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Index Bohemia

Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic. [1]

233 relations: Adršpach-Teplice Rocks, Agnes of Bohemia, Alans, Alemanni, Alois Jirásek, Ancient Rome, Austria, Austrian Empire, Austrian Silesia, Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Austro-Prussian War, Ústí nad Labem Region, Čáslav, Žatec, Baltic Sea, Battle of Lechfeld (955), Battle of Lipany, Battle of Mohács, Battle of Mutina (193 BC), Battle of Placentia (194 BC), Battle of White Mountain, Bavaria, Bavarian Geographer, Bavarians, Bechyně, Beroun, Bohemia at the 1908 Summer Olympics, Bohemian Forest, Bohemian Revolt, Bohemianism, Boii, Bolesław I the Brave, Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, Buri tribe, Calvinism, Canon law, Capital city, Carantania, Carinthia (Slovenia), Carolingian dynasty, Carpathian Ruthenia, Catholic Church, Celtic nations, Central Bohemian Region, Central Europe, Central European Summer Time, Central European Time, Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles University, Christianization of Bohemia, ..., Chrudim, Compacts of Basel, Constitution of the Czech Republic, Council of Constance, Crusades, Czech Corner, Czech lands, Czech language, Czech National Revival, Czech Republic, Czech Silesia, Czech Socialist Republic, Czechoslovakia, Czechs, Danube, Diet (assembly), Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, Duchy of Bohemia, Duke, East Francia, Eastern Neisse, Elbe, Electoral Palatinate, Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia, Enlightened absolutism, Ethnic group, European Union, European watershed, Expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, Flag of Bohemia, Franks, Frederick V of the Palatinate, Freedom of religion, Fritigil, George of Poděbrady, Germania (book), Germany, Great Moravia, Habsburg Monarchy, Helvetii, Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor, Hercynian Forest, Heresy, Hermunduri, Historical region, History of Czechoslovakia (1918–38), History of the Czech lands, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Empire, House of Luxembourg, Hradec Králové, Hradec Králové Region, Hungarians, Hussite Wars, James VI and I, Jan Žižka, Jan Hus, Jan Jesenius, Jaromír, Duke of Bohemia, John of Bohemia, Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, Karlštejn, Karlovy Vary Region, Kłodzko, Kłodzko Land, Kłodzko Valley, Kingdom Come: Deliverance, Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of Prussia, Klement Gottwald, Kouřim, Kraj, Krkonoše, Lands of the Bohemian Crown, Lech, Czech, and Rus, Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor, Liberec Region, List of Bohemian monarchs, List of sovereign states, Litoměřice, Loket (Sokolov District), Lombards, Louis II of Hungary, Lower Austria, Lower Lusatia, Lower Silesia, Lugii, Lusatia, Luxembourg, Majority, Manorialism, Marcomanni, Marcus Aurelius, Marcus Velleius Paterculus, Margraviate of Moravia, Maroboduus, Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, Middle Ages, Migration Period, Mladá Boleslav, Mongol invasion of Europe, Moravia, Munich Agreement, Nazi Germany, Náchod District, Northern Italy, Nuremberg, Ore Mountains, Origo Gentis Langobardorum, Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ottokar I of Bohemia, Ottokar II of Bohemia, Pannonia, Pardubice Region, Písek, Přemyslid dynasty, Petr Pithart, Pliny the Elder, Plzeň, Plzeň Region, Poland, Polish–Czechoslovak border conflicts, Pope John Paul II, Pope Pius II, Prague, Prokop the Great, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, Protestantism, Proto-Germanic language, Province of German Bohemia, Quadi, Rakovník, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rector (academia), Regions of the Czech Republic, Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Prague, Roman Empire, Romantic nationalism, Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, Samo, Sarmatians, Saxony, Second Czechoslovak Republic, Semnones, Senate of the Czech Republic, Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, Silesia, Slaný, Slavs, Slovak Republic (1939–1945), Slovakia, Slovenia, South Bohemian Region, South Moravian Region, Soviet Union, Stanford University, Strabo, Sudeten Germans, Sudetenland, Sudetes, Suebi, Svatopluk I of Moravia, Taborites, Tacitus, Thirty Years' War, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, Upper Austria, Upper Hungary, Upper Lusatia, Utraquism, Vandals, Velvet Revolution, Vladislaus II, Duke of Bohemia, Vltava, Vratislaus II of Bohemia, Vysočina Region, War-weariness, World War I, World War II, Zdeněk Lev of Rožmitál. Expand index (183 more) »

Adršpach-Teplice Rocks

The Adršpach-Teplice Rocks (Adršpašsko-teplické skály, German: Adersbach-Weckelsdorfer Felsenstadt) are an unusual set of sandstone formations covering 17 km2 in northeastern Bohemia, Czech Republic.

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Agnes of Bohemia

Agnes of Bohemia, O.S.C., (Svatá Anežka Česká, 20 June 1211 – 2 March 1282), also known as Agnes of Prague, was a medieval Bohemian princess who opted for a life of charity, mortification of the flesh and piety over a life of luxury and comfort.

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The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.

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The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.

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Alois Jirásek

Alois Jirásek (August 23, 1851, Hronov, Kingdom of Bohemia – March 12, 1930, Prague) was a Czech writer, author of historical novels and plays.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Austrian Empire

The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.

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Austrian Silesia

Austrian Silesia (Österreichisch-Schlesien (historically also Oesterreichisch-Schlesien, Oesterreichisch Schlesien, österreichisch Schlesien); Rakouské Slezsko; Śląsk Austriacki), officially the Duchy of Upper and Lower Silesia (Herzogtum Ober- und Niederschlesien (historically Herzogthum Ober- und Niederschlesien); Vévodství Horní a Dolní Slezsko), was an autonomous region of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Austrian Empire, from 1867 a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary.

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Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867

The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich, Kiegyezés) established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.

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Austro-Prussian War

The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, or the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.

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Ústí nad Labem Region

Ústí nad Labem Region or Ústecký Region (Ústecký kraj), also known as Region Aussig (after the German name of the capital), is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the north-western part of the historical land of Bohemia and the whole country, and named after the capital, Ústí nad Labem.

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Čáslav (Tschaslau, Császló) is a town in eastern part of Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic.

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Žatec (Saaz) is a historic town in Louny District, Ústí nad Labem Region, in the Czech Republic.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.

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Battle of Lechfeld (955)

The Battle of Lechfeld (10 August 955) was a decisive victory for Otto I the Great, King of East Francia, over the Hungarian harka Bulcsú and the chieftains Lél (Lehel) and Súr.

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Battle of Lipany

The Battle of Lipany (in Czech: Bitva u Lipan), also called the Battle of Český Brod, was fought at Lipany 40 km east of Prague on 30 May 1434 and virtually ended the Hussite Wars.

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Battle of Mohács

The Battle of Mohács (Mohácsi csata, Mohaç Meydan Muharebesi) was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history.

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Battle of Mutina (193 BC)

The Battle of Mutina was fought in 193 BC, near Mutina, between the Roman Republic and the Boii.

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Battle of Placentia (194 BC)

The Battle of Placentia was fought in 194 BC, near Placentia, between the Roman Republic and the Boii.

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Battle of White Mountain

The Battle of White Mountain (Czech: Bitva na Bílé hoře, German: Schlacht am Weißen Berg) was an important battle in the early stages of the Thirty Years' War.

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Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.

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Bavarian Geographer

The epithet "Bavarian Geographer" (Geographus Bavarus) is the conventional name for the anonymous author of a Latin medieval text containing a list of the tribes in central-eastern Europe, headed Descriptio civitatum et regionum ad septentrionalem plagam Danubii.

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Bavarians (Bavarian: Boarn, Standard German: Bayern) are nation and ethnographic group of Germans of the Bavaria region, a state within Germany.

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Bechyně, is a town in the South Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic.

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Beroun (Beraun) is a town in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic.

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Bohemia at the 1908 Summer Olympics

Bohemia competed at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, England as an independent team, though it was part of Austria-Hungary at the time.

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Bohemian Forest

The Bohemian Forest, known in Czech as Šumava and in German as Böhmerwald, is a low mountain range in Central Europe.

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Bohemian Revolt

The Bohemian Revolt (1618–1620) was an uprising of the Bohemian estates against the rule of the Habsburg dynasty that began the Thirty Years' War.

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Bohemianism is the practice of an unconventional lifestyle, often in the company of like-minded people and with few permanent ties.

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The Boii (Latin plural, singular Boius; Βόιοι) were a Gallic tribe of the later Iron Age, attested at various times in Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy), Pannonia (Hungary and its western neighbours), parts of Bavaria, in and around Bohemia (after whom the region is named in most languages; comprising the bulk of the Czech Republic), and Gallia Narbonensis.

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Bolesław I the Brave

Bolesław I the Brave (Bolesław I Chrobry, Boleslav Chrabrý; 967 – 17 June 1025), less often known as Bolesław I the Great (Bolesław I Wielki), was Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025, and the first King of Poland in 1025.

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Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia

Boleslaus I the Cruel, also called Boleslav I (Boleslav I. Ukrutný) (– 15 July, 967 or 972), a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was ruler (kníže, "duke" or "prince") of the Duchy of Bohemia from 935 to his death.

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Buri tribe

The Buri were a Germanic tribe mentioned in the Germania of Tacitus, where they initially "close the back" of the Marcomanni and Quadi of Bohemia and Moravia.

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Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

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Canon law

Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.

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Capital city

A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.

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Carantania, also known as Carentania (Karantanija, Karantanien, in Old Slavic *Korǫtanъ), was a Slavic principality that emerged in the second half of the 7th century, in the territory of present-day southern Austria and north-eastern Slovenia.

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Carinthia (Slovenia)

Carinthia (Koroška), also Slovene Carinthia or Slovenian Carinthia (Slovenska Koroška), is a traditional region in northern Slovenia.

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Carolingian dynasty

The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.

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Carpathian Ruthenia

Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia (Rusyn and Карпатська Русь, Karpats'ka Rus' or Закарпаття, Zakarpattja; Slovak and Podkarpatská Rus; Kárpátalja; Transcarpatia; Zakarpacie; Karpatenukraine) is a historic region in the border between Central and Eastern Europe, mostly located in western Ukraine's Zakarpattia Oblast, with smaller parts in easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov Region and Košice Region) and Poland's Lemkovyna.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Celtic nations

The Celtic nations are territories in western Europe where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived.

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Central Bohemian Region

The Central Bohemian Region (Středočeský kraj) is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the central part of its historical region of Bohemia.

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Central Europe

Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.

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Central European Summer Time

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.

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Central European Time

Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

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Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles IV (Karel IV., Karl IV., Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378Karl IV. In: (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten (History in figures), vol. 2: F-K. 38, Frankfurt 1963, p. 294), born Wenceslaus, was a King of Bohemia and the first King of Bohemia to also become Holy Roman Emperor.

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Charles University

Charles University, known also as Charles University in Prague (Univerzita Karlova; Universitas Carolina; Karls-Universität) or historically as the University of Prague (Universitas Pragensis), is the oldest and largest university in the Czech Republic. Founded in 1348, it was the first university in Central Europe. It is one of the oldest universities in Europe in continuous operation and ranks in the upper 1.5 percent of the world’s best universities. Its seal shows its protector Emperor Charles IV, with his coats of arms as King of the Romans and King of Bohemia, kneeling in front of St. Wenceslas, the patron saint of Bohemia. It is surrounded by the inscription, Sigillum Universitatis Scolarium Studii Pragensis (Seal of the Prague academia).

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Christianization of Bohemia

The Christianization of Bohemia refers to the spread of the Christian religion in the lands of medieval Bohemia.

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Chrudim is a town in eastern Bohemia, in the Pardubice Region of the Czech Republic.

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Compacts of Basel

The Compacts of Basel, also known as Basel Compacts or Compactata, was an agreement between the Council of Basel and the moderate Hussites (or Utraquists), which was ratified by the Estates of Bohemia and Moravia in Jihlava on 5 July 1436.

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Constitution of the Czech Republic

The Constitution of the Czech Republic (Ústava České republiky) is the supreme law of the Czech Republic.

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Council of Constance

The Council of Constance is the 15th-century ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church, held from 1414 to 1418 in the Bishopric of Constance.

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The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.

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Czech Corner

The Czech Corner (Český koutek, Czeski kątek, Böhmischer Winkel) is a territory found in the western end of Klodzko land, close to the current Czech-Polish border.

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Czech lands

The Czech lands or the Bohemian lands (České země) are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia.

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Czech language

Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.

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Czech National Revival

Czech National Revival was a cultural movement, which took part in the Czech lands during the 18th and 19th century.

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Czech Republic

The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

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Czech Silesia

Czech Silesia (České Slezsko; Czeski Ślůnsk; Tschechisch-Schlesien; Śląsk Czeski) is the name given to the part of the historical region of Silesia presently located in the Czech Republic.

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Czech Socialist Republic

The Czech Socialist Republic (Česká socialistická republika in Czech; abbreviated ČSR) was was from 1969 to 1990 the official name of Czechia.

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Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

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The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.

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The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.

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Diet (assembly)

In politics, a diet is a formal deliberative assembly.

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Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

The Dissolution of Czechoslovakia (Rozdělení Československa, Rozdelenie Česko-Slovenska), which took effect on 1 January 1993, was an event that saw the self-determined split of the federal state of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, entities that had arisen before as the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic in 1969 within the framework of Czechoslovak federalisation.

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Duchy of Bohemia

The Duchy of Bohemia, also referred to as the Czech Duchy, (České knížectví) was a monarchy and a principality in Central Europe during the Early and High Middle Ages.

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A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.

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East Francia

East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Eastern Neisse

The Eastern Neisse, also known by its Polish name of Nysa Kłodzka (Glatzer Neiße, Kladská Nisa), is a river in southwestern Poland, a left tributary of the Oder, with a length of 188 km (21st longest) and a basin area of 4,570 km² (3,742 in Poland).

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The Elbe (Elbe; Low German: Elv) is one of the major rivers of Central Europe.

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Electoral Palatinate

The County Palatine of the Rhine (Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein), later the Electorate of the Palatinate (Kurfürstentum von der Pfalz) or simply Electoral Palatinate (Kurpfalz), was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire (specifically, a palatinate) administered by the Count Palatine of the Rhine.

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Elizabeth Stuart, Queen of Bohemia

Elizabeth Stuart (19 August 1596 – 13 February 1662) was Electress of the Palatinate and briefly Queen of Bohemia as the wife of Frederick V of the Palatinate.

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Enlightened absolutism

Enlightened absolutism refers to the conduct and policies of European absolute monarchs during the 18th and 19th centuries who were influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment.

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Ethnic group

An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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European watershed

The main European watershed is the drainage divide ("watershed") which separates the basins of the rivers that empty into the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea from those that feed the Mediterranean Sea, the Adriatic Sea and the Black Sea.

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Expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia

The expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia after World War II was part of a series of evacuations and expulsions of Germans from Central and Eastern Europe during and after World War II.

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Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor

Ferdinand I (Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death.

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Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor

Ferdinand II (9 July 1578 – 15 February 1637), a member of the House of Habsburg, was Holy Roman Emperor (1619–1637), King of Bohemia (1617–1619, 1620–1637), and King of Hungary (1618–1637).

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Flag of Bohemia

The Flag of Bohemia is a historic flag, which now forms part of the design in the modern flag of the Czech Republic.

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The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.

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Frederick V of the Palatinate

Frederick V (Friedrich V.; 26 August 1596 – 29 November 1632) was the Elector Palatine of the Rhine in the Holy Roman Empire from 1610 to 1623, and served as King of Bohemia from 1619 to 1620.

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Freedom of religion

Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.

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Fritigil (or Fritigils), Queen of the Marcomanni, is the last known ruler of the Germanic peoples who were at that time (mid 4th century) probably settled in Pannonia.

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George of Poděbrady

George of Kunštát and Poděbrady (23 April 1420 – 22 March 1471), also known as Poděbrad or Podiebrad (Jiří z Poděbrad; Georg von Podiebrad), was King of Bohemia (1458–1471).

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Germania (book)

The Germania, written by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus around 98 and originally entitled On the Origin and Situation of the Germans (De Origine et situ Germanorum), was a historical and ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Great Moravia

Great Moravia (Regnum Marahensium; Μεγάλη Μοραβία, Megálī Moravía; Velká Morava; Veľká Morava; Wielkie Morawy), the Great Moravian Empire, or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to emerge in the area of Central Europe, chiefly on what is now the territory of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland (including Silesia), and Hungary.

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Habsburg Monarchy

The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.

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The Helvetii (anglicized Helvetians) were a Gallic tribe or tribal confederation occupying most of the Swiss plateau at the time of their contact with the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC.

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Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry II (Heinrich II; Enrico II) (6 May 973 – 13 July 1024), also known as Saint Henry, Obl. S. B., was Holy Roman Emperor ("Romanorum Imperator") from 1014 until his death in 1024 and the last member of the Ottonian dynasty of Emperors as he had no children.

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Hercynian Forest

The Hercynian Forest was an ancient and dense forest that stretched eastward from the Rhine River across southern Germany and formed the northern boundary of that part of Europe known to writers of antiquity.

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Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.

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The Hermunduri, Hermanduri, Hermunduli, Hermonduri, or Hermonduli were an ancient Germanic tribe, who occupied an area near the Elbe river, around what is now Thuringia, Bohemia, Saxony (in East Germany), and Franconia in northern Bavaria, from the first to the third century.

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Historical region

Historical regions (or historical countries) are geographic areas which at some point in time had a cultural, ethnic, linguistic or political basis, regardless of present-day borders.

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History of Czechoslovakia (1918–38)

The Czechoslovak First Republic emerged from the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in October 1918.

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History of the Czech lands

The history of what are now known as the Czech lands (České země) is very diverse.

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Holy Roman Emperor

The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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House of Luxembourg

The House of Luxembourg (Lucemburkové) was a late medieval European royal family, whose members between 1308 and 1437 ruled as King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors as well as Kings of Bohemia (Čeští králové, König von Böhmen) and Hungary.

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Hradec Králové

Hradec Králové (Königgrätz) is a city of the Czech Republic, in the Hradec Králové Region of Bohemia.

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Hradec Králové Region

Hradec Králové Region (Královéhradecký kraj,; Kraj hradecki) is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the north-eastern part of the historical region of Bohemia.

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Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.

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Hussite Wars

The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars or the Hussite Revolution, were fought between the heretical Catholic Hussites and the combined Catholic orthodox forces of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, the Papacy and various European monarchs loyal to the Catholic Church, as well as among various Hussite factions themselves.

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James VI and I

James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.

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Jan Žižka

Jan Žižka z Trocnova a Kalicha (Johann Ziska; John Zizka of Trocnov and the Chalice) was a Czech general, a contemporary and follower of Jan Hus, Hussite military leader, and later also a Radical Hussite who led the Taborites.

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Jan Hus

Jan Hus (– 6 July 1415), sometimes Anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, also referred to in historical texts as Iohannes Hus or Johannes Huss) was a Czech theologian, Roman Catholic priest, philosopher, master, dean, and rectorhttps://www.britannica.com/biography/Jan-Hus Encyclopedia Britannica - Jan Hus of the Charles University in Prague who became a church reformer, an inspirer of Hussitism, a key predecessor to Protestantism and a seminal figure in the Bohemian Reformation. After John Wycliffe, the theorist of ecclesiastical reform, Hus is considered the first church reformer, as he lived before Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli. His teachings had a strong influence on the states of Western Europe, most immediately in the approval of a reformed Bohemian religious denomination, and, more than a century later, on Martin Luther himself. He was burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, including those on ecclesiology, the Eucharist, and other theological topics. After Hus was executed in 1415, the followers of his religious teachings (known as Hussites) rebelled against their Roman Catholic rulers and defeated five consecutive papal crusades between 1420 and 1431 in what became known as the Hussite Wars. Both the Bohemian and the Moravian populations remained majority Hussite until the 1620s, when a Protestant defeat in the Battle of the White Mountain resulted in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown coming under Habsburg dominion for the next 300 years and being subject to immediate and forced conversion in an intense campaign of return to Roman Catholicism.

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Jan Jesenius

Jan Jesenius (also written as Jessenius, Johannes Jessenius, Jeszenszky János, Ján Jesenský; December 27, 1566 – June 21, 1621) was a Bohemian physician, politician and philosopher.

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Jaromír, Duke of Bohemia

Jaromír (died 4 November 1035), a member of the Přemyslid dynasty, was Duke of Bohemia, in 1003, from 1004 to 1012, and again from 1034 to 1035.

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John of Bohemia

John the Blind (Jang de Blannen; Johann der Blinde von Luxemburg; Jan Lucemburský; 10 August 1296 – 26 August 1346) was the Count of Luxembourg from 1309 and King of Bohemia from 1310 and titular King of Poland.

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Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor

Joseph II (Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to his death.

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Karlštejn Castle (hrad Karlštejn; Burg Karlstein) is a large Gothic castle founded 1348 CE by Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor-elect and King of Bohemia.

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Karlovy Vary Region

The Karlovy Vary Region or Carlsbad Region (Karlovarský kraj) is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the westernmost part of its historical region of Bohemia.

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Kłodzko (Kladsko; Glatz; Glacio) is a town in south-western Poland, in the region of Lower Silesia.

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Kłodzko Land

Kłodzko Land (Kladsko; Glatzer Land; Ziemia kłodzka) is a historical region in southwestern Poland.

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Kłodzko Valley

The Kłodzko Valley (Kotlina Kłodzka, Kladská kotlina, Glatzer Kessel) is a cirque of the Sudetes mountain range in Kłodzko County, south-western Poland, close to the border with the Czech Republic.

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Kingdom Come: Deliverance

Kingdom Come: Deliverance is an action role-playing video game developed by Warhorse Studios and published by Deep Silver for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4 and Xbox One.

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Kingdom of Bohemia

The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.

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Kingdom of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.

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Klement Gottwald

Klement Gottwald (23 November 1896 – 14 March 1953) was a Czechoslovak Communist politician, who was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia from 1929 until 1945 and party chairman until his death in 1953.

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Kouřim is a small town in the Central Bohemian Region, Czech Republic.

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A kraj (kraje) is the highest-level administrative unit in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.

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The Krkonoše (Czech), Karkonosze (Polish), Riesengebirge (German), Riesageberge (Silesian German) or Giant Mountains, are a mountain range located in the north of the Czech Republic and the south-west of Poland, part of the Sudetes mountain system (part of the Bohemian Massif).

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Lands of the Bohemian Crown

The Lands of the Bohemian Crown, sometimes called Czech lands in modern times, were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe during the medieval and early modern periods connected by feudal relations under the Bohemian kings.

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Lech, Czech, and Rus

Lech, Czech and Rus refers to a founding myth of three Slavic peoples: the Poles (or Lechites), the Czechs, and the Rus' people.

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Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor

Leopold II (Peter Leopold Josef Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard; 5 May 1747 1 March 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary and Bohemia from 1790 to 1792, Archduke of Austria and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790.

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Liberec Region

Liberec Region (Liberecký kraj) is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the northernmost part of its historical region of Bohemia.

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List of Bohemian monarchs

This is a list of Bohemian monarchs now also referred to as list of Czech monarchs who ruled as Dukes and Kings of Bohemia.

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List of sovereign states

This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.

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Litoměřice (Leitmeritz) is a town at the junction of the rivers Elbe (Labe) and Ohře (Eger) in the north part of the Czech Republic, approximately northwest of Prague.

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Loket (Sokolov District)

Loket (Elbogen) is a town of some 3,000 inhabitants in the Sokolov District in the Karlovy Vary region of the Czech Republic.

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The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.

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Louis II of Hungary

Louis II (Ludvík, Ludovik, Lajos, 1 July 1506 – 29 August 1526) was King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia from 1516 to 1526.

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Lower Austria

Lower Austria (Niederösterreich; Dolní Rakousy; Dolné Rakúsko) is the northeasternmost state of the nine states in Austria.

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Lower Lusatia

Lower Lusatia is a historical region in Central Europe, stretching from the southeast of the German state of Brandenburg to the southwest of Lubusz Voivodeship in Poland.

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Lower Silesia

Lower Silesia (Dolny Śląsk; Dolní Slezsko; Silesia Inferior; Niederschlesien; Silesian German: Niederschläsing; Dolny Ślůnsk) is the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia; Upper Silesia is to the southeast.

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The Lugii (or Lugi, Lygii, Ligii, Lugiones, Lygians, Ligians, Lugians, or Lougoi) were a large tribal confederation mentioned by Roman authors living in ca.

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Lusatia (Lausitz, Łužica, Łužyca, Łużyce, Lužice) is a region in Central Europe.

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Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.

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A majority is the greater part, or more than half, of the total.

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Manorialism was an essential element of feudal society.

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The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribal confederation who eventually came to live in a powerful kingdom north of the Danube, somewhere in the region near modern Bohemia, during the peak of power of the nearby Roman Empire.

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Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.

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Marcus Velleius Paterculus

Marcus Velleius Paterculus (c. 19 BC – c. AD 31), also known as Velleius was a Roman historian.

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Margraviate of Moravia

The Margraviate of Moravia (Markrabství moravské; Markgrafschaft Mähren) or March of Moravia was a marcher state existing from 1182 to 1918 and one of the lands of the Bohemian Crown.

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Maroboduus (born circa 30 BC, died in AD 37), was a Romanized king of the Germanic Suebi, who under pressure from the wars of the Cherusci and Romans, and losing the Suevic Semnones and Langobardi from his kingdom, moved with the Marcomanni into the forests of Bohemia, near to the Quadi.

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Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor

Matthias (24 February 1557 – 20 March 1619) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1612, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1608 (as Matthias II) and King of Bohemia from 1611.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Migration Period

The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.

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Mladá Boleslav

Mladá Boleslav (Jungbunzlau) is a city in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic, on the left bank of the Jizera river about northeast of Prague.

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Mongol invasion of Europe

The Mongol invasion of Europe in the 13th century was the conquest of Europe by the Mongol Empire, by way of the destruction of East Slavic principalities, such as Kiev and Vladimir. The Mongol invasions also occurred in Central Europe, which led to warfare among fragmented Poland, such as the Battle of Legnica (9 April 1241) and in the Battle of Mohi (11 April 1241) in the Kingdom of Hungary. The operations were planned by General Subutai (1175–1248) and commanded by Batu Khan (1207–1255) and Kadan (d. 1261). Both men were grandsons of Genghis Khan; their conquests integrated much European territory to the empire of the Golden Horde. Warring European princes realized they had to cooperate in the face of a Mongol invasion, so local wars and conflicts were suspended in parts of central Europe, only to be resumed after the Mongols had withdrawn.

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Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.

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Munich Agreement

The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Náchod District

Náchod District (Okres Náchod) is a district (okres) within Hradec Králové Region of the Czech Republic.

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Northern Italy

Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.

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Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.

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Ore Mountains

The Ore Mountains or Ore Mountain Range (Erzgebirge; Krušné hory; both literally "ore mountains") in Central Europe have formed a natural border between Saxony and Bohemia for around 800 years, from the 12th to the 20th centuries.

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Origo Gentis Langobardorum

The Origo Gentis Langobardorum is a short 7th-century, Latin account offering a founding myth of the Lombard people.

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Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor

Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (Otto der Große, Ottone il Grande), was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973.

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Ottokar I of Bohemia

Ottokar I (Přemysl I. Otakar; c. 1155 – 1230) was Duke of Bohemia periodically beginning in 1192, then acquired the title King of Bohemia, first in 1198 from Philip of Swabia, later in 1203 from Otto IV of Brunswick and in 1212 from Frederick.

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Ottokar II of Bohemia

Ottokar II (Přemysl Otakar II; c. 1233 – 26 August 1278), the Iron and Golden King, was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty who reigned as King of Bohemia from 1253 until 1278.

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Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.

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Pardubice Region

Pardubice Region (Pardubický kraj; Kraj pardubicki) is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located mainly in the eastern part of its historical region of Bohemia, with a small part in northwestern Moravia.

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Písek (Pisek) is a middle-sized town in the South Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic.

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Přemyslid dynasty

The Přemyslid dynasty or House of Přemyslid (Přemyslovci, Premysliden, Przemyślidzi) was a Czech royal dynasty which reigned in the Duchy of Bohemia and later Kingdom of Bohemia and Margraviate of Moravia (9th century–1306), as well as in parts of Poland (including Silesia), Hungary, and Austria.

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Petr Pithart

Petr Pithart (born 2 January 1941) is a Czech politician, lawyer and political scientist who served as Prime Minister of the Czech Republic (then part of Czechoslovakia) from 6 February 1990 to 2 July 1992.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Plzeň, also called Pilsen in English and German, is a city in western Bohemia in the Czech Republic.

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Plzeň Region

Plzeň Region (Plzeňský kraj; Pilsner Region) is an administrative unit (kraj) in the western part of Bohemia in the Czech Republic.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polish–Czechoslovak border conflicts

Border conflicts between Poland and Czechoslovakia began in 1918 between the Second Polish Republic and First Czechoslovak Republic, both freshly created states.

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Pope John Paul II

Pope John Paul II (Ioannes Paulus II; Giovanni Paolo II; Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła;; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005.

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Pope Pius II

Pope Pius II (Pius PP., Pio II), born Enea Silvio Bartolomeo Piccolomini (Aeneas Silvius Bartholomeus; 18 October 1405 – 14 August 1464) was Pope from 19 August 1458 to his death in 1464.

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Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.

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Prokop the Great

Prokop the Great (Prokop Veliký, Procopius Magnus) or Prokop the Bald or the Shaven (Czech: Prokop Holý, Latin: Procopius Rasus) (c. 1380 – 30 May 1434) was a Czech Hussite general and a prominent Taborite military leader during the Hussite Wars.

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Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia

The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren; Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was a protectorate of Nazi Germany established on 16 March 1939 following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia on 15 March 1939.

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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Proto-Germanic language

Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Province of German Bohemia

The Province of German Bohemia (German:; Německé Čechy) was a province in Bohemia, now the Czech Republic, established for a short period of time after the First World War, as part of the Republic of German-Austria.

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The Quadi were a Suebian Germanic tribe who lived approximately in the area of modern Moravia in the time of the Roman Empire.

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Rakovník (Rakonitz) is a town in the western part of the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic located between the cities of Prague and Plzeň.

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Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.

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Rector (academia)

A rector ("ruler", from meaning "ruler") is a senior official in an educational institution, and can refer to an official in either a university or a secondary school.

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Regions of the Czech Republic

According to the Act no.

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Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire

A set of revolutions took place in the Austrian Empire from March 1848 to November 1849.

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Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Prague

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Prague (Praha) (Arcidiecéze pražská, Archidioecesis Pragensis) is a Metropolitan Catholic archdiocese of the Latin Rite in Bohemia, in the Czech Republic.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Romantic nationalism

Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.

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Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor

Rudolf II (18 July 1552 – 20 January 1612) was Holy Roman Emperor (1576–1612), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Rudolf I, 1572–1608), King of Bohemia (1575–1608/1611) and Archduke of Austria (1576–1608).

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Samo founded the first recorded political union of Slavic tribes, known as Samo's Empire (realm, kingdom, or tribal union), stretching from Silesia to present-day Slovenia, ruling from 623 until his death in 658.

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The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.

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The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).

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Second Czechoslovak Republic

The Second Czechoslovak Republic (Czech / Česko-Slovenská republika), sometimes also called the Czech-Slovak Republic, existed for 169 days, between 30 September 1938 and 15 March 1939.

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The Semnones are located near the centre of the map. The orange area shows one view of the extent of the Suebian tribes in the first century AD.The Semnones were a Germanic tribe which was settled between the Elbe and the Oder in the 1st century when they were described by Tacitus in Germania: "The Semnones give themselves out to be the most ancient and renowned branch of the Suevi.

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Senate of the Czech Republic

The Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic (Senát Parlamentu České republiky), usually referred to as Senate, is the upper chamber of the Parliament of the Czech Republic.

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Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor

Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg – 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.

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Silesia (Śląsk; Slezsko;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Šlazyńska; Šleska; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.

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The Royal town of Slaný (Schlan) is a town in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic, located about 25 km northwest of Prague.

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Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.

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Slovak Republic (1939–1945)

The (First) Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), otherwise known as the Slovak State (Slovenský štát), was a client state of Nazi Germany which existed between 14 March 1939 and 4 April 1945.

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Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.

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Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.

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South Bohemian Region

South Bohemia (Jihočeský kraj) is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located mostly in the southern part of its historical land of Bohemia, with a small part in southwestern Moravia.

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South Moravian Region

The South Moravian Region (Jihomoravský kraj; Juhomoravský kraj) is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the south-western part of its historical region of Moravia (an exception is Jobova Lhota which belongs to Bohemia).

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

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Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

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Sudeten Germans

German Bohemians, later known as the Sudeten Germans, were ethnic Germans living in the lands of the Bohemian Crown, which later became an integral part of the state of Czechoslovakia.

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The Sudetenland (Czech and Sudety; Kraj Sudecki) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans.

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The Sudetes (also known as the Sudeten after their German name; Czech: Krkonošsko-jesenická subprovincie, Sudetská subprovincie, subprovincie Sudety, Sudetská pohoří, Sudetské pohoří, Sudety; Polish: Sudety) are a mountain range in Central Europe.

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The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.

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Svatopluk I of Moravia

Svatopluk I or Svätopluk I, also known as Svatopluk the Great (Latin: Zuentepulc, Zuentibald, Sventopulch, Old Church Slavic Свѧтопълкъ and transliterated Svętopъłkъ, Polish: Świętopełk, Greek: Sphendoplokos) was a ruler of Great Moravia, which attained its maximum territorial expansion during his reign (870–871, 871–894).

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The Taborites (Czech Táborité, singular Táborita) were a Radical Hussite faction within the Hussite movement in medieval Lands of the Bohemian Crown.

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Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.

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Thirty Years' War

The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.

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Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk

Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, sometimes anglicised to Thomas Masaryk (7 March 1850 – 14 September 1937), was a Czech politician, statesman, sociologist and philosopher.

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Upper Austria

Upper Austria (Oberösterreich; Austro-Bavarian: Obaöstarreich; Horní Rakousy) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer of Austria.

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Upper Hungary

Upper Hungary is the usual English translation of Felvidék (lit.: "Upland"), the Hungarian term for the area that was historically the northern part of the Kingdom of Hungary, now mostly present-day Slovakia.

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Upper Lusatia

Upper Lusatia (Oberlausitz; Hornja Łužica; Górna Łužyca; Łużyce Górne or Milsko; Horní Lužice) is a historical region in Germany and Poland.

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Utraquism (from the Latin sub utraque specie, meaning "in both kinds") or Calixtinism (from chalice; Latin: calix, mug, borrowed from Greek kalyx, shell, husk; Czech: kališníci) was a principal dogma of the Hussites and one of the Four Articles of Prague.

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The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.

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Velvet Revolution

The Velvet Revolution (sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution (nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989.

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Vladislaus II, Duke of Bohemia

Vladislaus II or Vladislaus I (king) (Vladislav II./I.,František Palacký: Dějiny národa českého v Čechách i v Moravě, book XVII c.1110 – 18 January 1174) was the second King of Bohemia from 1158.

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The Vltava (Moldau) is the longest river within the Czech Republic, running southeast along the Bohemian Forest and then north across Bohemia, through Český Krumlov, České Budějovice and Prague, and finally merging with the Elbe at Mělník.

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Vratislaus II of Bohemia

Vratislaus (or Wratislaus) II (Vratislav II.) (d. 14 January 1092), the son of Bretislaus I and Judith of Schweinfurt, was the first King of Bohemia as of 15 June 1085, his royal title granted as a lifetime honorific from Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV that did not establish a hereditary monarchy.

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Vysočina Region

The Vysočina Region (Kraj Vysočina "Highlands Region"), is an administrative unit (kraj) of the Czech Republic, located partly in the south-eastern part of the historical region of Bohemia and partly in the south-west of the historical region of Moravia.

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Political war-weariness is the public or political disapproval for the continuation of a prolonged conflict or war.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Zdeněk Lev of Rožmitál

Zdeněk Lev of Rožmitál (Zdeněk Lev z Rožmitálu, Zdeniek Lev von Rosental; – 14 July 1535) was a Bohemian nobleman.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bohemia

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