which is the county seat of Dutchess County.
The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.
Ralph Ginzburg (October 28, 1929 – July 6, 2006) was an American author, editor, publisher and photo-journalist.
The rapture is an eschatological term used by certain Christians, particularly within branches of American evangelicalism, referring to a purported end time event when all Christian believers – living and dead – will rise into the sky and join Christ.
The following is a list of recurring Saturday Night Live characters and sketches introduced between September 30, 1995, and May 18, 1996, the twenty-first season of ''SNL''.
Relinquishment of United States nationality is the process under federal law by which a U.S. citizen or national voluntarily and intentionally gives up that status and becomes an alien with respect to the United States.
Reuben Fine (October 11, 1914 – March 26, 1993) was an American chess grandmaster, psychologist, university professor, and author of many books on both chess and psychology.
Rex Sinquefield (born 1944) is an American financial executive, active in Missouri politics.
Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland.
Richard D. Greenblatt (born December 25, 1944) is an American computer programmer.
Robert Hübner (born November 6, 1948) is a German chess Grandmaster, chess writer, and papyrologist.
Robert Graham Wade OBE (10 April 1921 Dunedin, New Zealand – 29 November 2008, London), was a New Zealand and British chess player, writer, arbiter, coach, and promoter.
Rodolfo Tan Cardoso (25 December 1937 – 21 August 2013) was a Filipino chess International Master.
A rook (♖,♜) is a piece in the strategy board game of chess.
A round-robin tournament (or all-play-all tournament) is a competition in which each contestant meets all other contestants in turn.
Rovinj-Rovigno (Croatian; Rovigno, Ancient Greek: Ρυγίνιον (Ryginion), Ruginium) is a city in Croatia situated on the north Adriatic Sea with a population of 14,294 (2011).
Russell Targ (born April 11, 1934) is an American physicist, parapsychologist and author who is best known for his work on remote viewing.
There have been two chess matches featuring USSR vs.
The Ruy Lopez, also called the Spanish Opening or Spanish Game, is a chess opening characterised by the moves: The Ruy Lopez is named after 16th-century Spanish bishop Ruy López de Segura.
The Exchange Variation of the Ruy Lopez is a chess opening that begins with the moves: Black may recapture on c6 with either pawn; although 4...bxc6 is playable, 4...dxc6 is almost always chosen at master level.
The seventh-day Sabbath, observed from Friday evening to Saturday evening (exact start and ending times varying from group to group), is an important part of the beliefs and practices of seventh-day churches.
Salomon Mikhailovich Flohr (November 21, 1908 – July 18, 1983) was a leading Czech chess grandmaster of the mid-20th century, who became a national hero in Czechoslovakia during the 1930s.
Saltsjöbaden is a locality in Nacka Municipality, Stockholm County, Sweden with 9,491 inhabitants in 2010.
Samuel Herman Reshevsky (born Szmul Rzeszewski; November 26, 1911 – April 4, 1992) was a Polish chess prodigy and later a leading American chess grandmaster.
Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, California, United States.
Santiago, also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas.
Saturday Night Live (SNL) is an American late-night live television variety show created by Lorne Michaels and developed by Dick Ebersol.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Searching for Bobby Fischer, released in the United Kingdom as Innocent Moves, is a 1993 American drama film written and directed by Steven Zaillian.
Selfoss is a town in southern Iceland on the banks of the Ölfusá river.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Serbia and Montenegro (Srbija i Crna Gora, Србија и Црна Гора; SCG, СЦГ), officially the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Državna Zajednica Srbija i Crna Gora, Државна Заједница Србија и Црна Гора), was a country in Southeast Europe, created from the two remaining federal republics of Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1992.
Seven Days in May is a 1964 American political thriller motion picture about a military-political cabal's planned takeover of the United States government in reaction to the president's negotiation of a disarmament treaty with the Soviet Union.
The Sicilian Defence is a chess opening that begins with the following moves: The Sicilian is the most popular and best-scoring response to White's first move 1.e4.
The Najdorf Variation of the Sicilian Defence is one of the most respected and deeply studied of all chess openings.
Siegbert Tarrasch (5 March 1862 – 17 February 1934) was one of the strongest chess players and most influential chess teachers of the late 19th and early 20th century.
A simultaneous exhibition or simultaneous display is a board game exhibition (commonly chess or Go) in which one player (typically of high rank, such as a grandmaster or dan-level player) plays multiple games at a time with a number of other players.
A single-elimination, knockout, or sudden death tournament is a type of elimination tournament where the loser of each match-up is immediately eliminated from the tournament.
Skopje (Скопје) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Macedonia.
Sofia Polgar (Polgár Zsófia); born November 2, 1974) is a Hungarian, Israeli and Canadian chess player, teacher, and artist. She is a former chess prodigy. She holds the FIDE titles of International Master and Woman Grandmaster and is the middle sister of Grandmasters Susan and Judit Polgár. She lives in Israel and has worked as a chess teacher and artist.
Sousse or Soussa (سوسة, Berber: Susa) is a city in Tunisia, capital of the Sousse Governorate.
Sports Illustrated is an American sports magazine owned by Meredith Corporation.
Stephen Giddins (born 1961) is an English chess player and writer.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Susan Polgar (born April 19, 1969, as Polgár Zsuzsanna and often known as Zsuzsa Polgár) is a Hungarian-born American chess Grandmaster.
Sveti Stefan (lit. "Saint Stephen"; Cyrillic: Свети Стефан, Santo Stefano) is a small islet and 5-star hotel resort on the Adriatic coast of Montenegro, approximately southeast of Budva.
Svetozar Gligorić (Serbian Cyrillic: Светозар Глигорић, 2 February 1923 – 14 August 2012) was a Serbian and Yugoslav chess grandmaster.
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
In chess, The Game of the Century is a chess game played between 26-year-old Donald Byrne and 13-year-old Bobby Fischer in the Rosenwald Memorial Tournament in New York City on October 17, 1956, which Fischer won.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Oxford Companion to Chess is a reference book on the game of chess, written by David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld.
The Philadelphia Inquirer is a morning daily newspaper that serves the Philadelphia metropolitan area of the United States.
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Протоколы сионских мудрецов) or The Protocols of the Meetings of the Learned Elders of Zion is an antisemitic fabricated text purporting to describe a Jewish plan for global domination.
The Sunday Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper, founded in February 1961, and is published by the Telegraph Media Group, a division of Press Holdings.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Tie-break systems are used in chess Swiss system tournaments to break ties between players who have the same total number of points after the last round.
Tigran Vartanovich Petrosian (Тигра́н Варта́нович Петрося́н; Տիգրան Պետրոսյան; June 17, 1929 – August 13, 1984) was a Soviet Armenian Grandmaster, and World Chess Champion from 1963 to 1969.
Sir Timothy Miles Bindon Rice (born 10 November 1944) is an English author and Academy Award, Golden Globe Award, Tony Award, and Grammy Award-winning lyricist.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Title 50 of the United States Code outlines the role of War and National Defense in the United States Code.
Tobias Vincent Maguire (born June 27, 1975) is an American actor and film producer.
The touch-move rule in chess specifies that, if a player deliberately touches a piece on the board when it is his turn to move, then he must move or capture that piece if it is legal to do so.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The U.S. Chess Championship is an invitational tournament held to determine the national chess champion of the United States.
The U.S. Open Championship is an open national chess championship that has been held in the United States annually since 1900.
UBS Group AG is a Swiss multinational investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland.
Ulf Andersson (born 27 June 1951) is a leading Swedish chess player.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States Chess Federation (also known as US Chess or USCF) is the governing body for chess competition in the United States and represents the U.S. in FIDE, the World Chess Federation.
The Code of Laws of the United States of America (variously abbreviated to Code of Laws of the United States, United States Code, U.S. Code, U.S.C., or USC) is the official compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal statutes of the United States.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia.
Vasily Vasilyevich Smyslov (Василий Васильевич Смыслов; 24 March 1921 – 27 March 2010) was a Soviet and Russian chess grandmaster, who was World Chess Champion from 1957 to 1958.
Viktor Lvovich Korchnoi (p; 23 March 1931 – 6 June 2016) was a Soviet (until 1976) and Swiss (since 1994) chess grandmaster and writer.
Vinkovci is a city in Slavonia, in the Vukovar-Srijem County in eastern Croatia.
Viswanathan "Vishy" Anand (born 11 December 1969) is an Indian chess grandmaster, a former World Chess Champion, and the current World Rapid Chess Champion.
Vladimir Alexeyevich Alatortsev (Влади́мир Алексе́евич Ала́торцев, pronounced "a LAH tart sev") (May 14, 1909 in Turki, Saratov oblast, Russian Empire – January 13, 1987 in Moscow, Soviet Union), was a Russian chess grandmaster, organizer, teacher, author, and administrator.
Vladimir Semyonovich Vysotsky (p; 25 January 1938 – 25 July 1980) was a Russian singer-songwriter, poet, and actor whose career had an immense and enduring effect on Soviet and Russian culture.
Vlastimil Hort (born 12 January 1944) is a Czechoslovak-born German chess Grandmaster.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
In chess, the player who moves first is referred to as "White" and the player who moves second is referred to as "Black".
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
Wilhelm (later William) Steinitz (May 17, 1836 – August 12, 1900) was an Austrian and later American chess master, and the first undisputed World Chess Champion, from 1886 to 1894.
John William Ferrell (born July 16, 1967) is an American actor, comedian, producer, and writer.
William Roland Hartston (born 12 August 1947) is an English journalist who writes the Beachcomber column in the Daily Express and a chess player who played competitively from 1962 to 1987 with a highest Elo rating of 2485.
William James Joseph Lombardy (December 4, 1937 – October 13, 2017) was an American chess grandmaster, chess writer, teacher, and former Catholic priest.
In sports, a winning streak is a consecutive sequence of 3 won games, or won competitions.
The World Chess Championship (sometimes abbreviated as WCC) is played to determine the World Champion in chess.
The 1966 World Chess Championship was played between Tigran Petrosian and Boris Spassky in Moscow from April 9 to June 9, 1966.
The 1969 World Chess Championship was played between Tigran Petrosian and Boris Spassky in Moscow from April 14 to June 17, 1969.
The World Chess Championship 1972 was a match for the World Chess Championship between challenger Bobby Fischer of the United States and defending champion Boris Spassky of the Soviet Union.
The 1975 World Chess Championship was never played due to a dispute over the match format.
The World Festival of Youth and Students is an international event, organized by the World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY), a United Nations-recognized international youth non-governmental organization, jointly with the International Union of Students since 1947.
The World Junior Chess Championship is an under-20 chess tournament (players must have been under 20 years old on 1 January in the year of competition) organized by the World Chess Federation (FIDE).
Yasser Seirawan (ياسر سيروان; born March 24, 1960) is an American chess grandmaster and four-time United States champion.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Yuri Lvovich Averbakh (Ю́рий Льво́вич Аверба́х; born February 8, 1922) is a Soviet and Russian chess player and author.
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
The 13th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open team tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between September 30 and October 23, 1958, in Munich, West Germany.
The 14th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open team tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between October 26 and November 9, 1960, in Leipzig, East Germany.
The 15th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open team tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between September 15 and October 10, 1962, in Varna, Bulgaria.
The 16th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open team tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between November 2 and November 25, 1964, in Tel Aviv, Israel.
The 17th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open team tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between October 23 and November 20, 1966, in Havana, Cuba.
The 18th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open team tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between October 17 and November 7, 1968, in Lugano, Switzerland.
The 19th Chess Olympiad, comprising an open team tournament as well as the annual FIDE congress, took place between September 5 and 27, 1970, in Siegen, West Germany.
Bob Fischer, Bobbie fischer, Bobby Ficsher, Bobby Fischer (Chess career), Bobby Fischer (biography), Bobby Fischer (chess career), Bobby Fischre, Bobby Fisher, Bobby fischer, Fischer's endgame, Fisher's endgame, Regina Wender, Robert J Fischer, Robert J. Fischer, Robert James Fischer.