74 relations: Atmosphere (unit), Atmospheric pressure, Bar (unit), Boiling, Boiling points of the elements (data page), Boiling-point elevation, Butane, Carbon dioxide, Carboxylic acid, Chemical compound, Chemical polarity, Chloromethane, Clausius–Clapeyron relation, Concentration, Condensation, Critical point (thermodynamics), Dew point, Distillation, Ebulliometer, Enthalpy of vaporization, Evaporation, Flash evaporation, Gas, Gas constant, Heat, Helium, Hydrogen bond, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ionic bonding, Isobaric process, Isobutane, Isopentane, Isothermal process, IUPAC nomenclature of chemistry, Joback method, Kelvin, Liquid, List of gases, Macromolecule, Melting point, Metal, Mole fraction, Molecular mass, Molecule, Mount Everest, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Natural logarithm, Neopentane, Pascal (unit), Pentane, ..., Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, Phase transition, Physical property, Polymer, Pressure, Purdue University, Rhenium, Saline water, Salt (chemistry), Solution, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Subcooling, Sublimation (phase transition), Superheating, System, Thermal energy, Triple point, Trouton's ratio, Tungsten, Vacuum, Vapor, Vapor pressure, Vapour pressure of water, Volatility (chemistry). Expand index (24 more) » « Shrink index
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units (SI).
Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmosphere.
Boiling-point elevation describes the phenomenon that the boiling point of a liquid (a solvent) will be higher when another compound is added, meaning that a solution has a higher boiling point than a pure solvent.
Butane is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
Chloromethane, also called methyl chloride, Refrigerant-40, R-40 or HCC 40, is a chemical compound of the group of organic compounds called haloalkanes.
The Clausius–Clapeyron relation, named after Rudolf Clausius and Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron, is a way of characterizing a discontinuous phase transition between two phases of matter of a single constituent.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.
In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve.
The dew point is the temperature to which air must be cooled to become saturated with water vapor.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
An ebulliometer is designed to accurately measure the boiling point of liquids by measuring the temperature of the vapor-liquid equilibrium either isobarically or isothermally.
The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy (enthalpy) that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Flash (or partial) evaporation is the partial vapor that occurs when a saturated liquid stream undergoes a reduction in pressure by passing through a throttling valve or other throttling device.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
The gas constant is also known as the molar, universal, or ideal gas constant, denoted by the symbol or and is equivalent to the Boltzmann constant, but expressed in units of energy per temperature increment per mole, i.e. the pressure-volume product, rather than energy per temperature increment per particle.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.
An isobaric process is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure stays constant: ΔP.
Isobutane, also known as i-butane or methylpropane, is a chemical compound with molecular formula HC(CH3)3.
Isopentane, C5H12, also called methylbutane or 2-methylbutane, is a branched-chain alkane with five carbon atoms.
An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature.
The Joback method (often named Joback/Reid method) predicts eleven important and commonly used pure component thermodynamic properties from molecular structure only.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
This is a list of gases at standard conditions This means the substance boils at or below 25°C at 1 atmosphere pressure and is reasonably stable.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
In chemistry, the mole fraction or molar fraction (xi) is defined as the amount of a constituent (expressed in moles), ni, divided by the total amount of all constituents in a mixture (also expressed in moles), ntot: The sum of all the mole fractions is equal to 1: The same concept expressed with a denominator of 100 is the mole percent or molar percentage or molar proportion (mol%).
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmāthā and in Tibetan as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base of the mathematical constant ''e'', where e is an irrational and transcendental number approximately equal to.
Neopentane, also called 2,2-dimethylpropane, is a double-branched-chain alkane with five carbon atoms.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
Pentane is an organic compound with the formula C5H12—that is, an alkane with five carbon atoms.
Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook (also known as Perry's Handbook, Perry's, or The Chemical Engineer's Bible) was first published in 1934 and the most current eighth edition was published in October 2007.
The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.
A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Purdue University is a public research university in West Lafayette, Indiana and is the flagship campus of the Purdue University system.
Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75.
Saline water (more commonly known as salt water) is water that contains a high concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl).
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
The term subcooling refers to a liquid existing at a temperature below its normal boiling point.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
In physics, superheating (sometimes referred to as boiling retardation, or boiling delay) is the phenomenon in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point, without boiling.
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.
Thermal energy is a term used loosely as a synonym for more rigorously-defined thermodynamic quantities such as the internal energy of a system; heat or sensible heat, which are defined as types of transfer of energy (as is work); or for the characteristic energy of a degree of freedom in a thermal system kT, where T is temperature and k is the Boltzmann constant.
In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
In rheology, Trouton's ratio is the ratio of extensional viscosity to shear viscosity.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
In physics a vapor (American) or vapour (British and Canadian) is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature,R.
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
The vapour pressure of water is the pressure at which water vapour is in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed state.
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.
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