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Index Bodybuilding

Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature. [1]

199 relations: Academy Awards, Acne, Acromegaly, Actin, Adipose tissue, Aerobic exercise, Aesthetics, Alois P. Swoboda, Amateur Athletic Union, American Media, Inc., Anabolic steroid, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Arnold Sports Festival, Arthur Conan Doyle, Athletic training, Basal metabolic rate, Beefcake, Ben Weider, Bernarr Macfadden, Bev Francis, Bill Pearl, Biological value, Body image, Bodybuilding, Bodybuilding supplement, Bone, Cabinet card, Caesars Palace, Calorie, Canada, Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine, Canton, Ohio, Carbohydrate, Carbohydrate loading, Casein, Central nervous system, Charles Atlas, Circulatory system, Clarence Ross, Clinical urine tests, Controlled Substances Act, Cortisol, Criminal Code (Canada), Cyst, Dehydration, Delayed onset muscle soreness, Dietary supplement, ..., Diuretic, Doping in sport, Dorian Yates, Doubly labeled water, Dumbbell, Eastern Bloc, Estrogen, Eugen Sandow, Exercise, Exercise equipment, Exercise physiology, Female bodybuilding, Fitness and figure competition, Flax, Florenz Ziegfeld Jr., Food energy, Francis X. Bushman, Franco Columbu, Frank Saldo, Frank Zane, Gary Strydom, George Hackenschmidt, Glucose, Glycemic index, Glycogen, Gold's Gym, Golden ratio, Granuloma, Greg Kovacs, Growth hormone therapy, Gustav Frištenský, Gym, Gynecomastia, Health club, Hepatotoxicity, Hormone, Hypertrophy, Insulin, International Federation of BodyBuilding & Fitness, International Olympic Committee, Jack LaLanne, Joe Weider, Juliana Malacarne, Lee Haney, Lee Priest, Leroy Colbert, Lidocaine, London, Lou Ferrigno, Loveland, Colorado, Madison Square Garden, Maltodextrin, Markus Rühl, Massage, Mickey Hargitay, Microtrauma, Mineral (nutrient), Monte Saldo, Most Muscular, Mr. Olympia, Ms. Olympia, Muscle, Muscle & Fitness, Muscle Beach, Muscle dysmorphia, Muscle hypertrophy, Musical film, Myosin, National Amateur Body-Builders' Association, National Enquirer, National Physique Committee, New York City, North Hollywood, Los Angeles, Nottingham, Nutrition, Olympic Games, Olympic weightlifting, Panniculitis, Patrik Baboumian, Pattern hair loss, Paul Demayo, Phil Heath, Physical culture, Physical fitness, Physical strength, Phytoestrogens, Pituitary gland, Poly(methyl methacrylate), Polygraph, Polysaccharide, Posedown, Powerlifting, Professional bodybuilding, Professional wrestling, Protein, Protein (nutrient), Pulley, Pulmonary embolism, Pumping Iron, Pumping Iron II: The Women, Rachel McLish, Ralph Parcaut, Reg Park, Robert Cheeke, Ronnie Coleman, Royal Albert Hall, Santa Monica, California, Senescence, Sergio Oliva, Sesame oil, Sodium in biology, Soviet Union, Soybean, Specific dynamic action, Sports medicine, Sports nutrition, Steve Reeves, Strength training, Strongman (strength athlete), Substance dependence, Sun tanning, Sunless tanning, Synthol (mouthwash), Tamilakam, Testicular atrophy, Testosterone, The Great Ziegfeld, Thomas Edison, Tofu, Typecasting (acting), United States Congress, United States dollar, Universe Championships, Vascularity, Vasculitis, Veganism, Vegetable oil, Vic Tanny, Vince McMahon, Vitamin, Water, Weight training, Wheat gluten (food), Whey protein, William Bankier, World Bodybuilding Federation, World War I, WWE, Zishe Breitbart. Expand index (149 more) »

Academy Awards

The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.

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Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.

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Acromegaly is a disorder that results from excess growth hormone (GH) after the growth plates have closed.

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Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.

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Adipose tissue

In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.

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Aerobic exercise

Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.

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Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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Alois P. Swoboda

Alois P. Swoboda (1873–1938) was a Physical Culture mail-order instructor.

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Amateur Athletic Union

The Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) is an amateur sports organization based in the United States.

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American Media, Inc.

American Media, Inc., is a publisher of magazines, supermarket tabloids, and books based in New York City.

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Anabolic steroid

Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Arnold Schwarzenegger

Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American actor, filmmaker, businessman, investor, author, philanthropist, activist, politician, and former professional bodybuilder and powerlifter.

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Arnold Sports Festival

The IFBB Arnold Sports Festival, also known as the Arnold Schwarzenegger Sports Festival is an annual multi-sport event consisting of professional bodybuilding (Arnold Classic), strongman (Arnold Strongman Classic), fitness, figure and bikini weekend expo.

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Arthur Conan Doyle

Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British writer best known for his detective fiction featuring the character Sherlock Holmes.

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Athletic training

Athletic training has been recognized by the American Medical Association (AMA) as an allied health care profession since June 1991.

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Basal metabolic rate

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.

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Beefcake is a performance or a form of glamour photography depicting a large and muscular male body.

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Ben Weider

Benjamin "Ben" Weider, (February 1, 1923 – October 17, 2008) was the co-founder of the International Federation of BodyBuilding & Fitness (IFBB) along with brother Joe Weider.

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Bernarr Macfadden

Bernarr Macfadden (born Bernard Adolphus McFadden, August 16, 1868 – October 12, 1955) was an American proponent of physical culture, a combination of bodybuilding with nutritional and health theories.

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Bev Francis

Beverley "Bev" Francis (born 15 February 1955) is an Australian gym owner and retired professional bodybuilder, powerlifter, and national shot put champion.

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Bill Pearl

William Arnold "Bill" Pearl (born October 31, 1930) is an American retired professional bodybuilder and athlete.

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Biological value

Biological value (BV) is a measure of the proportion of absorbed protein from a food which becomes incorporated into the proteins of the organism's body.

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Body image

Body image is a person's perception of the aesthetics or sexual attractiveness of their own body.

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Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature.

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Bodybuilding supplement

s are s commonly used by those involved in bodybuilding, weightlifting, mixed martial arts, and athletics for the purpose of facilitating an increase in lean body mass.

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A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.

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Cabinet card

The cabinet card was a style of photograph which was widely used for photographic portraiture after 1870.

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Caesars Palace

Caesars Palace is a luxury hotel and casino in Paradise, Nevada, United States.

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A calorie is a unit of energy.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine

The Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine (CASEM) is the national medical specialty society for sport medicine physicians in Canada.

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Canton, Ohio

Canton is a city in and the county seat of Stark County, Ohio, United States.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbohydrate loading

Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as runners, to maximise the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.

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Casein ("kay-seen", from Latin caseus, "cheese") is a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ).

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Charles Atlas

Charles Atlas (born Angelo Siciliano; October 30, 1892 – December 24, 1972) was an Italian-American bodybuilder best remembered as the developer of a bodybuilding method and its associated exercise program which spawned a landmark advertising campaign featuring his name and likeness; it has been described as one of the longest-lasting and most memorable ad campaigns of all time.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Clarence Ross

Clarence Ross (October 26, 1923 – April 30, 2008) was a bodybuilder from the United States.

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Clinical urine tests

Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.

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Controlled Substances Act

The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.

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Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.

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Criminal Code (Canada)

The Criminal Code (Code criminelThe citation of this Act by this short title is authorised by the French text of of this Act.) is a law that codifies most criminal offences and procedures in Canada.

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A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division compared with the nearby tissue.

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In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.

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Delayed onset muscle soreness

Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is the pain and stiffness felt in muscles several hours to days after unaccustomed or strenuous exercise.

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Dietary supplement

A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.

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A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.

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Doping in sport

In competitive sports, doping is the use of banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs by athletic competitors.

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Dorian Yates

Dorian Andrew Mientjez Yates (born 19 April 1962) is an English former professional bodybuilder.

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Doubly labeled water

Doubly labeled water is water in which both the hydrogen and the oxygen have been partly or completely replaced (i.e. labeled) with an uncommon isotope of these elements for tracing purposes.

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The dumbbell, a type of free weight, is a piece of equipment used in weight training.

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Eastern Bloc

The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

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Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.

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Eugen Sandow

Eugen Sandow (born Friedrich Wilhelm Müller; 2 April 1867 – 14 October 1925) was a pioneering German bodybuilder, now known as the "father of modern bodybuilding".

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Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

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Exercise equipment

Exercise equipment is any apparatus or device used during physical activity to enhance the strength or conditioning effects of that exercise by providing either fixed or adjustable amounts of resistance, or to otherwise enhance the experience or outcome of an exercise routine.

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Exercise physiology

Exercise physiology is the physiology of physical exercise.

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Female bodybuilding

Female bodybuilding is the female component of competitive bodybuilding.

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Fitness and figure competition

Fitness and figure competition is a class of physique-exhibition events for women.

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Flax (Linum usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.

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Florenz Ziegfeld Jr.

Florenz Edward Ziegfeld Jr. (March 21, 1867 – July 22, 1932), popularly known as Flo Ziegfeld, was an American Broadway impresario, notable for his series of theatrical revues, the Ziegfeld Follies (1907–1931), inspired by the Folies Bergère of Paris.

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Food energy

Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration.

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Francis X. Bushman

Francis Xavier Bushman (January 10, 1883 – August 23, 1966) was an American film actor and director.

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Franco Columbu

Francesco Columbu (born in Ollolai, Sardinia, August 7, 1941) is an Italian actor, author, former champion bodybuilder and World's Strongest Man competitor.

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Frank Saldo

Frank Saldo (10 July 1882 – 1 June 1939) (born as Frank Harold Woollaston) was an early bodybuilder, and with his brothers Monte Saldo and Edwin Woollaston was a member of the strongman act The Montague Brothers in the early twentieth century.

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Frank Zane

Frank Zane (born June 28, 1942) is an American former professional bodybuilder and author.

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Gary Strydom

Gary Strydom (born 1960 in Durban, South Africa) is an American IFBB professional bodybuilder.

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George Hackenschmidt

Georg Karl Julius Hackenschmidt (– 19 February 1968) was an early 20th-century Baltic German strongman and professional wrestler who is recognized as professional wrestling's first world heavyweight champion.

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Glycemic index

The glycemic index or glycaemic index (GI) is a number associated with the carbohydrates in a particular type of food that indicates the effect of these carbohydrates on a person's blood glucose (also called blood sugar) level.

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Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.

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Gold's Gym

Gold's Gym International, Inc. is an American chain of international co-ed fitness centers (commonly referred to as gyms) originally started by Joe Gold in Venice Beach, California.

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Golden ratio

In mathematics, two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities.

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Granuloma is an inflammation found in many diseases.

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Greg Kovacs

Gregory Mark Kovacs (December 16, 1968 – November 22, 2013) was a Canadian IFBB professional bodybuilder.

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Growth hormone therapy

Growth hormone therapy refers to the use of growth hormone (GH) as a prescription medication—it is one form of hormone therapy.

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Gustav Frištenský

Gustav Frištenský (18 May 1879 – 6 April 1957) was a Czech strongman, Greco-Roman wrestler and professional wrestler who competed in the first half of the 20th century.

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A gymnasium, also known as a gym, is a covered location for gymnastics, athletics, and gymnastic services.

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Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.

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Health club

A health club (also known as a fitness club, fitness centre, health spa, and commonly referred to as a gym) is a place that houses exercise equipment for the purpose of physical exercise.

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Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Hypertrophy (from Greek ὑπέρ "excess" + τροφή "nourishment") is the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells.

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Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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International Federation of BodyBuilding & Fitness

The International Federation of BodyBuilding and Fitness (IFBB), headquartered in Madrid, is an international professional sports governing body for bodybuilding and fitness that oversees many of the sport's major international events, notably the World and Continental Championships.

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International Olympic Committee

The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.

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Jack LaLanne

Francois Henri Jack LaLanne (pronounced /lə'leɪn/ "luh-layn" French /lalan/ "lah-lahn"; September 26, 1914January 23, 2011) was an American fitness, exercise, and nutrition expert and motivational speaker who is sometimes referred to as the "Godfather of Fitness" and the "First Fitness Superhero".

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Joe Weider

Joseph Weider (November 29, 1919 – March 23, 2013) was a Canadian bodybuilder and entrepreneur who co-founded the International Federation of BodyBuilders (IFBB) alongside his brother Ben Weider.

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Juliana Malacarne

Juliana Malacarne is a Brazilian IFBB professional bodybuilder.

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Lee Haney

Lee Haney (born November 11, 1959) is an American former IFBB professional bodybuilder.

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Lee Priest

Lee Andrew Priest (born 6 July 1972 in Newcastle, Australia) is a former International Federation of BodyBuilders (IFBB) professional bodybuilder and a current National Amateur Body-Builders' Association (NABBA) professional athlete.

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Leroy Colbert

Leroy Colbert (born May 9, 1933 NY, USA - died November 20, 2015 age 82) was an American bodybuilder.

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Lidocaine, also known as xylocaine and lignocaine, is a medication used to numb tissue in a specific area.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Lou Ferrigno

Louis Jude Ferrigno (born November 9, 1951) is an American actor, fitness trainer, fitness consultant and retired professional bodybuilder.

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Loveland, Colorado

The City of Loveland is the Home Rule Municipality that is the second most populous municipality in Larimer County, Colorado, United States.

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Madison Square Garden

Madison Square Garden, often called "MSG" or simply "The Garden", is a multi-purpose indoor arena in the New York City borough of Manhattan.

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Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is used as a food additive.

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Markus Rühl

Markus Rühl (born 22 February 1972, in Darmstadt, Germany) is a retired IFBB professional bodybuilder.

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Massage is to work and act on the body with pressure.

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Mickey Hargitay

Miklós "Mickey" Hargitay (January 6, 1926 – September 14, 2006) was a Hungarian-American actor and the 1955 Mr. Universe.

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Microtrauma is the general term given to small injuries to the body.

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Mineral (nutrient)

In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.

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Monte Saldo

Monte Saldo (1879–23 February 1949) (born as Alfred Montague Woollaston) was an early bodybuilder, who later, with his brothers Frank Saldo and Edwin Woollaston formed the stage act The Montague Brothers, in which they displayed acts of strength including supporting a heavy motor car complete with passengers.

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Most Muscular

The most muscular is a common bodybuilding pose, often used to highlight as much of a contestant's muscle repertoire as possible by demonstrating the maximum mass of muscle to the judging panel.

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Mr. Olympia


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Ms. Olympia


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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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Muscle & Fitness

Muscle & Fitness is an American fitness and bodybuilding magazine founded in 1935 by Canadian entrepreneur Joe Weider.

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Muscle Beach

Muscle Beach refers to the exclusive Santa Monica location of the birthplace of the physical fitness boom in the United States during the 20th century, started in 1934 with predominantly gymnastics activities on the south side of the Santa Monica Pier.

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Muscle dysmorphia

Muscle dysmorphia is a subtype of the obsessive mental disorder body dysmorphic disorder, but is often also grouped with eating disorders.

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Muscle hypertrophy

Muscle hypertrophy involves an increase in size of skeletal muscle through a growth in size of its component cells.

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Musical film

The musical film is a film genre in which songs sung by the characters are interwoven into the narrative, sometimes accompanied by dancing.

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Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.

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National Amateur Body-Builders' Association

The National Amateur Body-Builders' Association, more commonly referred to as NABBA, was founded in 1950 by the Health & Strength League to promote bodybuilding.

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National Enquirer

The National Enquirer (also commonly known as the Enquirer) is an American supermarket tabloid published by American Media Inc (AMI).

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National Physique Committee

The National Physique Committee (NPC) is the largest amateur bodybuilding organization in the United States.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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North Hollywood, Los Angeles

North Hollywood is a neighborhood in the east San Fernando Valley region of the city of Los Angeles.

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Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England, north of London, in the East Midlands.

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Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.

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Olympic Games

The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.

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Olympic weightlifting

Weightlifting, also called '''Olympic-style weightlifting''', or Olympic weightlifting, is an athletic discipline in the modern Olympic programme in which the athlete attempts a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates.

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Panniculitis is a group of diseases whose hallmark is inflammation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (the fatty layer under the skin – panniculus adiposus).

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Patrik Baboumian

Patrik Baboumian (پاتریک بابومیان,; born 1 July 1979) is a German strongman competitor, strength athlete and former bodybuilder, also known as a veganism promoter.

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Pattern hair loss

Pattern hair loss, known as male-pattern hair loss (MPHL) when it affects males and female-pattern hair loss (FPHL) when it affects females, is hair loss that primarily affects the top and front of the scalp.

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Paul Demayo

Paul DeMayo (September 12, 1967 – June 2, 2005) was an American IFBB professional bodybuilder.

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Phil Heath

Phillip Jerrod "Phil" Heath (born December 18, 1979) is an American IFBB professional bodybuilder and the current Mr. Olympia.

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Physical culture

Physical culture is a health and strength training movement that originated during the 19th century in Germany, England, and the United States.

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Physical fitness

Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities.

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Physical strength

Physical strength is the measure of an animal's exertion of force on physical objects.

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Phytoestrogens are plant-derived xenoestrogens (see estrogen) not generated within the endocrine system, but consumed by eating phytoestrogenic plants.

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Pituitary gland

An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.

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Poly(methyl methacrylate)

Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also known as acrylic or acrylic glass as well as by the trade names Crylux, Plexiglas, Acrylite, Lucite, and Perspex among several others (see below), is a transparent thermoplastic often used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass.

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A polygraph, popularly referred to as a lie detector, measures and records several physiological indices such as blood pressure, pulse, respiration, and skin conductivity while a person is asked and answers a series of questions.

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Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

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In bodybuilding, a posedown (or the posedown) is a period during contests when contestants pose to demonstrate their physique and muscular development, often including all contestants on stage together attempting to outdo their fellow competitors.

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Powerlifting is a strength sport that consists of three attempts at maximal weight on three lifts: squat, bench press, and deadlift.

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Professional bodybuilding

Professional bodybuilding or pro bodybuilding can refer to bodybuilding for an income and/or possessing qualifications such as an IFBB Pro Card.

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Professional wrestling

Professional wrestling (often shortened to pro wrestling or simply wrestling) is a form of sports entertainment which combines athletics with theatrical performance.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein (nutrient)

Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body.

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A pulley is a wheel on an axle or shaft that is designed to support movement and change of direction of a taut cable or belt, or transfer of power between the shaft and cable or belt.

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Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).

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Pumping Iron

Pumping Iron is a 1977 docudrama about the world of professional bodybuilding, with a focus on the 1975 IFBB Mr.

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Pumping Iron II: The Women

Pumping Iron II: The Women is a 1985 documentary film about female bodybuilding, focusing on several women as they prepare for and compete in the 1983 Caesars World Cup.

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Rachel McLish

Rachel Livia Elizondo McLish (born June 21, 1955) is an American female bodybuilding champion, actress, and author.

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Ralph Parcaut

Ralph Edward Parcaut (December 3, 1896 – June 25, 1957) was a professional wrestler in the early part of the 20th century.

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Reg Park

Roy "Reg" Park (7 June 1928 – 22 November 2007) was an English bodybuilder, businessman, and actor.

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Robert Cheeke

Robert Cheeke (born March 2, 1980 in Corvallis, Oregon) is an American bodybuilder, motivational speaker, and author.

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Ronnie Coleman

Ronnie Dean Coleman (born May 13, 1964) is a retired American professional bodybuilder.

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Royal Albert Hall

The Royal Albert Hall is a concert hall on the northern edge of South Kensington, London, which has held the Proms concerts annually each summer since 1941.

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Santa Monica, California

Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, California, United States.

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Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.

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Sergio Oliva

Sergio Oliva (July 4, 1941 – November 12, 2012) was a Cuban bodybuilder known as "The Myth".

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Sesame oil

Sesame oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from sesame seeds.

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Sodium in biology

Sodium ions are necessary in small amounts for some types of plants, but sodium as a nutrient is more generally needed in larger amounts by animals, due to their use of it for generation of nerve impulses and for maintenance of electrolyte balance and fluid balance.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.

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Specific dynamic action

Specific dynamic action (SDA), also known as Thermic effect of food (TEF) or dietary induced thermogenesis (DIT), is the amount of energy expenditure above the basal metabolic rate due to the cost of processing food for use and storage.

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Sports medicine

Sports medicine, also known as sport and exercise medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with physical fitness and the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise.

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Sports nutrition

Sports nutrition is the study and practice of nutrition and diet with regards to improving anyone's athletic performance.

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Steve Reeves

Stephen Lester "Steve" Reeves (January 21, 1926 – May 1, 2000) was an American professional bodybuilder, actor, and philanthropist.

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Strength training

Strength training is a type of physical exercise specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction which builds the strength, anaerobic endurance, and size of skeletal muscles.

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Strongman (strength athlete)

A strongman is a man who competes in strength athletics.

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Substance dependence

Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.

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Sun tanning

Sun tanning or simply tanning is the process whereby skin color is darkened or tanned.

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Sunless tanning

Sunless tanning, also known as UV filled tanning, self tanning, spray tanning (when applied topically), or fake tanning, refers to the application of chemicals to the skin to produce an effect similar in appearance to a suntan.

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Synthol (mouthwash)

Synthol is a liquid medical product brand available in France since 1920, though the nature of the product has changed through the brand's history.

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Tamilakam refers to the geographical region inhabited by the ancient Tamil people.

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Testicular atrophy

Testicular atrophy is a medical condition in which the male reproductive organs (the testes, which in humans are located in the scrotum) diminish in size and may be accompanied by loss of function.

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Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.

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The Great Ziegfeld

The Great Ziegfeld is a 1936 American musical drama film directed by Robert Z. Leonard and produced by Hunt Stromberg.

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Thomas Edison

Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.

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Tofu, also known as bean curd, is a food cultivated by coagulating soy milk and then pressing the resulting curds into soft white blocks.

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Typecasting (acting)

In television, film, and theatre, typecasting is the process by which a particular actor becomes strongly identified with a specific character; one or more particular roles; or, characters having the same traits or coming from the same social or ethnic groups.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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Universe Championships

The Universe Championships are annual worldwide bodybuilding events organised by the National Amateur Body-Builders' Association (NABBA).

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Vascularity, in bodybuilding, is the condition of having many highly-visible, prominent, and often extensively-ramified superficial veins.

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Vasculitis is a group of disorders that destroy blood vessels by inflammation.

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Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.

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Vegetable oil

Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.

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Vic Tanny

Victor "Vic" Tanny (born Victor A. Iannidinardo; February 18, 1912 – June 11, 1985) was an American entrepreneur.

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Vince McMahon

Vincent Kennedy McMahon (born August 24, 1945) is an American professional wrestling promoter and executive, American football executive, businessman, film producer, actor and sporadic professional wrestler.

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A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Weight training

Weight training is a common type of strength training for developing the strength and size of skeletal muscles.

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Wheat gluten (food)

Wheat gluten is a food made from gluten, the main protein of wheat.

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Whey protein

Whey protein is a mixture of globular proteins isolated from whey, the liquid material created as a by-product of cheese production.

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William Bankier

William Bankier (10 December 1870 – 4 September 1949) billed as 'Apollo, the Scottish Hercules', was an early bodybuilder and strongman stage performer who in 1915 and 1919 was also 'King Rat' of the showbusiness charity the Grand Order of Water Rats.

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World Bodybuilding Federation

The World Bodybuilding Federation (WBF) was a bodybuilding organization founded in 1990 by Vince McMahon that lasted until 1993.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc., d/b/a WWE, is an American integrated media and entertainment company that primarily is known for professional wrestling.

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Zishe Breitbart

Siegmund Breitbart (22 February 1883 – 12 October 1925), also known popularly as Zishe or Sische Breitbart (זישע ברייטבאַרט), was a Polish-born circus performer, vaudeville strongman and Jewish folklore hero.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bodybuilding

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